Outline on the Implementation of a Law-Based Government (2015-2020)

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The principle content of the "Outline on the Implementation of a Law-Based Government (2015-2020) is as follows:

At the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, basic completion of building the government under rule of law was established as one of the important goals of completely building a moderately prosperous community in all-round way by 2020, which is of great significance, having far-reaching influences and posing a formidable task. This Outline is formulated based on the current actual situation of building the government under rule of law in order to further promote the administration under rule of law, accelerate the pace for building the government under rule of law and achieve the goal as scheduled.

I. Overall Requirements

(1) Guiding Ideology

Hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, fully carry through the spirit of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Plenary Sessions of the 18th Central Committee of CPC, act under the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the “Three Represents” theory, and the Scientific Outlook on Development, and deeply carry through the spirit of a series of important speeches delivered by President Xi Jinping; according to the strategic layout of completing the construction of a moderately prosperous community in all-round way, deepening the reform in all-round way, governing the country in all-round way, and governing the party strictly in all-round way, around the overall goal of fully carrying forward law-based governance including building the socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics and building a socialist country under the rule of law, always carry forward law-based governance, law-based exercise of state power, and law-based administration, always carry out integrated construction of law-based country, law-based government and law-based society, further promote law-based administration, accelerate the construction of law-based government, cultivate and practice the socialist core values, promote the spirit of socialist rule of law, boost modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity, thus to provide a strong legal guarantee for achieving the “double hundred-year" goal and realizing the China Dream of great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

(2)Overall goals

Through persistent efforts, a government under rule of law which has scientific functions, law-defined powers and responsibilities, which enforces the law strictly and impartially and which is open, fair, honest and efficient, law-abiding and creditable, will be basically built up by 2020.

(3) Basic principles.

Building the government under rule of law must stick to Chinese Communist Party leadership, stick to putting the people at the dominant position, stick to the principle that all people are equal before law, stick to ruling the country by law and by virtue, stick to starting from the actual and present facts, stick to constitution-based governance and law-based administration, streamlining administration and instituting decentralization, include government work fully into rule of law, and carry out the combination of building the government under rule of law with innovative government, honest government and service-oriented government construction.

(4) Measurement Standards

Government functions shall be performed according to law in all-round way, the law-based administration system shall be complete, the administrative decision shall be scientific, democratic and lawful, the constitution and laws shall be enforced strictly and impartially, the administrative powers shall be operated normatively and transparently, people’s rights and interests shall be truly and effectively ensured, and the law-based administration capacity shall be generally improved.

II. Main tasks and specific measures

(I) Lawfully and comprehensively perform government functions

Goal: Firmly establish the development philosophy of innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing, stick to separating government functions from enterprise management, government functions from asset management, administrative organs from public institutions, and government functions from the society, streamline administration and delegate powers to lower levels, combine decentralization with control, and optimize service, so that the relationship between government and market and between government and society will be basically rationalized, government functions will truly change, and duties such as macro-control, market supervision, social management, public service and environmental protection will be performed according to law in all-round way.

Measures:

1. Deepen reforms of the administrative licensing and approval system. Fully clear up administrative licensing and approval matters and totally cancel non-administrative licensing & approval matters. Minimize licensing to production and operation activities, minimize the scope of investment project examination and approval and verification, and minimize identification of all kinds of agencies and their activities. Cancel talent and qualification access licensing non in compliance with provisions in the Administrative Licensing Law and study on the establishment of national occupational qualification directory management system. If any administrative licensing & approval matter is directly faced with the grassroots in high quantity and large scale and can be implemented more conveniently and more efficiently by local authority, all such matters should be delegated to local and grassroots authorities for management. Exert greater efforts in cancelling and decentralizing administrative licensing matters that restrain enterprises' production and operation and affect people’s employment and entrepreneurship, put cancellation of cancelled administrative licensing and approval matters in practice and make decentralized cancelled administrative licensing and approval matters handed-over properly, in order to encourage the people to start businesses and make innovations. Strictly control newly established administrative licenses and strengthen examination and demonstration of legality, necessity and rationality. Licenses and certificates that increase enterprise's and citizen’s burdens must be cleared up and standardized. For reserved administrative licensing and approval matters, explore directory/coding-based management, fully carry out one-window handling, in-parallel handling, time-limited handling, normative handling, transparent handling and online handing, in order to improve administrative efficiency and stimulate social vitality. Accelerate the construction of investment project online licensing and approval supervision platforms, implement online supervision, and make available to the public; interdepartmental horizontal linking and central-local vertical connections are to be realized by 2015. Boost the relatively centralized administrative licensing work at a quicker pace and support local authorities in piloting relatively centralized administrative licensing reform. Fully clear up and regulate administrative approval intermediary service, implement list management for reserved administrative approval intermediary service and make relevant information available to the public, firmly punish “intermediary agencies with government background”, cut off the profit chain between administrative organs and intermediary service agencies, and promote fair competition of intermediary service industry.

2. Vigorously carry forward power list, responsibilities list and negative list systems and implement dynamic management. On the basis of comprehensive arrangement, clear-up and adjustment, audit and confirmation, and process optimization, make government functions, legal basis, implementing player, duties and authority, management process, supervision mode and other matters available to the public in the form of power list, clarifying responsibility items, responsible players and responsibility mode corresponding to administrative power one by one. Provincial governments, before the end of 2015, and city/county-level governments shall, before the end of 2016, are to basically finish the announcement of their power lists of government work departments and public institutions undertaking administrative functions under law. Carry out piloting of preparation of power and responsibilities list of departments under the State Council. Implement the unified market access system; and on a foundation of formulating negative lists, all kinds of market players can enter into fields outside the negative list on an equal footing according to law. Establish administrative and institutional fee and governmental fund list system, clear up and cancel illegal, irregular and unreasonable charge fund project, announce charge directories and list at the national, central department/unit and provincial-levels, in order to reduce enterprise’s and citizen’s burdens. Before the end of 2015, totally cancel all charge fund project that are not supported by any law or regulation and that have been established without necessary approval or beyond statutory authority, all administrative undertaking charges for which the government provides general public service or reflect general management functions, and all administrative licensing and approval intermediary service items and charges without statutory basis; and totally stop the execution of all increased charge standard and expanded charge scope.

3. Optimize government organization structure. Improve administrative organization and administrative procedure legal system and promote legalization of institutions, functions, power limits, procedures and authorities. Deepen administrative system reform, optimize government agency setting, function allocation and work process, rationalize department responsibility relationship, and actively and steadily implement the large department system. Innovate the public administration mode and improve government performance management. Advance regulations and legalization of governmental duties and responsibilities at all levels, perfect legal systems for governmental duties and responsibilities at different levels of government, and especially for central and local governments, strengthen the central government’s macro-level management, formulate and establish duties and necessary law enforcement powers, strengthen the duties of provincial governments to comprehensively plan and move forward the equalization of basic regional public services, strengthen city and county governments’ implementation of duties.

4. Perfect macro regulation and control. Improve legal systems in terms of development planning, investment management, fiscal taxation and finance and strengthen formulation and implementation of development strategies, plans, policies and standards. Take concrete measures to change government's investment management functions, establish the dominant role of enterprises in investment, and formulate and announce the directory of approved enterprise investment projects. Improve a market-driven pricing mechanism, greatly reduce government pricing categories and projects, formulate and announce government pricing directories, and make commodity and service prices in competitive fields fully open.

5. Strengthen market supervision. Clear up and abolish all kinds of regulation and practices that obstruct national unified market and fair competition and break departmental protection, regional blockade and industry monopoly. Deepen commercial affair system reform, keep clearing pre-business registration examination and approval, and accelerate the reform of post-business registration examination and approval Further boost facilitation of business registration system. “Three certificates in one" and “one code for one license” relating to i.e. business license, organization code certificate and tax registration certificate shall be realized before the end of 2015. Promote electronic business license and full-process electronic registration and implement “one address for multiple licenses" and “one license for multiple addresses”. Strengthen in-process and post-process supervision, innovate market supervision mode, improve market supervision system, establish transparent, standardized and efficient investment project vertical/horizontal linkage and coordinated supervision mechanism, implement comprehensive supervision, popularize random inspection, and explore “intelligent” supervision. Strengthen social credit system construction, establish and improve the national unified social credit code system and credit information sharing and exchange platform, carry forward the construction of a “national network" for enterprise credit information announcement, and protect corporate and personal information security according to law. Improve laws and regulations for foreign capital management and keep foreign capital policies stable, transparent and predictable. Improve the overseas investment promotion system and service system, support enterprises in expanding foreign investment, and boost going-global of equipment, technology, standards and services.

6. Innovate social governance. Strengthen social governance laws, mechanisms, systems, capacity, talent team and information construction to make social governance more scientific and law-based. Improve the social organization registration management system. Public services and matters that are suitable to be provided or solved by social organizations are to be undertaken by such organizations. Support and develop social work service agencies and volunteer service organizations. Regulate and guide the healthy development of network communities, strengthen supervision and management. Deeply advance comprehensive governance of social security and improve and implement leadership accountability systems. Improve the three-dimensional social order prevention and control system, effectively prevent and control issues affecting social stability, safeguarding people's security in their lives and property. Raise the capacity of preventing and disposing public sudden events and the capacity of preventing and reducing disasters. Strengthen work safety in all-round way and safeguard food and drug safety in all processes. Advance social self-governance and give active play to citizen conventions, village regulations and agreements, industry rules, articles of association and other social norms in social governance.

7. Optimize public services. Try hard to promote healthy development of education, health, culture and other social undertakings, strengthen the government's functions in promoting employment, regulating income allocation and improving social security, accelerate the formation of a sustainable basic public service system that his dominated by the government and that covers urban and rural areas, and realize standardization, equalization and legalization of basic public service. Establish and improve the “government procurement in the context of public service” system, announce the “government procurement in the context of public service” directory, and strengthen quality supervision in government procurement of public service. Promote diversification of public service providers and provision modes, so that for all transactional management services, competition mechanism will generally be introduced to realize procurement from the society; if government is necessary to participate in the process, the “government and social capital” cooperation mode will be implemented.

8. Enhance ecological environmental protection. Establish and improve the legal system of ecological civilization that can effectively restrain development behavior and promote green development, cycled development and low-carbon development. Deepen the reform of resource-type product prices and taxes & charges and implement the resource paid use system and eco-compensation system. Reform the ecological environmental protection management system and improve and strictly implement the environmental information disclosure system, environmental impact assessment system and total pollutant emission quantity control system. Improve the ecological environmental protection accountability system and ecological environmental damage compensation system. Conduct natural resource asset audits on leaders when they leave office.

(2) Improve the system administration in accordance wit law

Goal: improve the government’s legislation quality, construct a systematically complete, scientific, standardized and efficiently-operating administration system under rule of law, make government administration systems in all aspects more mature and more standardized, thus to provide strong institutional guarantee for constructing socialist market economy, democratic politics, advanced culture, harmonious society, ecological civilization, and for promoting all-round development of human being.

Measures:

9. Improve government legislation system and mechanism. Strictly implement the provisions in the Legislation Law, carry out establishment, amendment, abolishment and interpretation concurrently, improve procedures of formulating administrative regulations and rules, consummate government's legislation initiation, drafting, demonstration, coordination and review mechanisms, promote government legislation refinement, and make government legislation more timely, more systematic, better targeted, and more effective. Improve the system by which public comments are openly sought for legislation projects. Use methods such pre-legislation assessment to establish systems for hearings on legislative projects. Important administrative laws and regulations shall be drafted by government’s legislative affairs organ to effectively prevent legalization of departmental benefits and regional protectionism. For important legislative affairs over which there are many interdepartmental disputes, the decision-making organ shall introduce third party assessment and give full consideration to opinions of all parties concerned for a coordinated solution. Such issues shall not remain unsolved for long time. Explore commissioning third parties to formulate drafts of laws, regulations and rules. Regularly conduct post-legislation assessment of regulations and rules periodically to improve rationality of government legislation. Laws, regulations and rules that are not suitable for reform and economic and social development requirements should be promptly amended and abolished. Strengthen efforts to interpret administrative regulations and rules.

10. Strengthen government legislation in key fields. Around the central task of the party and the country, advance government legislation in fields such as improving the socialist market economy system at a quicker pace, developing socialist democracy, constructing advanced socialist culture, innovating social governance, safeguarding civil rights and improving people’s livelihood, maintaining national security, protecting ecological environment, and strengthening government construction at a quicker pace. Persist in advancing reform under rule of law and improve rule of law in reform to realize unification and connection of legislation and reform decision-making, so that major reforms are based on legal grounds and legislation is actively adaptive to the needs of reform and economic and social development. Reform experiences that have been proven fairly mature and reform measures that are proven effective in practice shall be escalated to be drafted as laws, regulations or rules in time.

11. Increase the extent of public participation in government legislation. Expand the channels and modes in which all walks of life take part in government legislation in an orderly manner. Complete the system by which opinions of NPC members are sought for drafts of laws, regulations and rules, give full play to CPPCC members, democratic parties, associations of industry and commerce, non-party personage, civil society and social organizations in legislation consultation. Establish a mechanism by which relevant state organs, civil societies and experts and scholars make arguments and consultations with each other regarding important interest adjustment involved in government legislation. If a proposed system concern people’s vital interests or arouse heated controversies among different parties, symposiums, discussion meetings, hearings and questionnaire shall be held to widely seek for comments. Unless required to be kept confidential, the draft of laws, regulations and rules shall openly seek for public comments through network, newspaper and other media for a period of, generally no less than 30 days. Strengthen communication with social public, complete feedback mechanisms for public comments, and widely converge social common understandings.

12. Strengthen supervision and management of normative documents. Improve the normative document formulation procedure, implement the system of legality review and decision by group discussion, and carry out the system by which the formulating organ registers, numbers ,prints and distributes normative documents in an unified way. No normative documents may set any administrative licensing, administrative penalty or administrative coercion, or impair lawful rights or increase obligations of citizens, legal entities or other organizations. Normative documents involving rights and obligations of citizens, legal persons and other organizations shall be announced in accordance with statutory requirements and procedures and no normative documents that are not published may serve as the basis for public administration. Strengthen recording review system and capacity building, include all normative documents into the scope of recording review, complete the system by which citizens, legal persons and other organizations may suggest examination of normative documents, and exert greater efforts in recording review, so that any document will be put on file and any error will be corrected.

13. Establish a long-term mechanism of clearing administrative regulations, rules and normative documents. Relevant administrative regulations, rules and normative documents shall be cleared up in a timely manner according to the need of comprehensively deepening the reform and economic and social development, as well as establishment, amendment and abolishment of laws at higher levels. The 3 years following 2015 will be used to fully clear up documents of the State Council and the outcome of clearing will be announced to the public. Before the end of 2017, relevant departments and local governments shall finish clearing of current administrative regulations, rules and normative documents and the outcome of clearing shall be announced to the public. Carry out dynamic and information-based management of directories and texts of administrative regulations, rules and normative documents; governments at all levels and departments shall make adjustments and announce such adjustments to the public in a timely manner according to establishment, amendment and abolishment of normative documents.

(3) Advance scientific, democratic administrative decision-making under rule of law.

Goal: As regards administrative decision-making, the system will be rational, the procedure appropriate, the process open, and the responsibility explicit, the statutory decision-making procedure will be strictly implemented, the decision-making quality obviously improved, decision-making efficiency truly ensured, illegal or inappropriate decisions and delayed decisions will be obviously reduced and corrected in time, and the creditability and executive force of administrative decisions will be improved significantly.

Measures:

14. Complete mechanisms for decision-making in accordance with law. Improve the major administrative decision-making procedure system, clearly define the decision maker, scope of matters, statutory procedure and legal responsibility, normalize the decision-making process, and strengthen rigid restraints of statutory decision-making procedure.

15. Increase the actual efficacy of public participation. For major administrative decision-making matters relating to the overall situation of economic and social development and concerning vital interests of people, comments shall be widely sought for, sufficient discussions shall be made with stakeholders, and consideration shall be given to opinions of the relevant NPC members, the CPPCC members, civil societies, grassroots organizations, and social organizations. Administrative organs at all levels, governments at city and county levels in particular, shall strengthen the construction of public participation platforms, disclose relevant information and make explanations about decision-making matters with high social attention, and feedback opinion adoption and reasons in a timely manner. Advance the opinion poll system for important decision-making matters such as those regarding culture and education, medical treatment and public health, resource development, environmental protection, and public utilities.

16. Improve the quality of expert argumentation and risk assessment. Strengthen the construction of new style think tank with Chinese characteristics and set up the administrative decision consulting and demonstration expert bank. For decision-making matters having high professional and technological content, experts and professional institutes shall be organized to conduct demonstration. Attention shall be paid to professionalism, representativeness and proportionality in selection of demonstration experts, support shall be given to such expert’s independent work, and disclosure of expert information and demonstration opinions shall be realized gradually. Put in place mechanisms for major decision social stability risk assessment.

17. Strengthen review of lawfullness Establish mechanisms for reviewing the legality of administrative organs' major internal decision-making; and where there was no legality review or they were found unlawful upon review, they must not be submitted for discussion. Establish a legal adviser team in which personnel of the government’s legislative affairs organ are the main players and experts and lawyers participate, ensure that legal advisors play an active role in making major administrative decision-making and administration in accordance with law

18. Persist in decision-making through group discussion. For major administrative decisions, the government’s executive meeting or plenary meeting or department leading group meeting shall be held for discussion and the chief executive shall make the decision on the base of group discussion. If the decision proposed to be made by the chief executive is different from the opinion of most people attending the meeting, the reason shall be explained at the meeting. Group discussions and decisions shall be recorded truthfully and put on file completely.

19. Strict accountability for decision-making. Decision-making organ shall track the decision execution condition and implementation effect and conduct post assessment for major administrative decision according to actual needs. Complete and strictly implement major decision lifetime accountability system and the reversed responsibility examination mechanisms. In case of any heavy loss or baneful influence due to serious error in decision-making or due to protracted delay in decision-making where a decision should be made in time according to law, the chief executive, other responsible leaders and relevant responsible persons shall be prosecuted for disciplinary and legal liabilities.

(4) Persist in strict, standardized, just, and civilized law enforcement

Goal: The authoritative and efficient administrative law enforcement system with unified powers and responsibilities will be established and completed, laws, regulations and rules will be strictly implemented, all kinds of violations will be investigated and punished in time, lawful rights and interests of citizens, legal persons and other organizations will be truly safeguarded, economic and social order will be effectively maintained, administrative violations or irregularities will be obviously reduced, and social satisfaction about administrative law enforcement will be obviously improved.

Measures:

20. Reform the administrative law enforcement system. Allocate law enforcement resources in a reasonable way on the principle of “reducing layers, integrating the team and improving efficiency” according to powers and functions of governments at different levels. Make the center of law enforcement to move downward to governments at city and county levels and use personnel coming as a result of institutional reform and change of government function to supplement grassroots law enforcement resources. Improve administrative law enforcement management of governments at city and county levels and strengthen unified leadership and coordination. Greatly reduce categories of law enforcement teams in governments at city and county levels, with the importance attached to promoting integrated law enforcement in terms of food and drug safety, industrial and commercial quality inspection, public health, work safety, culture and tourism, resource and environment, agriculture and forestry, transportation, urban and rural construction, marine fishery and business fields, and support the promotion of trans-departmental integrated law enforcement in fields where conditions permit. Expand the force of law enforcement in key fields concerning vital interests of people. Rationalize the urban inspector law enforcement system and strengthen integrated urban management law enforcement institution and team building to improve law enforcement and service level. Rationalize administrative coercion system and allocate administrative coercion powers in a scientific way to improve administrative coercion efficiency. Complete the administrative law enforcement and criminal justice linkup mechanism, improve case transfer standard and procedure, establish and improve mechanisms by which administrative law enforcement organ, public security organ, procuratorial organ and adjudication organ share information, circulate case notices, and transfer cases.

21. Improve administrative law enforcement procedures. Establish and improve the administrative discretionary power benchmark system, refine and quantify administrative discretion standard, and standardize discretion scope, category and extent. Establish the law enforcement full-process record system, formulate the administrative law enforcement procedure norm, and clearly define specific operation flow, with importance attached to standardizing law enforcement behavior such as administrative licensing, administrative punishment, administrative coercion, administrative imposition, administrative charge, administrative inspection, etc. Complete systems regarding administrative law enforcement investigation and evidence collection, notification and confiscated income management and clearly define conditions applicable to hearings and decision making through group discussions. Improve the administrative law enforcement power coordination mechanism, resolve authority dispute among law enforcement organs in time, and establish the inter-city administrative law enforcement assistance system. Strictly implement the system of legality review for major administrative law enforcement decisions, where decisions that have not gone through legality review or did not pass legality review, must not made.

22. Innovate administrative law enforcement methodology. Carry out the administrative law enforcement publicity system. 加强行政执法信息化建设和信息共享,有条件的地方和部门2016年年底前要建立统一的行政执法信息平台,完善网上执法办案及信息查询系统。 强化科技、装备在行政执法中的应用。 推广运用说服教育、劝导示范、行政指导、行政奖励等非强制性执法手段。 健全公民和组织守法信用记录,完善守法诚信褒奖机制和违法失信行为惩戒机制。

23. 全面落实行政执法责任制。 严格确定不同部门及机构、岗位执法人员的执法责任,建立健全常态化的责任追究机制。 加强执法监督,加快建立统一的行政执法监督网络平台,建立健全投诉举报、情况通报等制度,坚决排除对执法活动的干预,防止和克服部门利益和地方保护主义,防止和克服执法工作中的利益驱动,惩治执法腐败现象。

24. 健全行政执法人员管理制度。 2016年年底前,各地区各部门对行政执法人员进行一次严格清理,全面实行行政执法人员持证上岗和资格管理制度,未经执法资格考试合格,不得授予执法资格,不得从事执法活动。 健全纪律约束机制,加强职业道德教育,全面提高执法人员素质。 逐步推行行政执法人员平时考核制度,科学合理设计考核指标体系,考核结果作为执法人员职务级别调整、交流轮岗、教育培训、奖励惩戒的重要依据。 规范执法辅助人员管理,明确其适用岗位、身份性质、职责权限、权利义务、聘用条件和程序等。

25. 加强行政执法保障。 推动形成全社会支持行政执法机关依法履职的氛围。 对妨碍行政机关正常工作秩序、阻碍行政执法人员依法履责的违法行为,坚决依法处理。 各级党政机关和领导干部要支持行政执法机关依法公正行使职权,不得让行政执法人员做不符合法律规定的事情。 行政机关履行执法职责所需经费,由各级政府纳入本级政府预算,保证执法经费足额拨付。 改善执法条件,合理安排执法装备配备、科技建设方面的投入。 严格执行罚缴分离和收支两条线管理制度,严禁下达或者变相下达罚没指标,严禁将行政事业性收费、罚没收入同部门利益直接或者变相挂钩。

(五)强化对行政权力的制约和监督

目标:科学有效的行政权力运行制约和监督体系基本形成,惩治和预防腐败体系进一步健全,各方面监督形成合力,人民群众的知情权、参与权、表达权、监督权得到切实保障,损害公民、法人和其他组织合法权益的违法行政行为得到及时纠正,违法行政责任人依法依纪受到严肃追究。

Measures:

26. 健全行政权力运行制约和监督体系。 坚持用制度管权管事管人,坚持决策权、执行权、监督权既相互制约又相互协调,完善各方面监督制度,确保行政机关按照法定权限和程序行使权力。 起草法律法规规章和规范性文件,要有效落实公开行政权力运行流程、惩治和预防腐败、防控廉政风险、防止利益冲突等要求,切实把权力关进制度的笼子。 加强行政程序制度建设,严格规范作出各类行政行为的主体、权限、方式、步骤和时限。 发挥政府诚信建设示范作用,加快政府守信践诺机制建设。 加强公务员诚信管理,建立公务员诚信档案。

27. 自觉接受党内监督、人大监督、民主监督、司法监督。 在党委对党风廉政建设和反腐败工作的统一领导下,各级政府及其部门党组(党委)要切实履行主体责任,主要负责人是第一责任人,对本级政府本部门党风廉政建设负总责。 认真执行向本级人大及其常委会报告工作制度,接受询问和质询制度,报备行政法规、规章制度。 认真研究处理人大及其常委会组成人员对政府工作提出的有关审议意见,及时研究办理人大代表和政协委员提出的意见和建议,切实改进工作。 健全知情明政机制,政府相关部门向政协定期通报有关情况,为政协委员履职提供便利、创造条件。 支持人民法院依法受理行政案件,健全行政机关依法出庭应诉制度,尊重并执行人民法院生效裁判。 检察机关对在履行职责中发现的行政违法行为进行监督,行政机关应当积极配合。

28. 加强行政监督和审计监督。 完善政府内部层级监督,改进上级行政机关对下级行政机关的监督,建立健全常态化、长效化监督制度。 加强对政府内部权力的制约,对财政资金分配使用、国有资产监管、政府投资、政府采购、公共资源转让、公共工程建设等权力集中的部门和岗位实行分事行权、分岗设权、分级授权,定期轮岗,强化内部流程控制,防止权力滥用。 各级监察机关要切实履行监督责任,确保廉政建设各项任务落实。 完善审计制度,健全有利于依法独立行使审计监督权的审计管理体制,建立具有审计职业特点的审计人员管理制度,基本形成与国家治理体系和治理能力现代化相适应的审计监督机制。 对公共资金、国有资产、国有资源和领导干部履行经济责任情况实行审计全覆盖。 强化上级审计机关对下级审计机关的领导。

29. 完善社会监督和舆论监督机制。 建立对行政机关违法行政行为投诉举报登记制度,畅通举报箱、电子信箱、热线电话等监督渠道,方便群众投诉举报、反映问题,依法及时调查处理违法行政行为。 发挥报刊、广播、电视等传统媒体监督作用,加强与互联网等新兴媒体的互动,重视运用和规范网络监督,建立健全网络舆情监测、收集、研判、处置机制,推动网络监督规范化、法治化。

30. 全面推进政务公开。 坚持以公开为常态、不公开为例外原则,推进决策公开、执行公开、管理公开、服务公开、结果公开。 完善政府信息公开制度,拓宽政府信息公开渠道,进一步明确政府信息公开范围和内容。 重点推进财政预算、公共资源配置、重大建设项目批准和实施、社会公益事业建设等领域的政府信息公开。 完善政府新闻发言人、突发事件信息发布等制度,做好对热点敏感问题的舆论引导,及时回应人民群众关切。 创新政务公开方式,加强互联网政务信息数据服务平台和便民服务平台建设,提高政务公开信息化、集中化水平。

31. 完善纠错问责机制。 加强行政问责规范化、制度化建设,增强行政问责的针对性和时效性。 加大问责力度,坚决纠正行政不作为、乱作为,坚决克服懒政、庸政、怠政,坚决惩处失职、渎职。 认真落实党风廉政建设责任制,坚持有错必纠、有责必问,对“四风”问题突出、发生顶风违纪问题或者出现区域性、系统性腐败案件的地方、部门和单位,既要追究主体责任、监督责任,又要严肃追究领导责任。

(六)依法有效化解社会矛盾纠纷

目标:公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益得到切实维护,公正、高效、便捷、成本低廉的多元化矛盾纠纷解决机制全面形成,行政机关在预防、解决行政争议和民事纠纷中的作用充分发挥,通过法定渠道解决矛盾纠纷的比率大幅提升。

Measures:

32. 健全依法化解纠纷机制。 构建对维护群众利益具有重大作用的制度体系,建立健全社会矛盾预警机制、利益表达机制、协商沟通机制、救济救助机制。 及时收集分析热点、敏感、复杂矛盾纠纷信息,加强群体性、突发性事件预警监测。 强化依法应对和处置群体性事件机制和能力。 依法加强对影响或危害食品药品安全、安全生产、生态环境、网络安全、社会安全等方面重点问题的治理。 加大普法力度,引导和支持公民、法人和其他组织依法表达诉求和维护权益。

33. 加强行政复议工作。 完善行政复议制度,改革行政复议体制,积极探索整合地方行政复议职责。 健全行政复议案件审理机制,加大公开听证审理力度,纠正违法或不当行政行为。 提高行政复议办案质量,增强行政复议的专业性、透明度和公信力。 县级以上地方政府要依法加强行政复议能力建设,推动相关机构设置、人员配备与所承担的工作任务相适应,充分发挥行政复议在解决行政争议中的重要作用。 切实提高行政复议人员素质,落实办案场所和有关装备保障,行政复议经费列入本级政府预算。

34. 完善行政调解、行政裁决、仲裁制度。 健全行政调解制度,进一步明确行政调解范围,完善行政调解机制,规范行政调解程序。 健全行政裁决制度,强化行政机关解决同行政管理活动密切相关的民事纠纷功能。 有关行政机关要依法开展行政调解、行政裁决工作,及时有效化解矛盾纠纷。 完善仲裁制度,提高仲裁公信力,充分发挥仲裁解决经济纠纷、化解社会矛盾、促进社会和谐的作用。

35. 加强人民调解工作。 贯彻落实人民调解法,健全人民调解组织网络,实现村委会、居委会人民调解组织全覆盖,推进企事业单位、乡镇街道、社会团体、行业组织中人民调解组织建设。 重点协调解决消费者权益、劳动关系、医患关系、物业管理等方面的矛盾纠纷,促进当事人平等协商、公平公正解决矛盾纠纷。 完善人民调解、行政调解、司法调解联动工作体系。

36. 改革信访工作制度。 把信访纳入法治化轨道,保障合理合法诉求依照法律规定和程序就能得到合理合法的结果。 规范信访工作程序,畅通群众诉求表达、利益协调和权益保障渠道,维护信访秩序。 优化传统信访途径,实行网上受理信访制度,健全及时就地解决群众合理诉求机制。 严格实行诉访分离,推进通过法定途径分类处理信访投诉请求,引导群众在法治框架内解决矛盾纠纷,完善涉法涉诉信访依法终结制度。

(七)全面提高政府工作人员法治思维和依法行政能力

目标:政府工作人员特别是领导干部牢固树立宪法法律至上、法律面前人人平等、权由法定、权依法使等基本法治理念,恪守合法行政、合理行政、程序正当、高效便民、诚实守信、权责统一等依法行政基本要求,做尊法学法守法用法的模范,法治思维和依法行政能力明显提高,在法治轨道上全面推进政府各项工作。

Measures:

37. 树立重视法治素养和法治能力的用人导向。 抓住领导干部这个全面依法治国的“关键少数”,把法治观念强不强、法治素养好不好作为衡量干部德才的重要标准,把能不能遵守法律、依法办事作为考察干部的重要内容,把严守党纪、恪守国法的干部用起来。 在相同条件下,优先提拔使用法治素养好、依法办事能力强的干部。 对特权思想严重、法治观念淡薄的干部要批评教育、督促整改,问题严重或违法违纪的,依法依纪严肃处理。

38. 加强对政府工作人员的法治教育培训。 政府工作人员特别是领导干部要系统学习中国特色社会主义法治理论,学好宪法以及与自己所承担工作密切相关的法律法规。 完善学法制度,国务院各部门、县级以上地方各级政府每年至少举办一期领导干部法治专题培训班,地方各级政府领导班子每年应当举办两期以上法治专题讲座。 各级党校、行政学院、干部学院等要把宪法法律列为干部教育的必修课。 健全行政执法人员岗位培训制度,每年组织开展行政执法人员通用法律知识、专门法律知识、新法律法规等专题培训。 加大对公务员初任培训、任职培训中法律知识的培训力度。

39. 完善政府工作人员法治能力考查测试制度。 加强对领导干部任职前法律知识考查和依法行政能力测试,将考查和测试结果作为领导干部任职的重要参考,促进政府及其部门负责人严格履行法治建设职责。 优化公务员录用考试测查内容,增加公务员录用考试中法律知识的比重。 实行公务员晋升依法行政考核制度。

40. 注重通过法治实践提高政府工作人员法治思维和依法行政能力。 政府工作人员特别是领导干部想问题、作决策、办事情必须守法律、重程序、受监督,牢记职权法定,切实保护人民权益。 要自觉运用法治思维和法治方式深化改革、推动发展、化解矛盾、维护稳定,依法治理经济,依法协调和处理各种利益问题,避免埋钉子、留尾巴,努力营造办事依法、遇事找法、解决问题用法、化解矛盾靠法的良好法治环境。 注重发挥法律顾问和法律专家的咨询论证、审核把关作用。 落实“谁执法谁普法”的普法责任制,建立行政执法人员以案释法制度,使执法人员在执法普法的同时不断提高自身法治素养和依法行政能力。

三、组织保障和落实机制

党的领导是全面推进依法治国、加快建设法治政府最根本的保证,必须坚持党总揽全局、协调各方,发挥各级党委领导核心作用,把党的领导贯彻到法治政府建设各方面。 各级政府及其部门要自觉接受党的领导,切实增强建设法治政府的使命感、紧迫感和责任感,加强组织领导,强化工作责任,一级抓一级,层层抓落实。

41. 加强党对法治政府建设的领导。 各级政府要在党委统一领导下,谋划和落实好法治政府建设的各项任务,主动向党委报告法治政府建设中的重大问题,及时消除制约法治政府建设的体制机制障碍。 各级政府及其部门要结合本地区本部门实际,每年部署法治政府建设年度重点工作,发挥牵引和突破作用,带动法治政府建设各项工作全面深入开展。 加强各级政府及其部门法制力量建设,不断提高工作人员的思想政治素质和业务工作能力。

42. 落实第一责任人责任。 党政主要负责人要履行推进法治建设第一责任人职责,将建设法治政府摆在工作全局的重要位置。 对不认真履行第一责任人职责,本地区本部门一年内发生多起重大违法行政案件、造成严重社会后果的,依法追究主要负责人的责任。 县级以上地方各级政府每年第一季度要向同级党委、人大常委会和上一级政府报告上一年度法治政府建设情况,政府部门每年第一季度要向本级政府和上一级政府有关部门报告上一年度法治政府建设情况,报告要通过报刊、政府网站等向社会公开。

43. 强化考核评价和督促检查。 各级党委要把法治建设成效作为衡量各级领导班子和领导干部工作实绩的重要内容,纳入政绩考核指标体系,充分发挥考核评价对法治政府建设的重要推动作用。 各级政府及其部门的党组织要领导和监督本单位模范遵守宪法法律,坚决查处执法犯法、违法用权等行为。 要加强对法治政府建设进展情况的督促检查,结合法治政府建设年度重点工作,开展定期检查和专项督查。 对工作不力、问题较多的,要及时约谈、责令整改、通报批评。

44. 加强理论研究、典型示范和宣传引导。 加强中国特色社会主义法治政府理论研究,坚持从中国实际出发,解决中国实际问题,为法治政府建设提供理论支撑和决策参考。 积极开展建设法治政府示范创建活动,大力培育建设法治政府先进典型。 通过召开现场会、经验交流会等形式及时总结、交流和推广经验,充分发挥先进典型的示范带动作用。 定期通报和曝光违法行政典型案例,分析原因、吸取教训、改进工作。 大力开展推进依法行政、建设法治政府宣传工作。 加强正面宣传引导,以报刊、广播、电视、网络等多种媒体形式,广泛宣传法治政府建设目标、工作部署、先进经验、典型做法,正确引导舆论、凝聚社会共识,营造全社会关心、支持和参与法治政府建设的良好社会氛围。

各地区各部门要结合实际制定实施方案,明确提出时间进度安排和可检验的成果形式,党政主要负责人要亲自抓落实,各项工作任务除本纲要有明确时间要求外,原则上应当在2019年年底前完成。 中央和国家机关有关部门要根据部门职责承担并履行好本纲要确定的相关任务,并做好统筹协调,及时沟通协商,形成工作合力。 作为牵头单位和负责单位的中央和国家机关有关部门和省级政府要建立法治政府建设年度进展报告制度,及时向党中央、国务院报告工作进展情况。 国务院法制办要牵头做好督促检查。 各地区各部门在实施本纲要的过程中,要注意研究法治政府建设的新情况新问题,解放思想、大胆实践、开拓进取、久久为功,运用法治思维和法治方式引领改革发展破障闯关、推动民生改善和社会公正,以更加奋发有为的精神状态,推动法治政府建设一步一个脚印向前迈进,为全面推进依法治国、建设社会主义法治国家作出扎扎实实的贡献。

 

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