Provisions on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Procedures for the Confiscation of Unlawful Gains in Cases Where the Criminal Suspects or Defendants have Absconded or Died

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Title: The Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate Provisions on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Procedures for the Confiscation of Unlawful Gains in Cases Where the Criminal Suspects or Defendants have Absconded or Died
Promulgating Entities:The Supreme People's Court, The Supreme People's Procuratorate
Reference number: Legal Interpretation [2017] No. 1
Promulgation Date: 2017-1-4
Expiration date: 
Source of text: http://www.chinacourt.org/law/detail/2017/01/id/149054.shtmlThe Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate Provisions on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Procedures for the Confiscation of Unlawful Gains in Cases Where the Criminal Suspects or Defendants have Absconded or Died

Legal Interpretation [2017] No. 1

The "The Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate Provisions on Several Questions Concerning the Application of Procedures for the Confiscation of Unlawful Gains in Cases Where the Criminal Suspects or Defendants have Absconded or Died" have been passed by the 1705th Meeting of the Adjudication Committee of the Supreme People's Court and by the 59th Meeting of the 12th Procuratorial Committee of the Supreme People's Procuratorate on December 26, 2016, and are hereby released to take effect on January 5, 2017.

Supreme People's Court
The Supreme People's Procuratorate
January 4, 2017

The following provisions on the specific application of law in the handling of relevant cases are made on the basis of the "P.R.C. Criminal Procedure Law", the "P.R.C. Criminal Law", and the "P.R.C. Civil Procedure Law", so as to lawfully apply the procedures for confiscation of illegal gains in cases where the criminal suspects or defendants have absconded or died:
Article 1: The following criminal cases shall be found to be the "criminal cases" provided for in paragraph 1 of Article 280 of the Criminal Procedure Law:
(1) Criminal cases of corruption, embezzlement of public funds, possessing huge amounts of property from unknown sources, concealing overseas savings, privately dividing state-owned assets, and privately dividing fines confiscated properties;
(2) Criminal cases of bribe-taking, bribe-taking by a unit, exploiting influence to take bribes, bribery, giving bribes to persons with influence, giving bribes to a unit, making introductions for bribery, and bribery by a unit;
(3) Criminal cases of organizing, leading, or participating in terrorist organizations; helping terrorist organizations, preparing to carry out terrorist activities; advocating terrorism or extremism, and inciting the carrying out of terrorist activities; using extremism to undermine the enforcement of laws; compelling others to wear clothing or symbols that advocate terrorism or extremism; and illegally possessing items that advocate terrorism or extremism;
(4) Criminal cases of endangering national security, smuggling, money-laundering, financial fraud, mafia-type organizations, and drug crimes.
Criminal cases of telecommunication frauds and online fraud are handled in accordance with the criminal cases provided in the previous paragraph.
Article 2: Where it has a relatively large impact on a province, autonomous region, directly-governed municipality, or on the entire country, or where the criminal suspect or defendant has absconded outside the country, it shall be found to be "major" as provided for in article 280, paragraph 1, of the Criminal Procedure Law.
Article 3: Where criminal suspects or defendants have absconded or gone into hiding to avoid investigation or criminal prosecution, or escaped during the course of criminal proceedings, they shall be found to have "absconded" as provided in paragraph 1 of article 280 of the Criminal Procedure Law.
Where a criminal suspect or defendant has disappeared for two years due to an accident, or has disappeared due to an accident and relevant organs have proven that they could not have survived, it is to be handled in accordance with the provisions of the previous paragraph.
Article 4: Where criminal suspects or defendants have died and their unlawful gains and other assets related to the cases should be recovered in accordance with the Criminal Law, people's procuratorates may submit requests for confiscation of unlawful gains to the people's courts.
Article 5: Public security organs issuing wanted notices, or the Ministry of Justice issuing an international red alert through the International Criminal Police Organization, shall be held to be a 'wanted notice' as provided for in paragraph 1 of Criminal Procedure Law article 280.
Article 6: Any assets directly or indirectly produced through the commission of a crime shall be found to be "unlawful gains" as provided for by paragraph 1 of Criminal Procedure Law article 280.
Where unlawful gains have already been converted or transformed in whole or in part into other assets, the converted or transformed assets shall be viewed as "unlawful gains" as provided for in the preceding paragraph.
Proceeds of unlawful gains that have been converted or transformed, or the portion of proceeds corresponding to unlawful gains where assets have already been mixed together with the unlawful gains, shall be viewed as "unlawful gains" as provided for in the preceding paragraph.
Article 7: "Stakeholders" as provided for in paragraph 3 of Criminal Procedure Law article 281, includes the close relatives of criminal suspects and defendants, and other natural persons and units that claim right to the assets requested for confiscation.
"Other stakeholders" as provided for in Criminal Procedure Law articles 281 paragraph 2 and 282 paragraph 2, refers to "other natural persons and units that claim right to the assets requested for confiscation" as provided for in the preceding paragraph.
Article 8: People's procuratorates applying to the people's courts for the confiscation of unlawful gains shall create a written application for the confiscation of unlawful gains.
The written application for confiscation of unlawful gains shall indicate the following content:
(1) The basic circumstances of the criminal suspect of defendant;
(2) The grounds and source of the case;
(3) The facts of the crime involving the criminal suspect or defendants; and related evidentiary materials;
(4) The circumstances of the criminal suspect or defendant absconding, being labeled as wanted, escaping, disappearing, or dying.
(5) The type, quantity, value, and location of the assets which the application seeks to confiscate, as well as a list of assets already sealed, seized, or frozen, and the related legal formalities;
(6) Evidentiary materials showing that the property which the application seeks to have confiscated are unlawful gains and other assets involved in the case.
(7) The reason and legal basis for submitting the application for confiscation of unlawful gains;
(8) Whether there are stakeholders, and the names, identities, addresses, and contact methods for any stakeholders;
(9) Other content that should be indicated.
Where the above materials require translations, the people's procuratorates shall send the translated version to the people's courts together with the written application for confiscation of unlawful gains.
Article 9: The people's courts shall complete their review of applications to confiscate unlawful gains within 30 days, and handle them in accordance with the following discrete situations:
(一)属于没收违法所得申请受案范围和本院管辖,且材料齐全、有证据证明有犯罪事实的,应当受理;
(二)不属于没收违法所得申请受案范围或者本院管辖的,应当退回人民检察院;
(三)对于没收违法所得申请不符合“有证据证明有犯罪事实”标准要求的,应当通知人民检察院撤回申请,人民检察院应当撤回;
(4) Where the materials are incomplete, they shall notify the people's procuratorates to supply the rest within seven days; and shall send the applications back to the people's procuratorates if they cannot supply the rest of the materials within seven days.
Article 10: Where the following situations exist simultaneously, it shall be held that "there is evidence showing the facts of a crime" as provided for in article 9 of these Provisions.
(1) There is evidence proving the occurrence of a crime;
(2) There is evidence showing that the crime was perpetrated by the criminal suspect or defendants;
(3) Evidence showing that the criminal suspect or defendant perpetrated the crime is true and lawful.
Article 11: After people's courts accept an application to confiscate unlawful gains, they shall issue an announcement within 15 days, and the period for the announcement is 6 months. Provisions on suspension, interruption, extension do not apply to the announcement period.
The announcement should indicate the following content:
(1) The grounds and source of the case, as well as that it is within that court's jurisdiction;
(2) The basic circumstances of the criminal suspect or defendant;
(3) The facts of the crime involving the criminal suspect or defendant;
(4) The circumstances of the criminal suspect or defendant absconding, being labeled as wanted, escaping, disappearing, or dying.
(5) The type, quantity, value, and location of the assets which the application seeks to confiscate, as well as a list of assets already sealed, seized, or frozen, and the related legal formalities;
(6) Facts related to the property which the application seeks to have confiscated being unlawful gains or other assets involved in the case.
(7) The reason and legal basis for requesting the confiscation.
(8) The period and methods for stakeholders applying to participate in the proceedings, as well the legal consequences that might be borne for not following that period and methods to apply to participate in proceedings;
(9) Other circumstances that should be announced.
Article 12: 公告应当在全国公开发行的报纸、信息网络等媒体和最高人民法院的官方网站刊登、发布,并在人民法院公告栏张贴。 必要时,公告可以在犯罪地、犯罪嫌疑人、被告人居住地或者被申请没收财产所在地张贴。 公告最后被刊登、发布、张贴日期为公告日期。 人民法院张贴公告的,应当采取拍照、录像等方式记录张贴过程。
人民法院已经掌握境内利害关系人联系方式的,应当直接送达含有公告内容的通知;直接送达有困难的,可以委托代为送达、邮寄送达。 经受送达人同意的,可以采用传真、电子邮件等能够确认其收悉的方式告知其公告内容,并记录在案;人民法院已经掌握境外犯罪嫌疑人、被告人、利害关系人联系方式,经受送达人同意的,可以采用传真、电子邮件等能够确认其收悉的方式告知其公告内容,并记录在案;受送达人未作出同意意思表示,或者人民法院未掌握境外犯罪嫌疑人、被告人、利害关系人联系方式,其所在地国(区)主管机关明确提出应当向受送达人送达含有公告内容的通知的,受理没收违法所得申请案件的人民法院可以决定是否送达。 决定送达的,应当将公告内容层报最高人民法院,由最高人民法院依照刑事司法协助条约、多边公约,或者按照对等互惠原则,请求受送达人所在地国(区)的主管机关协助送达。
Article 13: 利害关系人申请参加诉讼的,应当在公告期间内提出,并提供与犯罪嫌疑人、被告人关系的证明材料或者证明其可以对违法所得及其他涉案财产主张权利的证据材料。
利害关系人可以委托诉讼代理人参加诉讼。 利害关系人在境外委托的,应当委托具有中华人民共和国律师资格并依法取得执业证书的律师,依照《最高人民法院关于适用〈中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法〉的解释》第四百零三条的规定对授权委托进行公证、认证。
利害关系人在公告期满后申请参加诉讼,能够合理说明理由的,人民法院应当准许。
Article 14: 人民法院在公告期满后由合议庭对没收违法所得申请案件进行审理。
利害关系人申请参加及委托诉讼代理人参加诉讼的,人民法院应当开庭审理。 利害关系人及其诉讼代理人无正当理由拒不到庭,且无其他利害关系人和其他诉讼代理人参加诉讼的,人民法院可以不开庭审理。
人民法院对没收违法所得申请案件开庭审理的,人民检察院应当派员出席。
人民法院确定开庭日期后,应当将开庭的时间、地点通知人民检察院、利害关系人及其诉讼代理人、证人、鉴定人员、翻译人员。 通知书应当依照本规定第十二条第二款规定的方式至迟在开庭审理三日前送达;受送达人在境外的,至迟在开庭审理三十日前送达。
Article 15: 出庭的检察人员应当宣读没收违法所得申请书,并在法庭调查阶段就申请没收的财产属于违法所得及其他涉案财产等相关事实出示、宣读证据。
对于确有必要出示但可能妨碍正在或者即将进行的刑事侦查的证据,针对该证据的法庭调查不公开进行。
利害关系人及其诉讼代理人对申请没收的财产属于违法所得及其他涉案财产等相关事实及证据有异议的,可以提出意见;对申请没收的财产主张权利的,应当出示相关证据。
Article 16: 人民法院经审理认为,申请没收的财产属于违法所得及其他涉案财产的,除依法应当返还被害人的以外,应当予以没收;申请没收的财产不属于违法所得或者其他涉案财产的,应当裁定驳回申请,解除查封、扣押、冻结措施。
Article 17: 申请没收的财产具有高度可能属于违法所得及其他涉案财产的,应当认定为本规定第十六条规定的“申请没收的财产属于违法所得及其他涉案财产”。
巨额财产来源不明犯罪案件中,没有利害关系人对违法所得及其他涉案财产主张权利,或者利害关系人对违法所得及其他涉案财产虽然主张权利但提供的相关证据没有达到相应证明标准的,应当视为本规定第十六条规定的“申请没收的财产属于违法所得及其他涉案财产”。
Article 18: 利害关系人非因故意或者重大过失在第一审期间未参加诉讼,在第二审期间申请参加诉讼的,人民法院应当准许,并发回原审人民法院重新审判。
Article 19: 犯罪嫌疑人、被告人逃匿境外,委托诉讼代理人申请参加诉讼,且违法所得或者其他涉案财产所在地国(区)主管机关明确提出意见予以支持的,人民法院可以准许。
人民法院准许参加诉讼的,犯罪嫌疑人、被告人的诉讼代理人依照本规定关于利害关系人的诉讼代理人的规定行使诉讼权利。
Article 20: 人民检察院、利害关系人对第一审裁定认定的事实、证据没有争议的,第二审人民法院可以不开庭审理。
第二审人民法院决定开庭审理的,应当将开庭的时间、地点书面通知同级人民检察院和利害关系人。
第二审人民法院应当就上诉、抗诉请求的有关事实和适用法律进行审查。
Article 21: 第二审人民法院对不服第一审裁定的上诉、抗诉案件,经审理,应当按照下列情形分别处理:
(一)第一审裁定认定事实清楚和适用法律正确的,应当驳回上诉或者抗诉,维持原裁定;
(二)第一审裁定认定事实清楚,但适用法律有错误的,应当改变原裁定;
(三)第一审裁定认定事实不清的,可以在查清事实后改变原裁定,也可以撤销原裁定,发回原审人民法院重新审判;
(四)第一审裁定违反法定诉讼程序,可能影响公正审判的,应当撤销原裁定,发回原审人民法院重新审判。
第一审人民法院对于依照前款第三项规定发回重新审判的案件作出裁定后,第二审人民法院对不服第一审人民法院裁定的上诉、抗诉,应当依法作出裁定,不得再发回原审人民法院重新审判。
Article 22: 违法所得或者其他涉案财产在境外的,负责立案侦查的公安机关、人民检察院等侦查机关应当制作查封、扣押、冻结的法律文书以及协助执行查封、扣押、冻结的请求函,层报公安、检察院等各系统最高上级机关后,由公安、检察院等各系统最高上级机关依照刑事司法协助条约、多边公约,或者按照对等互惠原则,向违法所得或者其他涉案财产所在地国(区)的主管机关请求协助执行。
被请求国(区)的主管机关提出,查封、扣押、冻结法律文书的制发主体必须是法院的,负责立案侦查的公安机关、人民检察院等侦查机关可以向同级人民法院提出查封、扣押、冻结的申请,人民法院经审查同意后制作查封、扣押、冻结令以及协助执行查封、扣押、冻结令的请求函,层报最高人民法院后,由最高人民法院依照刑事司法协助条约、多边公约,或者按照对等互惠原则,向违法所得或者其他涉案财产所在地国(区)的主管机关请求协助执行。
Request letters shall indicate the following:
(一)案由以及查封、扣押、冻结法律文书的发布主体是否具有管辖权;
(二)犯罪嫌疑人、被告人涉嫌犯罪的事实及相关证据,但可能妨碍正在或者即将进行的刑事侦查的证据除外;
(三)已发布公告的,发布公告情况、通知利害关系人参加诉讼以及保障诉讼参与人依法行使诉讼权利等情况;
(四)请求查封、扣押、冻结的财产的种类、数量、价值、所在地等情况以及相关法律手续;
(五)请求查封、扣押、冻结的财产属于违法所得及其他涉案财产的相关事实及证据材料;
(六)请求查封、扣押、冻结财产的理由和法律依据;
(七)被请求国(区)要求载明的其他内容。
Article 23: 违法所得或者其他涉案财产在境外,受理没收违法所得申请案件的人民法院经审理裁定没收的,应当制作没收令以及协助执行没收令的请求函,层报最高人民法院后,由最高人民法院依照刑事司法协助条约、多边公约,或者按照对等互惠原则,向违法所得或者其他涉案财产所在地国(区)的主管机关请求协助执行。
Request letters shall indicate the following:
(1) The grounds of the case and that the entity issuing the confiscation order has jurisdiction;
(2) that it is an effective ruling;
(三)犯罪嫌疑人、被告人涉嫌犯罪的事实及相关证据,但可能妨碍正在或者即将进行的刑事侦查的证据除外;
(四)犯罪嫌疑人、被告人逃匿、被通缉、脱逃、死亡的基本情况;
(五)发布公告情况、通知利害关系人参加诉讼以及保障诉讼参与人依法行使诉讼权利等情况;
(六)请求没收违法所得及其他涉案财产的种类、数量、价值、所在地等情况以及查封、扣押、冻结相关法律手续;
(七)请求没收的财产属于违法所得及其他涉案财产的相关事实及证据材料;
(8) The reason and legal basis for requesting the confiscation of assets;
(九)被请求国(区)要求载明的其他内容。
Article 24: 单位实施本规定第一条规定的犯罪后被撤销、注销,单位直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员逃匿、死亡,导致案件无法适用刑事诉讼普通程序进行审理的,依照本规定第四条的规定处理。
Article 25: These provisions take effect on January 5, 2017. Where previously released judicial interpretations differ from these Provisions, these Provisions are controlling.

 

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