Bilingual General Provisions of the Civil Code

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【法规标题】中华人民共和国民法总则 Title: General Provisions of the Civil Law
【颁布单位】全国人民代表大会 Promulgating Entities:The National People's Congress
【发文字号】主席令12届第66号 Reference number: 主席令12届第66号
【颁布时间】2017-3-15 Promulgation Date: 2017-3-15
【失效时间】 Expiration date:
【法规来源】http://www.npc.gov.cn/npc/xinwen/2017-03/15/content_2018907.htm Source of text: http://www.npc.gov.cn/npc/xinwen/2017-03/15/content_2018907.htm
中华人民共和国主席令 第六十六号 Order of the President of the People's Republic of China, No. 66
《中华人民共和国民法总则》已由中华人民共和国第十二届全国人民代表大会第五次会议于2017年3月15日通过,现予公布,自2017年10月1日起施行。 The "General Provisions of the Civil Law" has been passed by the Fifth Session of the 12th National People's Congress of the People's Republic China on March 15, 2017 and is hereby promulgated to take effect on October 1, 2017.
中华人民共和国主席 习近平 Xi Jinping, President of the People's Republic of China
2017年3月15日 2017/3/15
目 录 Contents
第一章 基本规定 Chapter I: Basic Provisions
第二章 自然人 Chapter II: Natural Persons
第一节 民事权利能力和民事行为能力 Section 1: Capacity for civil rights and capacity for civil acts
第二节 监 护 Section 2: Guardianship
第三节 宣告失踪和宣告死亡 Section 3: Proclamations of disappearance or death
第四节 个体工商户和农村承包经营户 Section 4: Privately-owned Businesses and rural leasehold businesses
第三章 法 人 Chapter III: Legal Persons
第一节 一般规定 Section 1: Ordinary Provisions
第二节 营利法人 Section 2: For-profit Legal Persons
第三节 非营利法人 Section 3: Non-profit Legal Persons
第四节 特别法人 Section 4: Special Legal Persons
第四章 非法人组织 Chapter IV: Unincorporated Organizations
第五章 民事权利 Chapter V: Civil Rights
第六章 民事法律行为 Chapter VI: Civil Juristic Acts
第一节 一般规定 Section 1: Ordinary Provisions
第二节 意思表示 Section 2: Expression of Intent
第三节 民事法律行为的效力 Section 3: The Efficacy of Civil Juristic Acts
第四节 民事法律行为的附条件和附期限 Section 4: Conditions and Time Limits for Civil Juristic Acts
第七章 代 理 Chapter VII: Agency
第一节 一般规定 Section 1: Ordinary Provisions
第二节 委托代理 Section 2: Assigning Agency
第三节 代理终止 Section 3: Termination of Agency
第八章 民事责任 Chapter VIII: Civil Liability
第九章 诉讼时效 Chapter IX: Limitations Period for Litigation
第十章 期间计算 Chapter X: Calculation of Time Periods
第十一章 附 则 Chapter XI: Supplementary Provisions
 
中华人民共和国民法总则

General Provisions of the Civil Law

(2017年3月15日第十二届全国人民代表大会第五次会议通过) (Passed by the Fifth Session of the 12th National People's Congress on March 15, 2017)
 
第一章 基本规定

Chapter I: Basic Provisions

第一条 为了保护民事主体的合法权益,调整民事关系,维护社会和经济秩序,适应中国特色社会主义发展要求,弘扬社会主义核心价值观,根据宪法,制定本法。 Article 1: This Law is drafted, on the basis of the Constitution, so as to protect the lawful rights and interests of civil entities, adjust civil relations, preserve social and economic order, adapt to the demands of developing socialism with Chinese characteristics, and promote the core socialist values.
第二条 民法调整平等主体的自然人、法人和非法人组织之间的人身关系和财产关系。 Article 2: Civil law modulates the personal and property relationships between natural persons, legal persons, and non-legal-person organizations that are equal entities.
第三条 民事主体的人身权利、财产权利以及其他合法权益受法律保护,任何组织或者个人不得侵犯。 Article 3: Civil entities' lawful rights and interests such as rights their persons and property are protected by law and must not be encroached upon by any organization or individual.
第四条 民事主体在民事活动中的法律地位一律平等。 Article 4: The legal status of all civil entities in civil actions is equal.
第五条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当遵循自愿原则,按照自己的意思设立、变更、终止民事法律关系。 Article 5: Civil entities engaging in civil activities shall follow the principle of voluntariness, establishing, changing, or terminating civil law relationships as they choose.
第六条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当遵循公平原则,合理确定各方的权利和义务。 Article 6: Civil entities engaging in civil activities shall follow the principle of equity to reasonably determine the rights and obligations of each party.
第七条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当遵循诚信原则,秉持诚实,恪守承诺。 Article 7: Civil entities engaging in civil activities shall follow the principle of good faith [creditworthiness] and credibility, sticking to the truth and honoring commitments.
第八条 民事主体从事民事活动,不得违反法律,不得违背公序良俗。 Article 8: Civil entities engaging in civil activities must not violate laws, and must not act against public order and good custom.
第九条 民事主体从事民事活动,应当有利于节约资源、保护生态环境。 Article 9: Civil entities engaging in civil activities shall benefit conservation of resources and protection of the ecology and environment.
第十条 处理民事纠纷,应当依照法律;法律没有规定的,可以适用习惯,但是不得违背公序良俗。 Article 10: The disposition of civil disputes shall be in accordance with the law; and where the law has no provisions, custom may be applied but must not violate public order and good custom.
第十一条 其他法律对民事关系有特别规定的,依照其规定。 Article 11: Where other laws have special provisions on civil relationships, follow those provisions.
第十二条 中华人民共和国领域内的民事活动,适用中华人民共和国法律。 法律另有规定的,依照其规定。 Article 12: Laws of the People's Republic of China apply to civil activities within the territory of the People's Republic of China. Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.
第二章 自然人

Chapter II: Natural Persons

第一节 民事权利能力和民事行为能力

Section 1: Capacity for civil rights and capacity for civil acts

第十三条 自然人从出生时起到死亡时止,具有民事权利能力,依法享有民事权利,承担民事义务。 Article 13: From birth to death, natural persons have the capacity for civil rights; and they enjoy civil rights and bear civil obligations in accordance with law.
第十四条 自然人的民事权利能力一律平等。 Article 14: Natural persons all have equal capacity for civil rights.
第十五条 自然人的出生时间和死亡时间,以出生证明、死亡证明记载的时间为准;没有出生证明、死亡证明的,以户籍登记或者其他有效身份登记记载的时间为准。 有其他证据足以推翻以上记载时间的,以该证据证明的时间为准。 Article 15: The birth date and time of death of a natural person is that recorded on their birth and death certificates; where there is no birth certificate or death certificate, the time on their household registration or other valid identity registration record is dispositive. Where there is other evidence sufficient to rebut the recorded times above, the time proven by that relevant evidence is dispositive.
第十六条 涉及遗产继承、接受赠与等胎儿利益保护的,胎儿视为具有民事权利能力。 但是胎儿娩出时为死体的,其民事权利能力自始不存在。 Article 16: In situations involving protection of a fetus's rights and interests such as to inheritance or acceptance of gifts, the fetus is viewed as possessing capacity for civil rights. However, where the fetus is dead at birth, its capacity for civil rights is viewed as never having existed.
第十七条 十八周岁以上的自然人为成年人。 不满十八周岁的自然人为未成年人。 Article 17: Natural persons who are 18 years old or older are adults. Natural persons who are not yet 18 years old are minors.
第十八条 成年人为完全民事行为能力人,可以独立实施民事法律行为。 Article 18: Adults are persons with full capacity for civil conduct, and may independently carry out civil juristic acts.
十六周岁以上的未成年人,以自己的劳动收入为主要生活来源的,视为完全民事行为能力人。 Minors 16 years old or older, whose main source of income is their own labor, are considered persons with full capacity for civil conduct.
第十九条 八周岁以上的未成年人为限制民事行为能力人,实施民事法律行为由其法定代理人代理或者经其法定代理人同意、追认,但是可以独立实施纯获利益的民事法律行为或者与其年龄、智力相适应的民事法律行为。 Article 19: Minors who are 8 years old or older are persons with limited capacity for civil conduct, and their carrying out of civil juristic acts is through their legally-designated agent, or upon the give consent or subsequent ratification of their legally-designated agent; however, they may independently carry out civil juristic acts that are purely beneficial to them or are appropriate for their age and intelligence.
第二十条 不满八周岁的未成年人为无民事行为能力人,由其法定代理人代理实施民事法律行为。 Article 20: Minors under the age of 8 are persons with no capacity for civil conduct and are represented by their legally-designated agent in carrying out civil juristic acts.
第二十一条 不能辨认自己行为的成年人为无民事行为能力人,由其法定代理人代理实施民事法律行为。 Article 21: Adults who cannot recognize their own conduct are persons with no capacity for civil conduct and are represented by their legally-designated representatives in carrying out civil juristic acts.
八周岁以上的未成年人不能辨认自己行为的,适用前款规定。 Where minors above the age of 8 cannot recognize their own conduct, apply the provisions of the preceding paragraph.
第二十二条 不能完全辨认自己行为的成年人为限制民事行为能力人,实施民事法律行为由其法定代理人代理或者经其法定代理人同意、追认,但是可以独立实施纯获利益的民事法律行为或者与其智力、精神健康状况相适应的民事法律行为。 Article 22: Adults who cannot fully recognize their own conduct are persons with limited capacity for civil conduct, and their carrying out of civil juristic acts is through their legally-designated agent, or upon the give consent or subsequent ratification of their legally-designated agent; however, they may independently carry out civil juristic acts that are purely beneficial to them or are appropriate for their intelligence and mental health state.
第二十三条 无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人的监护人是其法定代理人。 Article 23: The guardians of persons with no capacity for civil conduct or for persons with limited capacity for civil conduct are their legally-designated agents.
第二十四条 不能辨认或者不能完全辨认自己行为的成年人,其利害关系人或者有关组织,可以向人民法院申请认定该成年人为无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人。 Article 24: Persons with an interest in adults who cannot recognize or cannot fully recognize their own conduct, or relevant organizations, may apply to the people's courts for a designation of that adult as a person lacking capacity for civil conduct or as a person with limited capacity for civil conduct.
被人民法院认定为无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人的,经本人、利害关系人或者有关组织申请,人民法院可以根据其智力、精神健康恢复的状况,认定该成年人恢复为限制民事行为能力人或者完全民事行为能力人。 Where persons are determined by a people's court to lack or have limited capacity for civil conduct, a people's court may, on the basis of their recovery of intellect and mental health, determine that they have recovered limited or full capacity for civil conduct, upon application of that person, interested parties, or relevant organizations.
本条规定的有关组织包括:居民委员会、村民委员会、学校、医疗机构、妇女联合会、残疾人联合会、依法设立的老年人组织、民政部门等。 "Relevant organizations" as used in the preceding paragraph include: the residents' committee or villagers' committee for the person's domicile, schools, medical institutions, women's federations, disabled persons' federations, seniors' organizations established according to law, and civil affairs departments.
第二十五条 自然人以户籍登记或者其他有效身份登记记载的居所为住所;经常居所与住所不一致的,经常居所视为住所。 Article 25: A natural person's domicile is the residence recorded on his household registration or other valid identification registration; where his habitual residence is different from his domicile, his habitual residence is deemed his domicile.
第二节 监 护

Section 2: Guardianship

第二十六条 父母对未成年子女负有抚养、教育和保护的义务。 Article 26: Parents have an obligation to raise, educate, and protect their minor children.
成年子女对父母负有赡养、扶助和保护的义务。 Adult children have an obligation to provide for, support, and protect their parents.
第二十七条 父母是未成年子女的监护人。 Article 27: Parents are the guardians of their minor children.
未成年人的父母已经死亡或者没有监护能力的,由下列有监护能力的人按顺序担任监护人: Where a minor's parents are dead or do not have the capacity for guardianship, the following persons with capacity for guardianship will serve as guardians in this order:
(一)祖父母、外祖父母; (1) Paternal or maternal grandparents;
(二)兄、姐; (2) brothers or sisters;
(三)其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者组织,但是须经未成年人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门同意。 (3) Other individuals or organizations that are willing to serve as guardians, but this must be upon the consent of the residents' committee or villagers' committee, or the civil affairs department of the minor's domicile.
第二十八条 无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的成年人,由下列有监护能力的人按顺序担任监护人: Article 28: The following persons with capacity for guardianship are to act as guardians for adults who lack or have limited capacity for civil conduct, according to the following order:
(一)配偶; (1) Spouses;
(二)父母、子女; (2) Parents or children;
(三)其他近亲属; (3) Other close relatives;
(四)其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者组织,但是须经被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门同意。 (4) Other individuals or organizations that are willing to serve as guardians, but this must be upon the consent of the residents' committee or villagers' committee, or the civil affairs department of the ward's domicile.
第二十九条 被监护人的父母担任监护人的,可以通过遗嘱指定监护人。 Article 29: Where a ward's parents serve as their guardian, they can specify guardianship through their wills.
第三十条 依法具有监护资格的人之间可以协议确定监护人。 协议确定监护人应当尊重被监护人的真实意愿。 Article 30: Persons who are lawfully eligible to be guardians may determine guardianship through discussion with each other. Determination of guardianship through agreement shall respect the true wishes of the ward.
第三十一条 对监护人的确定有争议的,由被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门指定监护人,有关当事人对指定不服的,可以向人民法院申请指定监护人;有关当事人也可以直接向人民法院申请指定监护人。 Article 31:Where there is dispute as to determination of guardianship, the residents' committee, villagers' committee, or civil affairs department for the ward's domicile will designate a guardian, and where relevant parties are dissatisfied the designation, they may apply the people's courts for a designation of guardianship; the relevant parties may also directly apply to the people's courts for designation of a guardian.
居民委员会、村民委员会、民政部门或者人民法院应当尊重被监护人的真实意愿,按照最有利于被监护人的原则在依法具有监护资格的人中指定监护人。 Residents' committees, villagers' committees, the Ministry of Civil Affairs or the people's courts shall respect wards' true wishes and follow the principles of the ward's best interests in lawfully designating a guardian from those with guardianship credentials.
依照本条第一款规定指定监护人前,被监护人的人身权利、财产权利以及其他合法权益处于无人保护状态的,由被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会、法律规定的有关组织或者民政部门担任临时监护人。 Before a guardian is designated in accordance with the provisions of the first paragraph of this article, where the ward's right in person or property, and other lawful rights and interests are in an unprotected state, the residents' committee, villagers' committee, relevant organizations provided for by law, or the civil affairs department for the ward's domicile, will serve as temporary guardian.
监护人被指定后,不得擅自变更;擅自变更的,不免除被指定的监护人的责任。 After guardianship is designated, it shall not be changed on one's own accord; and where it is changed on one's own accord, this does not eliminate the designated guardian's responsibility.
第三十二条 没有依法具有监护资格的人的,监护人由民政部门担任,也可以由具备履行监护职责条件的被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会担任。 Article 32: Where there is no person lawfully eligible for guardianship, the Ministry of Civil Affairs is to serve as guardian, or a residents' committee or villagers' committee for the ward's domicile that has capacity to perform guardianship duties, may also serve as guardian.
第三十三条 具有完全民事行为能力的成年人,可以与其近亲属、其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者组织事先协商,以书面形式确定自己的监护人。 协商确定的监护人在该成年人丧失或者部分丧失民事行为能力时,履行监护职责。 Article 33: An adult with full capacity for civil conduct may consult in advance with close relatives or other individuals or organizations that are willing to serve as guardians , to make a written determination of his own guardianship. The guardian designated in the agreement will perform guardianship duties when that adult loses or partially loses capacity for civil conduct.
第三十四条 监护人的职责是代理被监护人实施民事法律行为,保护被监护人的人身权利、财产权利以及其他合法权益等。 Article 34: Guardians' duties include representing wards in conducting civil juristic acts, and protecting wards' rights in their persons and property, as well as their other lawful rights and interests.
监护人依法履行监护职责产生的权利,受法律保护。 The rights of guardians that are the product of their lawful performance of guardianship duties, is protected by law.
监护人不履行监护职责或者侵害被监护人合法权益的,应当承担法律责任。 Where guardians do not perform guardianship responsibilities or harm wards' lawful rights and interests, they shall bear legal responsibility.
第三十五条 监护人应当按照最有利于被监护人的原则履行监护职责。 监护人除为维护被监护人利益外,不得处分被监护人的财产。 Article 35: Guardians shall follow the principle of the wards best interests in performing guardianship duties. Guardians must not dispose of wards' assets except to preserve the rights and interests of the ward.
未成年人的监护人履行监护职责,在作出与被监护人利益有关的决定时,应当根据被监护人的年龄和智力状况,尊重被监护人的真实意愿。 Minors' guardians performing guardianship duties shall, based on the ward's age and intelligence, respect ward's wishes when making decisions concerning the ward's rights and interests.
成年人的监护人履行监护职责,应当最大程度地尊重被监护人的真实意愿,保障并协助被监护人实施与其智力、精神健康状况相适应的民事法律行为。 对被监护人有能力独立处理的事务,监护人不得干涉。 Adults' guardians performing guardianship duties shall respect wards' wishes to the fullest extent, ensure and assist wards in the performance of civil juristic acts as appropriate to their intellect and mental health status. Guardians shall not interfere with matters that the ward has capacity to handle independently.
第三十六条 监护人有下列情形之一的,人民法院根据有关个人或者组织的申请,撤销其监护人资格,安排必要的临时监护措施,并按照最有利于被监护人的原则依法指定监护人: Article 36:Where guardians have any of the following circumstances, the people's courts are to revoke their guardianship qualifications upon the application of relevant individuals or organizations, arrange necessary temporary guardianship measures and designate a guardian for the ward in accordance with the principle of the wards' best interest:
(一)实施严重损害被监护人身心健康行为的; (1) Carrying out acts that seriously harm the ward's physical and mental health;
(二)怠于履行监护职责,或者无法履行监护职责并且拒绝将监护职责部分或者全部委托给他人,导致被监护人处于危困状态的; (2) Being remiss in performing guardianship duties, or being unable to perform guardianship duties and refusing to entrust all or part of the guardianship duties to others, leaving the ward's in a distressed condition;
(三)实施严重侵害被监护人合法权益的其他行为的。 (3) carrying out other conduct that seriously violates the lawful rights and interests of the ward.
本条规定的有关个人和组织包括:其他依法具有监护资格的人,居民委员会、村民委员会、学校、医疗机构、妇女联合会、残疾人联合会、未成年人保护组织、依法设立的老年人组织、民政部门等。 "Relevant individuals and organizations" as provided in this article includes: Other persons lawfully eligible to be guardians, the residents' committee or villagers' committee, schools, medical institutions, women's federations, disabled persons' federations, child protection organizations, seniors' organizations established according to law, and civil affairs departments.
前款规定的个人和民政部门以外的组织未及时向人民法院申请撤销监护人资格的,民政部门应当向人民法院申请。 Where individuals and organizations other than the civil affairs departments provided for in the preceding paragraph fail to promptly apply to the people's courts for revocation of guardianship qualifications, the civil affairs departments shall make an application to the people's courts.
第三十七条 依法负担被监护人抚养费、赡养费、扶养费的父母、子女、配偶等,被人民法院撤销监护人资格后,应当继续履行负担的义务。 Article 37: After parents, children, spouses and others who bear the costs of raising, providing for, or supporting wards in accordance with law, have their guardianship qualifications revoked by a people's court, the shall continue to perform on these obligations.
第三十八条 被监护人的父母或者子女被人民法院撤销监护人资格后,除对被监护人实施故意犯罪的外,确有悔改表现的,经其申请,人民法院可以在尊重被监护人真实意愿的前提下,视情况恢复其监护人资格,人民法院指定的监护人与被监护人的监护关系同时终止。 Article 38: After wards' parents or children have their guardianship qualifications revoked by a people's court, the people's courts may, as appropriate, restore their guardianship qualifications where they truly show reform, on the premise of respecting the true wishes of the wards, except where they have committed an intentional crime against the ward; and the guardianship relationship of the ward and the court appointed guardian is to be simultaneously terminated.
第三十九条 有下列情形之一的,监护关系终止: Article 39:In any of the following situations, the guardianship relationship is terminated.
(一)被监护人取得或者恢复完全民事行为能力; (1) The wards acquire or regain full capacity for civil conduct;
(二)监护人丧失监护能力; (2) Guardians lose the capacity for guardianship;
(三)被监护人或者监护人死亡; (3) The wards or guardians die;
(四)人民法院认定监护关系终止的其他情形。 (4) Other situations where the people's courts find that the guardianship relationship is terminated.
监护关系终止后,被监护人仍然需要监护的,应当依法另行确定监护人。 Where a ward still needs guardianship after the guardianship relationship is terminated, a guardian shall be separately designated in accordance with law.
第三节 宣告失踪和宣告死亡

Section 3: Proclamations of disappearance or death

第四十条 自然人下落不明满二年的,利害关系人可以向人民法院申请宣告该自然人为失踪人。 Article 40:Two years after a natural person has gone missing, interested parties may apply to the people's courts to have that natural person declared a missing person.
第四十一条 自然人下落不明的时间从其失去音讯之日起计算。 战争期间下落不明的,下落不明的时间自战争结束之日或者有关机关确定的下落不明之日起计算。 Article 41:The period for which natural persons are missing is calculated from the date on which they were last heard from. Where they become missing during time of war, the time they are missing is calculated from the day when the war ends or from the data on which a relevant organ determines they are missing.
第四十二条 失踪人的财产由其配偶、成年子女、父母或者其他愿意担任财产代管人的人代管。 Article 42:The assets of a missing person are held in the custody of their spouse, adult children, parents, or other persons willing to serve as assets custodians.
代管有争议,没有前款规定的人,或者前款规定的人无代管能力的,由人民法院指定的人代管。 Where there is a dispute over custody, there is no person stipulated by the preceding paragraph, or the persons stipulated by the previous paragraph are unable to take custody, [the property] shall be placed in the custody of a person designated by a people's court.
第四十三条 财产代管人应当妥善管理失踪人的财产,维护其财产权益。 Article 43:The asset custodian shall properly manage the assets of the missing person, and preserve their property rights.
失踪人所欠税款、债务和应付的其他费用,由财产代管人从失踪人的财产中支付。 Any taxes, debts, and other unpaid expenses owed by a missing person shall be defrayed by the asset custodian out of the missing person's property.
财产代管人因故意或者重大过失造成失踪人财产损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。 Where asset custodians cause losses to a missing person's assets, either intentionally or by gross negligence, they shall bear responsibility for compensation.
第四十四条 财产代管人不履行代管职责、侵害失踪人财产权益或者丧失代管能力的,失踪人的利害关系人可以向人民法院申请变更财产代管人。 Article 44:Where asset custodians do not perform custodial duties, harm the missing person's property rights or interests, or lose the capacity for custody, interested parties of the missing person may apply to the people's courts to change the asset custodian.
财产代管人有正当理由的,可以向人民法院申请变更财产代管人。 Where asset custodians have legitimate reason, they may apply to the people's courts to change the asset custodian.
人民法院变更财产代管人的,变更后的财产代管人有权要求原财产代管人及时移交有关财产并报告财产代管情况。 Where people's courts change the assets custodian, the asst custodian after the change has the right to request that the original assets custodian promptly transfer relevant assets and report on the custody of assets.
第四十五条 失踪人重新出现,经本人或者利害关系人申请,人民法院应当撤销失踪宣告。 Article 45:Where a missing person reappears, the people's courts shall revoke the declaration of disappearance upon the application of that person or of interested parties.
失踪人重新出现,有权要求财产代管人及时移交有关财产并报告财产代管情况。 Where a missing person reappears, they have the right to request that the assets custodian promptly transfer relevant assets to them and report on the custody of assets.
第四十六条 自然人有下列情形之一的,利害关系人可以向人民法院申请宣告该自然人死亡: Article 46:Where a natural person has any of the following situations, interested parties may apply to the people's courts for a declaration of that natural person's death:
(一)下落不明满四年; (1) has gone missing for four years;
(二)因意外事件,下落不明满二年。 (2) Has been missing for 2 years due to an accident.
因意外事件下落不明,经有关机关证明该自然人不可能生存的,申请宣告死亡不受二年时间的限制。 Where a natural person becomes missing due to an accident, and relevant organs demonstrate that it is impossible for said person to have survived, the application to declare him dead is not subject to the two-year time limit.
第四十七条 对同一自然人,有的利害关系人申请宣告死亡,有的利害关系人申请宣告失踪,符合本法规定的宣告死亡条件的,人民法院应当宣告死亡。 Article 47:With respect to the same natural person, where some interested parties apply to have him declared dead and some interested parties apply to have him declared missing, the people's court shall declared him dead where the legally prescribed conditions for the declaration of death are met.
第四十八条 被宣告死亡的人,人民法院宣告死亡的判决作出之日视为其死亡的日期;因意外事件下落不明宣告死亡的,意外事件发生之日视为其死亡的日期。 Article 48:For a person who is declared dead, the day on which the people's court's makes a ruling on the declaration of death, is deemed the date of his death; where a person is declared dead because they went missing due to an accident, the date on which the accident occurred is deemed the date of his death.
第四十九条 自然人被宣告死亡但是并未死亡的,不影响该自然人在被宣告死亡期间实施的民事法律行为的效力。 Article 49: Where natural persons are declared dead but are not dead, it does not impact the validity of civil juristic acts carried out by that natural person for the period in which they are declared dead.
第五十条 被宣告死亡的人重新出现,经本人或者利害关系人申请,人民法院应当撤销死亡宣告。 Article 50:Where a person who has been declared dead reappears, the people's court shall revoke the declaration of death upon the application of that person or interested parties.
第五十一条 被宣告死亡的人的婚姻关系,自死亡宣告之日起消灭。 死亡宣告被撤销的,婚姻关系自撤销死亡宣告之日起自行恢复,但是其配偶再婚或者向婚姻登记机关书面声明不愿意恢复的除外。 Article 51:The marital relationships of person who are declared dead is extinguished on the day when their death is declared. Where a declaration of death is revoked, the marital relationship is automatically reinstated on the day when the death declaration is revoked, except where either party has remarried or makes a written declaration to the marriage registration organs that they are unwilling to have it restored.
第五十二条 被宣告死亡的人在被宣告死亡期间,其子女被他人依法收养的,在死亡宣告被撤销后,不得以未经本人同意为由主张收养关系无效。 Article 52:Where during the period that a person has been declared dead, their children are lawfully adopted by others, after the declaration of death is revoked, they must not argue that the adoptive relationship is invalid on the grounds that they did not give consent.
第五十三条 被撤销死亡宣告的人有权请求依照继承法取得其财产的民事主体返还财产。 无法返还的,应当给予适当补偿。 Article 53:Persons whose declaration of death has been revoked have the right to request restitution from civil entities that acquired their assets in accordance with the law of succession. Where there is no way to make restitution, appropriate compensation shall be given.
利害关系人隐瞒真实情况,致使他人被宣告死亡取得其财产的,除应当返还财产外,还应当对由此造成的损失承担赔偿责任。 Where interested parties concealed the truth, causing another person to be declared dead and acquiring his assets, they shall not only return the assets, but also bear responsibility for compensating any resulting damages.
第四节 个体工商户和农村承包经营户

Section 4: Privately-owned Businesses and rural leasehold businesses

第五十四条 自然人从事工商业经营,经依法登记,为个体工商户。 个体工商户可以起字号。 Article 54:Natural persons who engage in industrial or commercial operations after registering in accordance with law, are privately-owned businesses. Privately-owned businesses may adopt brand names (字号).
第五十五条 农村集体经济组织的成员,依法取得农村土地承包经营权,从事家庭承包经营的,为农村承包经营户。 Article 55:Members of rural collective economic organizations that obtain rural land contracting management rights and engage in family contract operations are rural leasehold businesses.
第五十六条 个体工商户的债务,个人经营的,以个人财产承担;家庭经营的,以家庭财产承担;无法区分的,以家庭财产承担。 Article 56:The debt of privately-owned businesses that are individually operated are borne as individual assets; where they are family operated, they are borne as family property; where it is not possible to separate, they are born as family assets.
农村承包经营户的债务,以从事农村土地承包经营的农户财产承担;事实上由农户部分成员经营的,以该部分成员的财产承担。 Debts in rural leasehold businesses are borne as property of farmers engaged in rural land leasehold contracting businesses; where it is operated in fact by some of the farm households, it is borne as the assets of that group.
第三章 法 人

Chapter III: Legal Persons

第一节 一般规定

Section 1: Ordinary Provisions

第五十七条 法人是具有民事权利能力和民事行为能力,依法独立享有民事权利和承担民事义务的组织。 Article 57:Legal persons are organizations with the capacity for civil rights and the capacity for civil conduct that independently enjoy civil rights and bear civil liabilities in accordance with law.
第五十八条 法人应当依法成立。 Article 58:Legal persons shall be established in accordance with law.
法人应当有自己的名称、组织机构、住所、财产或者经费。 法人成立的具体条件和程序,依照法律、行政法规的规定。 Legal persons shall have their own names, institutional framework, domicile, assets or funds. Follow the laws and administrative regulations for the specific requirements and procedures for establishment of legal persons.
设立法人,法律、行政法规规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。 Where the laws or administrative regulations provide that the establishment of legal persons requires the approval of relevant organs, follow those provisions.
第五十九条 法人的民事权利能力和民事行为能力,从法人成立时产生,到法人终止时消灭。 Article 59:Legal persons' capacity for civil rights and capacity for civil conduct come into being at the time of the legal persons' establishment and are extinguished when the legal persons are terminated.
第六十条 法人以其全部财产独立承担民事责任。 Article 60:Legal persons independently assume civil liability with the entirety of their assets.
第六十一条 依照法律或者法人章程的规定,代表法人从事民事活动的负责人,为法人的法定代表人。 Article 61:The person responsible, in accordance with law or the legal person's charter, for representing a legal person in engaging in civil activities is the legal person's legally-designated representative.
法定代表人以法人名义从事的民事活动,其法律后果由法人承受。 Legally-prescribed representative engage in civil activities in the name of the legal person, and the legal consequences are borne by the legal person.
法人章程或者法人权力机构对法定代表人代表权的限制,不得对抗善意相对人。 Restrictions on legally-designated representatives' power to represent from the legal person's charter or organ of power, must not be asserted against a good faith counterpart.
第六十二条 法定代表人因执行职务造成他人损害的,由法人承担民事责任。 Article 62:Legal persons bear civil liability for harms caused by legally-designated representatives' performance of their duties.
法人承担民事责任后,依照法律或者法人章程的规定,可以向有过错的法定代表人追偿。 After the legal person bears civil liability, it may seek compensation from the legally-designated representative who has fault, in accordance with law or the legal person's charter.
第六十三条 法人以其主要办事机构所在地为住所。 依法需要办理法人登记的,应当将主要办事机构所在地登记为住所。 Article 63:The domicile of a legal person is the site of its principal place of business. Where registration is required by law, the principal place of business shall be registered as domicile.
第六十四条 法人存续期间登记事项发生变化的,应当依法向登记机关申请变更登记。 Article 64:Where there are changes to matters in a legal person's registration during the time it exists, it shall apply to the registration organ for a modification of the registration in accordance with law.
第六十五条 法人的实际情况与登记的事项不一致的,不得对抗善意相对人。 Article 65: Where the actual circumstances of a legal person differ from those in its registration, this must not be used against a good faith counterpart.
第六十六条 登记机关应当依法及时公示法人登记的有关信息。 Article 66:The registration organs shall promptly announce information related to the legal persons' registration in accordance with law.
第六十七条 法人合并的,其权利和义务由合并后的法人享有和承担。 Article 67:Where legal persons merge, their rights and obligations are enjoyed and borne by the merged legal person.
法人分立的,其权利和义务由分立后的法人享有连带债权,承担连带债务,但是债权人和债务人另有约定的除外。 Where legal persons divide, their rights and obligations enjoy joint creditor rights and bear joint responsibility for debts, except as otherwise agreed upon with creditors and debtors.
第六十八条 有下列原因之一并依法完成清算、注销登记的,法人终止: Article 68:In any of the following circumstances, the legal person is terminated after liquidation and deregistration:
(一)法人解散; (1) The legal person is dissolved;
(二)法人被宣告破产; (2) the legal person is declared bankrupt;
(三)法律规定的其他原因。 (3) Other reasons provided by law.
法人终止,法律、行政法规规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。 Where the laws or administrative regulations provide that the termination of legal persons requires the approval of relevant organs, follow those provisions.
第六十九条 有下列情形之一的,法人解散: Article 69:In any of the following circumstances, the legal person is dissolved:
(一)法人章程规定的存续期间届满或者法人章程规定的其他解散事由出现; (1) The time during which a legal person exists as stipulated by its charter expires or other reasons of dissolution as stipulated by its charter emerge.
(二)法人的权力机构决议解散; (2) The legal person's organ of power resolves to dissolve;
(三)因法人合并或者分立需要解散; (3) Dissolution is required due to merger or division of legal persons;
(四)法人依法被吊销营业执照、登记证书,被责令关闭或者被撤销; (4) The legal person has its business license or registration certificate revoked in accordance with law, is ordered to close, or is cancelled.
(五)法律规定的其他情形。 (5) Other situations provided by law.
第七十条 法人解散的,除合并或者分立的情形外,清算义务人应当及时组成清算组进行清算。 Article 70:Where a legal person is dissolved, except in situations of merger or division, liquidation obligors shall promptly form a liquidation team to conduct liquidation.
法人的董事、理事等执行机构或者决策机构的成员为清算义务人。 法律、行政法规另有规定的,依照其规定。 A legal persons' board members or council members and other members of its executive bodies or decisionmaking bodies are liquidation obligors. Where the laws or administrative regulations otherwise provide, follow those provisions.
清算义务人未及时履行清算义务,造成损害的,应当承担民事责任;主管机关或者利害关系人可以申请人民法院指定有关人员组成清算组进行清算。 Where liquidation obligors fail to promptly perform liquidation obligations, causing harms, they shall bear civil liabilities; professional supervisory organs or interested parties may request the people's courts to designate relevant personnel to form a liquidation team to conduct liquidation.
第七十一条 法人的清算程序和清算组职权,依照有关法律的规定;没有规定的,参照适用公司法的有关规定。 Article 71:Following the provisions of relevant law for the the procedure to liquidate a legal person and the powers of liquidation teams; where there are no such provisions, follow with reference to the relevant provisions of the Company Law .
第七十二条 清算期间法人存续,但是不得从事与清算无关的活动。 Article 72:A legal persons exist during the period of liquidation, but must not engage in activities unrelated to liquidation.
法人清算后的剩余财产,根据法人章程的规定或者法人权力机构的决议处理。 法律另有规定的,依照其规定。 Handle a legal person's remaining assets after liquidation in accordance with the provisions of the legal person's charter or resolutions of the legal person's organ or power. Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.
清算结束并完成法人注销登记时,法人终止;依法不需要办理法人登记的,清算结束时,法人终止。 A legal person is terminated after liquidation and deregistration; where deregistration of the legal persons is not required by law, the legal person is terminated after liquidation.
第七十三条 法人被宣告破产的,依法进行破产清算并完成法人注销登记时,法人终止。 Article 73:Where a legal person is declared bankrupt, it is terminated after bankruptcy liquidation and deregistration of legal person is completed.
第七十四条 法人可以依法设立分支机构。 法律、行政法规规定分支机构应当登记的,依照其规定。 Article 74:A legal person may establish branch organizations in accordance with law. Where laws and administrative regulations provide that branch organizations shall register, follow those provisions.
分支机构以自己的名义从事民事活动,产生的民事责任由法人承担;也可以先以该分支机构管理的财产承担,不足以承担的,由法人承担。 Where branch organizations engage in civil activity in their own name, the resulting civil liability is borne by the legal person; alternatively it may first be borne by the assets controlled by the branch organization, the legal person will be responsible where that is insufficient.
第七十五条 设立人为设立法人从事的民事活动,其法律后果由法人承受;法人未成立的,其法律后果由设立人承受,设立人为二人以上的,享有连带债权,承担连带债务。 Article 75:The legal consequences of civil activities engaged in by founders setting up a legal person are taken on by the legal person; where the legal person is not establishes, the legal consequences are taken on by the founders, and where there are two or more founders, they enjoy joint creditor rights and bear joint liability for debts.
设立人为设立法人以自己的名义从事民事活动产生的民事责任,第三人有权选择请求法人或者设立人承担。 Third-parties have the right to choose to demand that either the legal person or the founder bear civil liability for civil activities engaged in by the founders in their own names when setting up a legal person
第二节 营利法人

Section 2: For-profit Legal Persons

第七十六条 以取得利润并分配给股东等出资人为目的成立的法人,为营利法人。 Article 76:For-profit legal persons are legal persons established for the purpose of gaining and distributing profits to shareholders and such other investors.
营利法人包括有限责任公司、股份有限公司和其他企业法人等。 For-profit legal persons include limited liability companies, joint stock limited companies, and other other enterprise legal persons.
第七十七条 营利法人经依法登记成立。 Article 77:For-profit legal persons are established after registering in accordance with law.
第七十八条 依法设立的营利法人,由登记机关发给营利法人营业执照。 营业执照签发日期为营利法人的成立日期。 Article 78:Registration organs issue for-profit legal person business licenses to for-profit legal persons established in accordance with law. The issuance date of a business license is the establishment date of a for-profit legal person.
第七十九条 设立营利法人应当依法制定法人章程。 Article 79:To establish a for-profit legal person, a legal person charter shall be formulated in accordance with law.
第八十条 营利法人应当设权力机构。 Article 80:For-profit legal persons shall establish organs of power.
权力机构行使修改法人章程,选举或者更换执行机构、监督机构成员,以及法人章程规定的其他职权。 An organ of power amends the legal person's charter, elects or replaces members of executive bodies or supervisory bodies, and performs other duties as provided for by the legal person's charter.
第八十一条 营利法人应当设执行机构。 Article 81:For-profit legal persons shall establish executive bodies.
执行机构行使召集权力机构会议,决定法人的经营计划和投资方案,决定法人内部管理机构的设置,以及法人章程规定的其他职权。 An executive body convenes meetings of the organ of power, determines the legal person's business plans and investment plans, determines the setup of the legal person's internal administrative bodies, and performs other duties as provided for by the legal person's charter.
执行机构为董事会或者执行董事的,董事长、执行董事或者经理按照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人;未设董事会或者执行董事的,法人章程规定的主要负责人为其执行机构和法定代表人。 Where the executive body is a board of directors or an executive director, the chairperson of the board or the executive director serves as the legally-designated representative in accordance with provisions of the legal person's charter; Where a board of directors or an executive director is not established, the principal person in charge as provided for by the legal person's charter is its executive body and legally-designated representative.
第八十二条 营利法人设监事会或者监事等监督机构的,监督机构依法行使检查法人财务,监督执行机构成员、高级管理人员执行法人职务的行为,以及法人章程规定的其他职权。 Article 82:Where a legal person establishes a supervisory body such as a board of supervisors or a supervisor, the supervisory body inspects the legal person's finance, supervises acts of executing the legal person's duties by members of the executive body or by senior management personnel, and performs other duties as provided for by the legal person's charter.
第八十三条 营利法人的出资人不得滥用出资人权利损害法人或者其他出资人的利益。 滥用出资人权利给法人或者其他出资人造成损失的,应当依法承担民事责任。 Article 83:A for-profit legal person's investors must not abuse their rights as investors to damage the legal person's and other investors' rights. Where investor rights are abused causing harm to legal persons or other investors, civil liability shall be borne in accordance with law.
营利法人的出资人不得滥用法人独立地位和出资人有限责任损害法人的债权人利益。 滥用法人独立地位和出资人有限责任,逃避债务,严重损害法人的债权人利益的,应当对法人债务承担连带责任。 A legal person's investors must not abuse the legal person's independent status and the investors' limited liability to damage the legal person's creditor interests. Where a legal person's independent status and investors' limited liability are abused to evade debt, seriously harming the legal person's creditor interests, joint liability for the legal person's debt shall be borne.
第八十四条 营利法人的控股出资人、实际控制人、董事、监事、高级管理人员不得利用其关联关系损害法人的利益。 利用关联关系给法人造成损失的,应当承担赔偿责任。 Article 84:A for-profit legal person's controlling investors, actual controllers, directors, supervisors, and senior management personnel must not exploit their association relationships to harm the legal person's interests. Where association relationships are exploited, causing harm to legal persons, liability for damage shall be borne.
第八十五条 营利法人的权力机构、执行机构作出决议的会议召集程序、表决方式违反法律、行政法规、法人章程,或者决议内容违反法人章程的,营利法人的出资人可以请求人民法院撤销该决议,但是营利法人依据该决议与善意相对人形成的民事法律关系不受影响。 Article 85:Where the meeting convening procedure or the voting method whereby a for-profit legal person's organ of power adopts a resolution violates laws, administrative regulations, or the legal person's charter, or where the contents of the resolution violate the legal person's charter, the for-profit legal person's investors may request a people's court to revoke said resolution, but the civil law relationships the for-profit legal person forms with good faith counterparts on the basis of said resolution are not affected.
第八十六条 营利法人从事经营活动,应当遵守商业道德,维护交易安全,接受政府和社会的监督,承担社会责任。 Article 86:In engaging in business activities, for-profit legal persons shall abide by business ethics, preserve transactional security, accept supervision by the governments and the society, and shoulder societal responsibilities.
第三节 非营利法人

Section 3: Non-profit Legal Persons

第八十七条 为公益目的或者其他非营利目的成立,不向出资人、设立人或者会员分配所取得利润的法人,为非营利法人。 Article 87:Non-profit legal persons are legal persons established for public interest purposes and other non-profit purposes, which do not distribute the profits gained to their investors, founders, or members.
非营利法人包括事业单位、社会团体、基金会、社会服务机构等。 Non-profit include public institutions, social groups, foundations, social service organizations, and so forth.
第八十八条 具备法人条件,为适应经济社会发展需要,提供公益服务设立的事业单位,经依法登记成立,取得事业单位法人资格;依法不需要办理法人登记的,从成立之日起,具有事业单位法人资格。 Article 88:Public institutions possessing the conditions for legal personhood that are set up to provide public interest services as necessary to adapt to economic and social development, obtain credentials as Public Institution Legal Persons after registering their establishment in accordance with law; where registering as legal persons is not required by law, they possess status as Public Institution Legal Persons from the day of establishment.
第八十九条 事业单位法人设理事会的,除法律另有规定外,理事会为其决策机构。 事业单位法人的法定代表人依照法律、行政法规或者法人章程的规定产生。 Article 89:Where a public institution legal person sets up a council, the council is its decision-making body except as otherwise provided by law. The legally-designated representative of a public institution legal person shall be produced in accordance with the provisions of laws, administrative regulations or the legal person's charter.
第九十条 具备法人条件,基于会员共同意愿,为公益目的或者会员共同利益等非营利目的设立的社会团体,经依法登记成立,取得社会团体法人资格;依法不需要办理法人登记的,从成立之日起,具有社会团体法人资格。 Article 90:Social groups that possess the conditions for legal personhood, that are established based on members agreement for a public interest purpose, the common interest of members, or other non-profit purposes, obtain credentials as Social Group Legal Persons upon registering their establishment in accordance with law; where registering as legal persons is not required by law, they possess status as Social Group Legal Persons from the day of establishment.
第九十一条 设立社会团体法人应当依法制定法人章程。 Article 91:To establish a Social Group Legal Person, articles of incorporation [a charter] shall be formulated in accordance with law.
社会团体法人应当设会员大会或者会员代表大会等权力机构。 Social Group Legal Persons shall set up organs of power such as general membership assemblies or representative assemblies.
社会团体法人应当设理事会等执行机构。 理事长或者会长等负责人按照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人。 Social Group Legal Persons shall establish councils and other such implementation bodies. Council presidents, committee chiefs, and other such responsible parties are to follow the legal person's charter in serving as the legally-designated representative.
第九十二条 具备法人条件,为公益目的以捐助财产设立的基金会、社会服务机构等,经依法登记成立,取得捐助法人资格。 Article 92:Foundations, social service organizations and so forth, that possess the conditions for legal personhood and were set up by a donation for a public interest purpose, obtain credentials as an Endowed Legal Person upon registering their establishment in accordance with law.
依法设立的宗教活动场所,具备法人条件的,可以申请法人登记,取得捐助法人资格。 法律、行政法规对宗教活动场所有规定的,依照其规定。 Where religious activity sites established in accordance with law have the capacity to become legal persons, they may apply to register as a legal person and obtain certification as an endowed legal person. Where laws and administrative regulations have provisions on religious activity sites, those provisions control.
第九十三条 设立捐助法人应当依法制定法人章程。 Article 93:Articles of incorporation [a charter] shall be drafted in setting up an Endowed Legal Person.
捐助法人应当设理事会、民主管理组织等决策机构,并设执行机构。 理事长等负责人按照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人。 Endowed Legal Persons shall set up councils, democratic management organizations and other such decision-making bodies, and set up implementation bodies. The council president and other responsible persons serve as legally-designated representatives in accordance with the articles of incorporation.
捐助法人应当设监事会等监督机构。 Endowed Legal Persons shall establish a board of supervisors and other supervisory bodies.
第九十四条 捐助人有权向捐助法人查询捐助财产的使用、管理情况,并提出意见和建议,捐助法人应当及时、如实答复。 Article 94:Donors have the right to make inquiries to an Endowed Legal Person about how their donation was used and how it is being managed and offer opinions and suggestions concerning this; the Endowed Legal Person shall respond to such inquires in a timely and truthful fashion.
捐助法人的决策机构、执行机构或者法定代表人作出决定的程序违反法律、行政法规、法人章程,或者决定内容违反法人章程的,捐助人等利害关系人或者主管机关可以请求人民法院撤销该决定,但是捐助法人依据该决定与善意相对人形成的民事法律关系不受影响。 Where Endowed Legal Persons' decision-making bodies, implementation bodies, or legally-designated representatives' procedures for making decisions violate laws, administrative regulations, or the legal person's charter; or the content of a decision violated the legal person's charter; the donor and other stakeholders, or the competent organ, may request the people's court revoke the decision, but civil relationships established by good faith counterparts with the Endowed Legal Person are not impacted.
第九十五条 为公益目的成立的非营利法人终止时,不得向出资人、设立人或者会员分配剩余财产。 剩余财产应当按照法人章程的规定或者权力机构的决议用于公益目的;无法按照法人章程的规定或者权力机构的决议处理的,由主管机关主持转给宗旨相同或者相近的法人,并向社会公告。 Article 95:When non-profit legal persons established for a public interest purpose are terminated, they must not distribute remaining assets to funders, founders, or members. Remaining assets shall be used for a public interest purpose in accordance with the legal persons' charter or a resolution of the rights holding body; where there is no way to dispose of them in accordance with the legal person's charter or a resolution of the rights holding body, the competent authority presides over their transfer to a legal person with the same or similar directive, and this is to be disclosed to the public.
第四节 特别法人

Section 4: Special Legal Persons

第九十六条 本节规定的机关法人、农村集体经济组织法人、城镇农村的合作经济组织法人、基层群众性自治组织法人,为特别法人。 Article 96:Government Organ Legal Persons, Rural Collective Economic Organization Legal Persons, Urban Rural Cooperative Economic Organization Legal Persons, and Basic-Level Mass Autonomous Organization Legal Persons as provided for in this section, are special legal persons.
第九十七条 有独立经费的机关和承担行政职能的法定机构从成立之日起,具有机关法人资格,可以从事为履行职能所需要的民事活动。 Article 97:Organs that have independent funding and legally prescribed bodies that bear administrative functions possess credentials as a government organ legal person from the date they are established, and may engage in civil activities necessary for the performance of their functions.
第九十八条 机关法人被撤销的,法人终止,其民事权利和义务由继任的机关法人享有和承担;没有继任的机关法人的,由作出撤销决定的机关法人享有和承担。 Article 98:Where Government Organ Legal Persons are revoked and the legal person terminated, their civil rights and obligations are enjoyed and borne by the Government Organ Legal Persons that succeed them; and where there is no successor Government Organ Legal Person, they are enjoyed and borne by the Government Organ Legal Person that made the revocation decision.
第九十九条 农村集体经济组织依法取得法人资格。 Article 99:Rural collective economic organizations obtain credentials as legal persons in accordance with law.
法律、行政法规对农村集体经济组织有规定的,依照其规定。 Where laws and administrative regulations have provisions on rural collective economic organizations, follow those provisions.
第一百条 城镇农村的合作经济组织依法取得法人资格。 Article 100:Urban and rural cooperative economic organizations obtain credentials as legal persons in accordance with law.
法律、行政法规对城镇农村的合作经济组织有规定的,依照其规定。 Where laws and administrative regulations have provisions on urban rural cooperative economic organizations, follow those provisions.
第一百零一条 居民委员会、村民委员会具有基层群众性自治组织法人资格,可以从事为履行职能所需要的民事活动。 Article 101:Residents committees or villagers committees posses credentials as basic level mass autonomous organization legal persons, and may engage in civil activities as necessary for the performance of their functions.
未设立村集体经济组织的,村民委员会可以依法代行村集体经济组织的职能。 Where rural collective economic organizations have not been set up, villagers committees may act for the functions of a rural collective economic organization.
第四章 非法人组织

Chapter IV: Unincorporated Organizations

第一百零二条 非法人组织是不具有法人资格,但是能够依法以自己的名义从事民事活动的组织。 Article 102:Unincorporated organizations are organizations that do not have credentials as a legal person but can engage in civil activity in their own name.
非法人组织包括个人独资企业、合伙企业、不具有法人资格的专业服务机构等。 Unincorporated organizations include individual independent enterprises, partnerships, professional service establishments that do not qualify as legal persons, and so forth.
第一百零三条 非法人组织应当依照法律的规定登记。 Article 103: Unincorporated organizations shall register in accordance with provisions of law.
设立非法人组织,法律、行政法规规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。 Where the law or administrative regulations provides that the establishment of an unincorporated organization requires the approval of relevant organizations, follow those provisions.
第一百零四条 非法人组织的财产不足以清偿债务的,其出资人或者设立人承担无限责任。 法律另有规定的,依照其规定。 Article 104: Where the assets of unincorporated organizations are not sufficient to pay off debts, their investors or founders bear unlimited liability. Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.
第一百零五条 非法人组织可以确定一人或者数人代表该组织从事民事活动。 Article 105: Unincorporated organizations may designate 1 or several persons to represent that organization in engaging in civil activities.
第一百零六条 有下列情形之一的,非法人组织解散: Article 106: In any of the following circumstances, the unincorporated organization is dissolved:
(一)章程规定的存续期间届满或者章程规定的其他解散事由出现; (1) The period for existence provided in the charter is completed or other incidents calling for dissolution provided in the charter manifest.
(二)出资人或者设立人决定解散; (2) investors or founders make a decision for dissolution;
(三)法律规定的其他情形。 (3) Other situations provided by law.
第一百零七条 非法人组织解散的,应当依法进行清算。 Article 107:Where non-legal person organizations dissolve, they shall conduct a liquidation in accordance with law.
第一百零八条 非法人组织除适用本章规定外,参照适用本法第三章第一节的有关规定。 Article 108:In addition to applying this chapter, the relevant provisions of Chapter III, Section 1 of this law may be applied to unincorporated organizations by reference.
第五章 民事权利

Chapter V: Civil Rights

第一百零九条 自然人的人身自由、人格尊严受法律保护。 Article 109:Natural persons' physical liberty and human dignity are protected by law.
第一百一十条 自然人享有生命权、身体权、健康权、姓名权、肖像权、名誉权、荣誉权、隐私权、婚姻自主权等权利。 Article 110:Natural persons enjoy the right to life, body rights, the right to health, name rights, image rights, reputation rights, honor rights, privacy rights, the right to marital autonomy and other such rights.
法人、非法人组织享有名称权、名誉权、荣誉权等权利。 Legal persons and unincorporated organizations enjoy name rights, reputation rights, honor rights and other such rights.
第一百一十一条 自然人的个人信息受法律保护。 任何组织和个人需要获取他人个人信息的,应当依法取得并确保信息安全,不得非法收集、使用、加工、传输他人个人信息,不得非法买卖、提供或者公开他人个人信息。 Article 111:The personal information of natural persons is protected by law. Where any organization or individual needs to obtain someone else's personal information, they shall obtain it in accordance with law and ensure information security; they must not unlawfully collect, use, process, or transfer the personal information of others, and must not unlawfully buy, sell, provide or disclose others' personal information.
第一百一十二条 自然人因婚姻、家庭关系等产生的人身权利受法律保护。 Article 112:Natural persons' personal rights produced through marital and familial relationships are protected by law.
第一百一十三条 民事主体的财产权利受法律平等保护。 Article 113:Civil entities' property rights receive equal protection of law.
第一百一十四条 民事主体依法享有物权。 Article 114:Civil entities enjoy property rights in accordance with law.
物权是权利人依法对特定的物享有直接支配和排他的权利,包括所有权、用益物权和担保物权。 Property rights are the rights holders' rights to direct control and exclusivity over specified objects, including ownership rights, usage rights, and the right to use as collateral.
第一百一十五条 物包括不动产和动产。 法律规定权利作为物权客体的,依照其规定。 Article 115:Property rights include both real estate and personal property. Where the law provides for an object of property rights, follow those provisions.
第一百一十六条 物权的种类和内容,由法律规定。 Article 116:The type and content of property rights are provided by law.
第一百一十七条 为了公共利益的需要,依照法律规定的权限和程序征收、征用不动产或者动产的,应当给予公平、合理的补偿。 Article 117:Where real or personal property is expropriated or requisitioned as needed for the public good and in accordance with the legally prescribed scope of authority and procedures, fair and reasonable compensation shall be given.
第一百一十八条 民事主体依法享有债权。 Article 118:Civil entities enjoy creditor rights in accordance with law.
债权是因合同、侵权行为、无因管理、不当得利以及法律的其他规定,权利人请求特定义务人为或者不为一定行为的权利。 Creditors rights are the right of the rights holder to request a specified obligor to do or not do certain acts, that result from contract, tortious conduct, negotiorum gestio, unjust enrichment or other provisions of law.
第一百一十九条 依法成立的合同,对当事人具有法律约束力。 Article 119:Contracts established in accordance with law have binding legal effect on the parties.
第一百二十条 民事权益受到侵害的,被侵权人有权请求侵权人承担侵权责任。 Article 120:Where civil rights and interests are encroached upon, the victim has the right to request that the infringer bear liability for the infringement.
第一百二十一条 没有法定的或者约定的义务,为避免他人利益受损失而进行管理的人,有权请求受益人偿还由此支出的必要费用。 Article 121:Persons carrying out management so as to avoid harm to the interests of others, where there have no legally prescribed or agreed upon obligation, have the right to request that the beneficiaries repay necessary expenses they paid out.
第一百二十二条 因他人没有法律根据,取得不当利益,受损失的人有权请求其返还不当利益。 Article 122:Where unjust profits are acquired because others lacked a legal basis, persons suffering losses have the right to request they return the unjust profits.
第一百二十三条 民事主体依法享有知识产权。 Article 123:Civil entities enjoy intellectual property rights in accordance with law.
知识产权是权利人依法就下列客体享有的专有的权利: Intellectual property rights are the rights holders exclusive rights over the following objects:
(一)作品; (1) works;
(二)发明、实用新型、外观设计; (2) inventions, new utility models, designs;
(三)商标; (3) trademarks;
(四)地理标志; (4) geographical indications;
(五)商业秘密; (5) Commercial secrets;
(六)集成电路布图设计; (6) Integrated Circuit Designs;
(七)植物新品种; (7) new varieties of plants;
(八)法律规定的其他客体。 (8) Other objects provided for by laws and regulations.
第一百二十四条 自然人依法享有继承权。 Article 124:Natural persons enjoy the right of inheritance.
自然人合法的私有财产,可以依法继承。 The lawful, privately-owned assets of natural persons, may be inherited in accordance with law.
第一百二十五条 民事主体依法享有股权和其他投资性权利。 Article 125:Civil entities enjoy stock rights and other investment rights in accordance with law.
第一百二十六条 民事主体享有法律规定的其他民事权利和利益。 Article 126:Civil entities enjoy other civil rights and interests as provided by law.
第一百二十七条 法律对数据、网络虚拟财产的保护有规定的,依照其规定。 Article 127:Where the law has provisions on the protection of data or online virtual assets, follow those provisions.
第一百二十八条 法律对未成年人、老年人、残疾人、妇女、消费者等的民事权利保护有特别规定的,依照其规定。 Article 128:Where the law has special provisions on the civil rights of minors, the elderly, persons with disabilities, women, consumers, and so forth, follow those provisions.
第一百二十九条 民事权利可以依据民事法律行为、事实行为、法律规定的事件或者法律规定的其他方式取得。 Article 129:Civil rights may be obtained on the basis of matters provided for in civil juristic acts, factual acts, legal provisions or by other methods provided by law.
第一百三十条 民事主体按照自己的意愿依法行使民事权利,不受干涉。 Article 130:Civil entities exercise civil rights according to their own wishes, without interference.
第一百三十一条 民事主体行使权利时,应当履行法律规定的和当事人约定的义务。 Article 131:When civil entities exercise rights, they shall perform obligations provided by law or agreed upon by the parties.
第一百三十二条 民事主体不得滥用民事权利损害国家利益、社会公共利益或者他人合法权益。 Article 132:Civil entities must not abuse civil rights to harm the national interest, the societal public interest, or the lawful rights and interests of others.
第六章 民事法律行为

Chapter VI: Civil Juristic Acts

第一节 一般规定

Section 1: Ordinary Provisions

第一百三十三条 民事法律行为是民事主体通过意思表示设立、变更、终止民事法律关系的行为。 Article 133: Civil juristic acts are conduct in which civil entities establish, modify, or terminal legal civil relationships through an expression of intent.
第一百三十四条 民事法律行为可以基于双方或者多方的意思表示一致成立,也可以基于单方的意思表示成立。 Article 134:Civil juristic acts may be established based on consistent expressions of intent by two or several sides, and may also be established by a unilateral expression of intent.
法人、非法人组织依照法律或者章程规定的议事方式和表决程序作出决议的,该决议行为成立。 Where resolutions are made by legal persons and unincorporated organizations through the deliberation and voting procedures in accordance with provisions of law or their charter, that resolution is established.
第一百三十五条 民事法律行为可以采用书面形式、口头形式或者其他形式;法律、行政法规规定或者当事人约定采用特定形式的,应当采用特定形式。 Article 135:Civil juristic acts may employ written, oral, or other forms; where a specific form is provided for in laws or administrative regulations, or where the parties have agreed on a specific form, that form shall be employed.
第一百三十六条 民事法律行为自成立时生效,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。 Article 136:Civil juristic acts take effect when established, exept where laws or agreements of the parties hold otherwise.
行为人非依法律规定或者未经对方同意,不得擅自变更或者解除民事法律行为。 The actor must not modify or rescind civil juristic acts of their own accord, without being in accordance with legal provisions or without the consent of the other parties.
第二节 意思表示

Section 2: Expression of Intent

第一百三十七条 以对话方式作出的意思表示,相对人知道其内容时生效。 Article 137:When the expression of intent is done through a dialogue, it becomes effective when the counterpart knows the content.
以非对话方式作出的意思表示,到达相对人时生效。 以非对话方式作出的采用数据电文形式的意思表示,相对人指定特定系统接收数据电文的,该数据电文进入该特定系统时生效;未指定特定系统的,相对人知道或者应当知道该数据电文进入其系统时生效。 当事人对采用数据电文形式的意思表示的生效时间另有约定的,按照其约定。 Where expression of intent is through non-interactive methods, it is effective on the date it reaches the counterpart. Where the counterpart has designated a specific system for receiving digital data documents, non-interactive expressions of intent made through digital data documents are effective from the date on which they enter that system; where a specific system has not be designated, the digital data document takes effect when the counterpart knows or should know that it has entered their system. Where the parties agree otherwise on the effective time for an expression of meaning in the form of a data message, follow their agreement.
第一百三十八条 无相对人的意思表示,表示完成时生效。 法律另有规定的,依照其规定。 Article 138:Where there is no expression of intent from the counterpart, the expression is effective when completed. Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.
第一百三十九条 以公告方式作出的意思表示,公告发布时生效。 Article 139:Where intent is expressed through a public announcement, it is effective from the time of the announcement.
第一百四十条 行为人可以明示或者默示作出意思表示。 Article 140:An actor may express or imply an intention.
沉默只有在有法律规定、当事人约定或者符合当事人之间的交易习惯时,才可以视为意思表示。 Silence may only be viewed as an expression of intent as provided by law, as agreed upon by the parties, or where it conforms with the custom of transactions between the two parties.
第一百四十一条 行为人可以撤回意思表示。 撤回意思表示的通知应当在意思表示到达相对人前或者与意思表示同时到达相对人。 Article 141 :Actors may withdraw an expression of intent. The notification of a withdrawal of expression of intent shall reach the counterpart before or at the same time as the expression of intent.
第一百四十二条 有相对人的意思表示的解释,应当按照所使用的词句,结合相关条款、行为的性质和目的、习惯以及诚信原则,确定意思表示的含义。 Article 142:Interpretation of expressions of intent where there is a counterpart shall be in accordance with the terms they use, taken together with the nature, purpose, and custom of the relevant articles and acts, and the principle of good faith, to determine the meaning of the expression of intent.
无相对人的意思表示的解释,不能完全拘泥于所使用的词句,而应当结合相关条款、行为的性质和目的、习惯以及诚信原则,确定行为人的真实意思。 Interpretation of expressions of intent where there is no counterpart, cannot be fully constrained to the use of terms, but shall be taken together with the nature, purpose, and custom of the relevant articles and acts, and the principle of good faith, to determine the actors true meaning.
第三节 民事法律行为的效力

Section 3: The Efficacy of Civil Juristic Acts

第一百四十三条 具备下列条件的民事法律行为有效: Article 143:Civil jurisitic acts with the following conditions are effective:
(一)行为人具有相应的民事行为能力; (1) the actor has the corresponding capacity for civil conduct;
(二)意思表示真实; (2) the intention expressed is genuine;
(三)不违反法律、行政法规的强制性规定,不违背公序良俗。 (3) it does not violate the mandatory provisions of laws and administrative regulations, and does not violate public order and good customs.
第一百四十四条 无民事行为能力人实施的民事法律行为无效。 Article 144:Civil juristic acts performed by persons without capacity for civil conduct are void.
第一百四十五条 限制民事行为能力人实施的纯获利益的民事法律行为或者与其年龄、智力、精神健康状况相适应的民事法律行为有效;实施的其他民事法律行为经法定代理人同意或者追认后有效。 Article 145 :Civil juristic acts, carried out by persons with limited capacity for civil conduct carrying, that are purely in their interest or are appropriate for their age, intellect, and mental health state, are effective; other civil juristic acts they carry out are effective upon the consent, or subsequent ratification, of their legally-designated agents.
相对人可以催告法定代理人自收到通知之日起一个月内予以追认。 法定代理人未作表示的,视为拒绝追认。 民事法律行为被追认前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。 撤销应当以通知的方式作出。 The counterpart may urge the legally-designated agent to give subsequent ratification within one month of receiving notification. Where the legally-designated agent does not respond, it is viewed as a refusal to ratify. Before civil legal acts are subsequently ratified, good faith counterparts have the right of revocation. Revocations shall be made by notification.
第一百四十六条 行为人与相对人以虚假的意思表示实施的民事法律行为无效。 Article 146:Civil juristic acts carried out by false expressions of intent by actors and counterparts are void.
以虚假的意思表示隐藏的民事法律行为的效力,依照有关法律规定处理。 The validity of civil juristic acts concealed by a false expression of intent is handled in accordance with relevant legal provisions.
第一百四十七条 基于重大误解实施的民事法律行为,行为人有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。 Article 147:The actor has the right to request that a court or arbitration body revoke civil juristic acts carried out on the basis of major misunderstandings,
第一百四十八条 一方以欺诈手段,使对方在违背真实意思的情况下实施的民事法律行为,受欺诈方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。 Article 148:The defrauded party has the right to request that a people's court or arbitration body revoke civil juristic acts carried out in circumstances where one party used fraud to make the other party go against their real intentions
第一百四十九条 第三人实施欺诈行为,使一方在违背真实意思的情况下实施的民事法律行为,对方知道或者应当知道该欺诈行为的,受欺诈方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。 Article 149:The defrauded party has the right to request that a people's court or arbitration body revoke civil juristic acts carried out in situations where a third party commits fraud causing a party to go against their true intentions and the other party knows or should know of the fraudulent conduct,
第一百五十条 一方或者第三人以胁迫手段,使对方在违背真实意思的情况下实施的民事法律行为,受胁迫方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。 Article 150:The coerced party has the right to request a people's court or arbitration body revoke civil juristic acts carried out in circumstances where one party, or a third party, used coercive means, causing a party to go against their true intentions.
第一百五十一条 一方利用对方处于危困状态、缺乏判断能力等情形,致使民事法律行为成立时显失公平的,受损害方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。 Article 151:The injured party has the right to request a people's court or arbitration body revoke civil juristic acts where one party exploits the other parties distressed state and lack of judgment, resulting in the establishment of a civil juristic act that is clearly unfair.
第一百五十二条 有下列情形之一的,撤销权消灭: Article 152:In any of the following circumstances, the right of rescission is extinguished:
(一)当事人自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内、重大误解的当事人自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起三个月内没有行使撤销权; (1) Where the right of revocation is not exercised within one year of the date on which a party knew or should have known of the grounds for revocation, or within 3 months of the date on which a substantially mistaken party knew or should have known of the grounds for revocation;
(二)当事人受胁迫,自胁迫行为终止之日起一年内没有行使撤销权; (2) The coerced party has not exercised the right of revocation within one year of the coercive acts concluding;
(三)当事人知道撤销事由后明确表示或者以自己的行为表明放弃撤销权。 (3) A party clearly expresses, or clearly indicates through their own conduct, that they forfeit their rights, after knowing of grounds for revocation.
当事人自民事法律行为发生之日起五年内没有行使撤销权的,撤销权消灭。 Where parties have not exercised the right of revocation within 5 years of the civil juristic act taking effect, the right of revocation is extinguished.
第一百五十三条 违反法律、行政法规的强制性规定的民事法律行为无效,但是该强制性规定不导致该民事法律行为无效的除外。 Article 153:Civil juristic acts that violate mandatory provisions of law or administrative regulations are void, unless that mandatory provision does not void that civil juristic act.
违背公序良俗的民事法律行为无效。 Civil juristic acts that violate public order and good custom are void.
第一百五十四条 行为人与相对人恶意串通,损害他人合法权益的民事法律行为无效。 Article 154:Where there was malicious collusion between the actor and counterpart harming to the legitimate rights and interests of others, the legal juristic acts are void.
第一百五十五条 无效的或者被撤销的民事法律行为自始没有法律约束力。 Article 155:Civil juristic acts that are void or revoked have no legal binding force ab initio.
第一百五十六条 民事法律行为部分无效,不影响其他部分效力的,其他部分仍然有效。 Article 156:Where a part of civil juristic acts is void, but do not impact the force of the other portions, the other portions remain effective.
第一百五十七条 民事法律行为无效、被撤销或者确定不发生效力后,行为人因该行为取得的财产,应当予以返还;不能返还或者没有必要返还的,应当折价补偿。 有过错的一方应当赔偿对方由此所受到的损失;各方都有过错的,应当各自承担相应的责任。 法律另有规定的,依照其规定。 Article 157:Where civil juristic acts are void, revoked, or after they are determined to not take effect, assets acquired by actors due to that conduct shall be returned; where they cannot be returned, or there is no need to return them, compensation is made in cash. A party with fault shall compensate the other party for the harm it caused; where all parties have fault, they shall each bear the corresponding liability. Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.
第四节 民事法律行为的附条件和附期限

Section 4: Conditions and Time Limits for Civil Juristic Acts

第一百五十八条 民事法律行为可以附条件,但是按照其性质不得附条件的除外。 附生效条件的民事法律行为,自条件成就时生效。 附解除条件的民事法律行为,自条件成就时失效。 Article 158:Civil juristic acts may have conditions attached, except where they must not have conditions attached by their nature. Civil juristic acts that have effective conditions attached, are effective when the conditions are achieved. Civil juristic acts with release conditions become ineffective when the condition is achieved.
第一百五十九条 附条件的民事法律行为,当事人为自己的利益不正当地阻止条件成就的,视为条件已成就;不正当地促成条件成就的,视为条件不成就。 Article 159:Where civil juristic acts have conditions attached and a party improperly stops the conditions from being achieved for their own interest, it will be viewed as the condition being achieved; where they improperly push the condition's achievement, it is viewed as the condition not being achieved.
第一百六十条 民事法律行为可以附期限,但是按照其性质不得附期限的除外。 附生效期限的民事法律行为,自期限届至时生效。 附终止期限的民事法律行为,自期限届满时失效。 Article 160:Civil juristic acts may have time limits attached, except where they must not have time limits attached by their nature. Civil juristic acts with time limits on their taking effect will take effect at the completion of that time period. Civil juristic acts with time limits for their termination, cease to have effect at the completion of that time period.
第七章 代 理

Chapter VII: Agency

第一节 一般规定

Section 1: Ordinary Provisions

  第一百六十一条 民事主体可以通过代理人实施民事法律行为。 Article 161:Civil entities may perform civil juristic acts through agents.
依照法律规定、当事人约定或者民事法律行为的性质,应当由本人亲自实施的民事法律行为,不得代理。 Civil juristic acts that shall be carried out by the persons themselves in accordance with the provisions of law, agreement of the parties, or the nature of the civil juristic act, must not be done through an agent.
第一百六十二条 代理人在代理权限内,以被代理人名义实施的民事法律行为,对被代理人发生效力。 Article 162:Civil juristic acts carried out by agents in the name of the principal and within the scope of their power of agency are effective for the principal.
第一百六十三条 代理包括委托代理和法定代理。 Article 163:Agency includes retained agency and legally-prescribed agency.
委托代理人按照被代理人的委托行使代理权。 法定代理人依照法律的规定行使代理权。 Retained agents exercise powers of agency in accordance with the principal's retention. Legally-designated agents exercise the powers of agency in accordance with provisions of law.
第一百六十四条 代理人不履行或者不完全履行职责,造成被代理人损害的,应当承担民事责任。 Article 164:Where an agent does not perform or does not completely perform their duties, causing harm to the principal, they shall bear civil liability.
代理人和相对人恶意串通,损害被代理人合法权益的,代理人和相对人应当承担连带责任。 Where agents maliciously collude with counterparts, harming the lawful rights and interests of the principal, the agent and the counterpart shall bear joint liability.
第二节 委托代理

Section 2: Assigning Agency

第一百六十五条 委托代理授权采用书面形式的,授权委托书应当载明代理人的姓名或者名称、代理事项、权限和期间,并由被代理人签名或者盖章。 Article 165:The authorization for retention of an agent shall be in written form, and the authorization document shall clearly state the full name or business name of the principal; the matters, scope of authority, and time period for the agency; and be signed by the principal or have their seal affixed.
第一百六十六条 数人为同一代理事项的代理人的,应当共同行使代理权,但是当事人另有约定的除外。 Article 166:Where there are several agents for the same agency matter, they shall jointly exercise powers of agency, except as otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
第一百六十七条 代理人知道或者应当知道代理事项违法仍然实施代理行为,或者被代理人知道或者应当知道代理人的代理行为违法未作反对表示的,被代理人和代理人应当承担连带责任。 Article 167:Where agents know or should know that the matter of the agency is unlawful but still carry out acts of agency, or where the principal knows or should know that the agent's acts of agency are unlawful but does not express opposition, the principal and agent shall bear joint liability.
第一百六十八条 代理人不得以被代理人的名义与自己实施民事法律行为,但是被代理人同意或者追认的除外。 Chapter 168:Agents must not carry out civil juristic acts with themselves in the principal's name. except where the principal consents or subsequently ratifies it.
代理人不得以被代理人的名义与自己同时代理的其他人实施民事法律行为,但是被代理的双方同意或者追认的除外。 Agents must not carry out civil juristic acts in the name of the principal with another person they are representing at the same time; except where both principals consent or subsequently ratify it.
第一百六十九条 代理人需要转委托第三人代理的,应当取得被代理人的同意或者追认。 Article 169 :Where agents need to transfer the agency to a third person, they shall obtain the consent or subsequent ratification of the principal.
转委托代理经被代理人同意或者追认的,被代理人可以就代理事务直接指示转委托的第三人,代理人仅就第三人的选任以及对第三人的指示承担责任。 Where the principal consents to or subsequently ratifies a transfer of agency, the principal may directly give instructions to the retained third party on the matter of the agency, and the agent only bears civil liability for selection of the third party and instructions given to the third party.
转委托代理未经被代理人同意或者追认的,代理人应当对转委托的第三人的行为承担责任,但是在紧急情况下代理人为了维护被代理人的利益需要转委托第三人代理的除外。 Where the transfer of agency is not consented to or subsequently ratified by the principal, the agent shall bear liability for the acts of the third party, except in emergency circumstances where it was necessary to transfer agency so as to preserve the principal's interests
第一百七十条 执行法人或者非法人组织工作任务的人员,就其职权范围内的事项,以法人或者非法人组织的名义实施民事法律行为,对法人或者非法人组织发生效力。 Article 170 :Civil juristic acts carried out in the name of legal persons or unincorporated organizations by their personnel in carrying out work tasks within the scope of their authority for that legal person or unincorporated organization, are effective [binding] for that legal person or unincorporated organization.
法人或者非法人组织对执行其工作任务的人员职权范围的限制,不得对抗善意相对人。 Restrictions placed by legal persons or unincorporated organizations on the scope of authority of their staff personnel in performing tasks, must not be used against a good faith counterpart.
第一百七十一条 行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后,仍然实施代理行为,未经被代理人追认的,对被代理人不发生效力。 Article 171:Where actors carry out acts of agency despite not having powers of agency, beyond their power of agency, or after the agency is terminated, they are not effective against the principal, where the principal does not subsequently ratify them.
相对人可以催告被代理人自收到通知之日起一个月内予以追认。 被代理人未作表示的,视为拒绝追认。 行为人实施的行为被追认前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。 撤销应当以通知的方式作出。 The counterpart may urge the principal to subsequently ratify for one month after they receive the notification. Where the principal does not respond, it is viewed as a refusal to ratify. Good faith counterparts have the right to revocation before acts carried out by the actor are subsequently ratified. Revocations shall be made by notification.
行为人实施的行为未被追认的,善意相对人有权请求行为人履行债务或者就其受到的损害请求行为人赔偿,但是赔偿的范围不得超过被代理人追认时相对人所能获得的利益。 Where acts carried out by actors are not subsequently ratified, good faith counterparts have the right to request the actor perform obligations or request compensation from the actors for harms suffered, but the scope of compensation must not exceed the benefits that the counterpart might have obtained when the principal subsequently ratified the acts.
相对人知道或者应当知道行为人无权代理的,相对人和行为人按照各自的过错承担责任。 Where the counterpart knew or should have known that the actor had no power of agency, the counterpart and the actor bear responsibility in accordance with their respective fault.
第一百七十二条 行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后,仍然实施代理行为,相对人有理由相信行为人有代理权的,代理行为有效。 Article 172:Where the actor carries out acts of agency without having the rights of agency, exceeding the powers of agency or after the agency has concluded, and the concerned persons had reason to believe that the actor had agency rights, the acts of agency are valid.
第三节 代理终止

Section 3: Termination of Agency

第一百七十三条 有下列情形之一的,委托代理终止: Article 173:In any of the following circumstances, the agency is terminated:
(一)代理期间届满或者代理事务完成; (1) The period of agency is completed or the matters of the agency are finished;
(二)被代理人取消委托或者代理人辞去委托; (2) the principal cancels the retention or agent quits the representation;
(三)代理人丧失民事行为能力; (3) the agent loses capacity for civil conduct;
(四)代理人或者被代理人死亡; (4) the agent or principal dies;
(五)作为代理人或者被代理人的法人、非法人组织终止。 (5) the legal person or unincorporated organizations that are the principals are terminated.
第一百七十四条 被代理人死亡后,有下列情形之一的,委托代理人实施的代理行为有效: Article 174 :In any of the following circumstances after the principal dies, the acts of the retained agent are effective:
(一)代理人不知道并且不应当知道被代理人死亡; (1) The agent did not know, nor should have known, that the principal had died;
(二)被代理人的继承人予以承认; (2) The principal's heirs acknowledge the conduct;
(三)授权中明确代理权在代理事务完成时终止; (3) It was specified at the time of authorization that the agency was to terminated when the matters of the agency were concluded;
(四)被代理人死亡前已经实施,为了被代理人的继承人的利益继续代理。 (4) It was already completed when the principal died, and representation continues for the benefit of the principal's heirs.
作为被代理人的法人、非法人组织终止的,参照适用前款规定。 Where the principal a legal person or an unincorporated organization and is terminated, apply the provisions of the preceding paragraph by reference.
第一百七十五条 有下列情形之一的,法定代理终止: Article 175 :In any of the following situations, the legal representation is terminated:
(一)被代理人取得或者恢复完全民事行为能力; (1) The principal acquires or regains full capacity for civil conduct;
(二)代理人丧失民事行为能力; (2) the agent loses capacity for civil conduct;
(三)代理人或者被代理人死亡; (3) the agent or principal dies;
(四)法律规定的其他情形。 (4) Other situations provided by law.
第八章 民事责任

Chapter VIII: Civil Liability

第一百七十六条 民事主体依照法律规定和当事人约定,履行民事义务,承担民事责任。 Article 176 :Civil entities bear civil liability in accordance with provisions of law and as agreed upon by the parties, for performance of civil obligations.
第一百七十七条 二人以上依法承担按份责任,能够确定责任大小的,各自承担相应的责任;难以确定责任大小的,平均承担责任。 Article 177 :Where two or more persons bear proportional liability, and the size of the liability can be determined, each bears the corresponding liability; where it is difficult to determine the size of liability, they bear responsibility equally.
第一百七十八条 二人以上依法承担连带责任的,权利人有权请求部分或者全部连带责任人承担责任。 Article 178:Where two or more persons bear joint liability, the rights holder has the right to request some or all of those jointly liable to bear responsibility.
连带责任人的责任份额根据各自责任大小确定;难以确定责任大小的,平均承担责任。 实际承担责任超过自己责任份额的连带责任人,有权向其他连带责任人追偿。 The share of the liability among jointly liable persons is determined according to the size of their respective responsibility; and where it is difficult to determine the size of their responsibility, they bear liability equally. Where the liability actually borne exceeds their share of joint responsibility, they have the right to seek compensation from other jointly liable persons.
连带责任,由法律规定或者当事人约定。 Joint liability is by legal provision or agreement of the parties.
第一百七十九条 承担民事责任的方式主要有: Article 179: The primary methods of bearing civil liability are:
(一)停止侵害; (1) stopping infringement;
(二)排除妨碍; (2) removal of obstructions;
(三)消除危险; (3) the elimination of dangers;
(四)返还财产; (4) restitution of assets;
(五)恢复原状; (5) restoration of original conditions;
(六)修理、重作、更换; (6) repairing, remaking, or replacing;
(七)继续履行; (7) continuing performance;
(八)赔偿损失; (8) Compensating losses;
(九)支付违约金; (9) payment of liquidated damages;
(十)消除影响、恢复名誉; (10) eliminating impact and restoring reputation;
(十一)赔礼道歉。 (11) formal apology.
法律规定惩罚性赔偿的,依照其规定。 Where the law provides for punitive compensation, follow those provisions.
本条规定的承担民事责任的方式,可以单独适用,也可以合并适用。 The methods of bearing civil liability provided in this law may be applied independently or in combination.
第一百八十条 因不可抗力不能履行民事义务的,不承担民事责任。 法律另有规定的,依照其规定。 Article 180:Civil liability is not borne where performance is not possible due to force majeure. Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.
不可抗力是指不能预见、不能避免且不能克服的客观情况。 Force majeure is an objective situation which is unforeseeable, unavoidable and insurmountable.
第一百八十一条 因正当防卫造成损害的,不承担民事责任。 Article 181:Civil liability is not borne where harm is caused by justified defense.
正当防卫超过必要的限度,造成不应有的损害的,正当防卫人应当承担适当的民事责任。 If justified defense exceeds the limits of necessity and causes undue damage, the justified defender shall bear appropriate civil liability.
第一百八十二条 因紧急避险造成损害的,由引起险情发生的人承担民事责任。 Article 182:Where damage is caused in urgent avoidance of danger [ie due to necessity]; the persons who created the danger bear civil liability.
危险由自然原因引起的,紧急避险人不承担民事责任,可以给予适当补偿。 Where the danger was brought on by natural causes, the persons avoiding danger do not bear civil liability, but may give appropriate compensation.
紧急避险采取措施不当或者超过必要的限度,造成不应有的损害的,紧急避险人应当承担适当的民事责任。 Where the measures taken to avoid urgent danger are improper, or exceed the limits of necessity, and cause undue harm, the person avoiding urgent danger shall bear appropriate civil liability.
第一百八十三条 因保护他人民事权益使自己受到损害的,由侵权人承担民事责任,受益人可以给予适当补偿。 没有侵权人、侵权人逃逸或者无力承担民事责任,受害人请求补偿的,受益人应当给予适当补偿。 Article 183:Where one suffers harm in trying to protect the civil rights and interests of others, the tortfeasor bears civil liability, and the beneficiary may give appropriate compensation. Where there is no tortfeasor, the tortfeasor has fled or is unable to bear civil liability, and the victim demands compensation, the beneficiary shall give appropriate compensation.
第一百八十四条 因自愿实施紧急救助行为造成受助人损害的,救助人不承担民事责任。 Article 184:Where voluntarily carrying out emergency assistance causes harm to the person receiving assistance, the aider does not bear civil liability.
第一百八十五条 侵害英雄烈士等的姓名、肖像、名誉、荣誉,损害社会公共利益的,应当承担民事责任。 Article 185:Those who infringe upon the name, likeness, reputation, or honor of a hero, martyr, and so forth, harming the societal public interest, shall bear civil liability.
第一百八十六条 因当事人一方的违约行为,损害对方人身权益、财产权益的,受损害方有权选择请求其承担违约责任或者侵权责任。 Article 186:Where acts in breach of contract by one party harm the other party's rights in their person or property, the injured party has the right to choose whether to request they bear liability for breach of contract or for torts.
第一百八十七条 民事主体因同一行为应当承担民事责任、行政责任和刑事责任的,承担行政责任或者刑事责任不影响承担民事责任;民事主体的财产不足以支付的,优先用于承担民事责任。 Article 187:Where civil entities should bear civil, administrative, and criminal liability for the same conduct; their bearing criminal or administrative liability does not impact their bearing civil liability; where the civil entity's assets are insufficient to make payment, priority is is given to bearing the civil liability.
第九章 诉讼时效

Chapter IX: Limitations Period for Litigation

第一百八十八条 向人民法院请求保护民事权利的诉讼时效期间为三年。 法律另有规定的,依照其规定。 Article 188:The limitations period for applying to the people's courts for protection of civil rights is 3 years. Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.
诉讼时效期间自权利人知道或者应当知道权利受到损害以及义务人之日起计算。 法律另有规定的,依照其规定。 但是自权利受到损害之日起超过二十年的,人民法院不予保护;有特殊情况的,人民法院可以根据权利人的申请决定延长。 The limitations period for litigation is calculated from the day on which the rights holder knows or should know that their rights have been violated and know of the obligor. Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions. However, where more than twenty years have passed since the violation of rights, the people's courts will not provide protection, where there are special circumstances, the people's courts may extend this upon application of the rights-holder.
第一百八十九条 当事人约定同一债务分期履行的,诉讼时效期间自最后一期履行期限届满之日起计算。 Article 189:Where the parties have agreed to performance of a single debt in installments, the limitations period for litigation is calculated from the date on which the final installment period concludes.
第一百九十条 无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人对其法定代理人的请求权的诉讼时效期间,自该法定代理终止之日起计算。 Article 190:The limitations period for litigation demands by a person lacking or with limited capacity for civil activity against their legally-designated agents is calculated from the date on which that agency is terminated.
第一百九十一条 未成年人遭受性侵害的损害赔偿请求权的诉讼时效期间,自受害人年满十八周岁之日起计算。 Article 191: The limitations period for litigation demands on compensation for sexual violations of a minor are calculated from the date on which the victim turns 18 years old.
第一百九十二条 诉讼时效期间届满的,义务人可以提出不履行义务的抗辩。 Article 192:Where the limitations period is completed, the obligor may raise a defense of nonfeasance.
诉讼时效期间届满后,义务人同意履行的,不得以诉讼时效期间届满为由抗辩;义务人已自愿履行的,不得请求返还。 Where the obligor agrees to perform after the limitation period for litigation is completed, they must not use the completion of the limitations period as a defense; where the obligor is willing to perform, restitution must not be demanded.
第一百九十三条 人民法院不得主动适用诉讼时效的规定。 Article 193:The people's courts must not proactively apply the provisions on limitations periods.
第一百九十四条 在诉讼时效期间的最后六个月内,因下列障碍,不能行使请求权的,诉讼时效中止: Article 194:Where a demand cannot be made due to the following obstacles in the last 6 months of the limitations period, the limitations period is suspended:
(一)不可抗力; (1) Force majeure;
(二)无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人没有法定代理人,或者法定代理人死亡、丧失民事行为能力、丧失代理权; (2) A person lacking or with limited capacity for civil action did not have a legally-designated agent or their legally-designated agent died, lost capacity for civil action, or lost the right of representation:
(三)继承开始后未确定继承人或者遗产管理人; (3) After inheritance begins, heirs or executors have not been determines;
(四)权利人被义务人或者其他人控制; (4) Where the rights holder is controlled by the obligor or another person;
(五)其他导致权利人不能行使请求权的障碍。 (5) Other obstacles that make it so that the rights holder is unable to exercise their right to make demands.
自中止时效的原因消除之日起满六个月,诉讼时效期间届满。 The limitations period is completed six months after the reasons for the suspension of the limitations period have been eliminated.
第一百九十五条 有下列情形之一的,诉讼时效中断,从中断、有关程序终结时起,诉讼时效期间重新计算: Article 195:In any of the following situations, the limitations period is suspended and is calculated anew from the date on which the suspension and relevant procedures are concluded:
(一)权利人向义务人提出履行请求; (1) The rights holder requests performance from the obligor;
(二)义务人同意履行义务; (2) The obligor agrees to perform the obligation;
(三)权利人提起诉讼或者申请仲裁; (3) The rights holder raises a lawsuit or applies for arbitration;
(四)与提起诉讼或者申请仲裁具有同等效力的其他情形。 (4) Other circumstances with the same efficacy as raising a lawsuit or applying for arbitration.
第一百九十六条 下列请求权不适用诉讼时效的规定: Article 196:The limitations period does not apply to the following claims:
(一)请求停止侵害、排除妨碍、消除危险; (1) demands to stop infringement, remove obstructions, or eliminate dangers;
(二)不动产物权和登记的动产物权的权利人请求返还财产; (2) Claims for restitution byt he rights holder of property rights in real estate and registered personal property;
(三)请求支付抚养费、赡养费或者扶养费; (3) Claims for payment of child support, alimony, or mainenance;
(四)依法不适用诉讼时效的其他请求权。 (4) Other claims that do not apply the limitations period in accordance with law.
第一百九十七条 诉讼时效的期间、计算方法以及中止、中断的事由由法律规定,当事人约定无效。 Article 197:Where the law makes provisions on the method of calculating the limitations period for litigation, as well as for grounds for its suspension or interruption, agreements between the parties are void.
当事人对诉讼时效利益的预先放弃无效。 Parties' anticipatory renunciations of benefits from the limitations period are void.
第一百九十八条 法律对仲裁时效有规定的,依照其规定;没有规定的,适用诉讼时效的规定。 Article 198:Where the law has provisions on the limitations period for arbitration, follow those provisions, where there are no provisions, apply the provisions on the limitations period for litigation.
第一百九十九条 法律规定或者当事人约定的撤销权、解除权等权利的存续期间,除法律另有规定外,自权利人知道或者应当知道权利产生之日起计算,不适用有关诉讼时效中止、中断和延长的规定。 存续期间届满,撤销权、解除权等权利消灭。 Article 199:The duration of rights that are provided for in law or agreed upon by the parties such as the right of revocation or the right of rescission, unless otherwise provided by law, is calculated from the date on which the rights holder knows or should have known the right existed, and provisions on suspension, interruption, and extensions of the limitations period for litigation are not applied. When the duration is completed, the rights of revocation, rescission, and so forth, are extinguished.
第十章 期间计算

Chapter X: Calculation of Time Periods

第二百条 民法所称的期间按照公历年、月、日、小时计算。 Article 200:Dates used in the civil law follow are calculated according to Gregorian calendar years, months, days, and hours.
第二百零一条 按照年、月、日计算期间的,开始的当日不计入,自下一日开始计算。 Article 201:When calculating periods according to years, months, days, that day is not counted, and calculations begin from the following day.
按照小时计算期间的,自法律规定或者当事人约定的时间开始计算。 Where periods are calculated by hours, the calculation begins at the time provided by law or agreed upon by the parties.
第二百零二条 按照年、月计算期间的,到期月的对应日为期间的最后一日;没有对应日的,月末日为期间的最后一日。 Article 202:Where periods are calculated by years and months, the corresponding day in the final month is the final day ; where there is no corresponding day, the end of the month is the last day.
第二百零三条 期间的最后一日是法定休假日的,以法定休假日结束的次日为期间的最后一日。 Article 203:Where the final day is a legal holiday, the day after the end of the legal holiday is the final day of the period.
期间的最后一日的截止时间为二十四时;有业务时间的,停止业务活动的时间为截止时间。 The period concludes at 24:00 on the final day; where there are hours of operation, the period concludes at the time for stopping operations.
第二百零四条 期间的计算方法依照本法的规定,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。 Article 204:Time periods are calculated in accordance with the methods provided in this law, except where the law provides otherwise or the parties have agreed otherwise.
第十一章 附 则

Chapter XI: Supplementary Provisions

第二百零五条 民法所称的“以上”“以下”“以内”“届满”,包括本数;所称的“不满”“超过”“以外”,不包括本数。 Article 205:As used in the Civil Law, "above", "below [up to]", "within" and "at the completion of", include that number; "not yet", "beyond [exceeding]", and "outside of", do not include the number itself.
第二百零六条 本法自2017年10月1日起施行。 Article 206:This Law shall take effect on October 1, 2017.

 

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