General Provisions of Civil Law (Draft)

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General Provisions of Civil Law of the People's Republic of China (Draft)

 

Table of Contents

 

Chapter I: Basic Principles

Chapter II: Natural Persons

Section 1: Capacity for Civil Rights and Capacity for Civil Conduct

Section 2: Guardianship

Section 3: Declarations of Disappearance and Death

Section 4: Individually-operated Businesses and Leaseholding Rural Households

Chapter III: Legal Persons

Section 1: General Provisions

Section 2: For-profit Legal Persons

Section 3: Non-profit Legal Persons

Chapter IV: Non-Legal Person Organizations

Chapter V: Civil Rights

Chapter VI: Civil Juristic Acts

Section 1: General Provisions

Section 2: Expressions of Intent

Section 3: Force of Civil Juristic Acts

Section 4: Conditions and Time Limits for Civil Juristic Acts

Chapter VII: Agency

Section 1: General Provisions

Section 2: Retention of Agency

Section III: Termination of Agency

Chapter VIII: Civil Liability

Chapter IX: Limitation periods for litigation and Scheduled Period

Section 1: Limitations periods for litigation

Section 2: Scheduled Period

Chapter X: Calculation of Time Periods

Chapter XI: Supplementary Provisions

 

 

Chapter I: Basic Principles

 

Article 1: This Law is formulated on the basis of the Constitution in order to protect the lawful rights and interests of natural persons, legal persons, and non-legal-person organizations, to modulate civil relationships, to preserve social and economic order, and to meet the needs of the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

Article 2: Civil law modulates the personal and property relationships between natural persons, legal persons, and non-legal-person organizations that are equal civil entities.

Article 3: The legal status of all civil entities is equal.

Article 4: Civil entities engaging in civil activities shall follow the principle of voluntariness to establish, change, or terminate civil relationships according to own intentions.

Article 5: Civil entities engaging in civil activities shall follow the principle of equity to reasonably determine the rights and liabilities of each party.

Article 6: Civil entities engaging in civil activities shall follow the principle of good faith and credibility

Civil entities engaging in civil activities shall consciously preserve transactional security.

Article 7: Civil entities engaging in civil activities shall protect the environment, conserve resources, and promote the harmonious development of man and nature.

Article 8: Civil entities engaging in civil activities shall obey laws, must not violate public order and good custom, and must not harm the lawful rights and interests of others.

Article 9: Civil entities' lawful rights and interests in persons and property are protected by law and must not be encroached upon by any organization or individual.

When civil entities exercise rights, they shall also perform obligations provided by law or agreed upon by the parties, and bear corresponding liabilities.

Article 10: The disposition of civil disputes shall follow the provisions of laws; and where the law has no provisions, custom may be applied but must not violate public order and good custom.

Article 11: Where other laws have special provisions on civil relationships, follow those provisions.

Article 12: Laws of the People's Republic of China apply to civil activities within the mainland territory of the People's Republic of China, except otherwise provided by laws of the People's Republic of China.

 

Chapter II: Natural Persons

Section 1: Capacity for Civil Rights and Capacity for Civil Conduct

 

Article 13: From their birth to death, natural persons have the capacity for civil rights, and enjoy civil rights and bear civil obligations in accordance with law.

Article 14: Natural persons all have equal capacity for civil rights.

Article 15: The birth-date and time of death of a natural person is that recorded on their birth and death certificates; where there is no birth certificate or death certificate, the time of household registration is dispositive. Where there is other evidence sufficient to rebut the times above, the time proven by relevant evidence is dispositive.

Article 16: In situations involving protection of a fetus's rights and interests such as to inheritance or acceptance of gifts, the fetus is viewed as possessing capacity for civil rights. However, where the fetus is not viable at birth, its capacity for civil rights is deemed to be non-existent ab initio.

Article 17: Natural persons over the age of 18 are adults, are persons with full capacity for civil conduct, and may independently carry out civil juristic acts.

Article 18: Minors over the age of six but below the age of 18 are persons with limited capacity for civil conduct, and may independently carry out civil juristic acts purely to receive benefits or civil juristic acts that are appropriate to their age or intellect; when performing other civil juristic acts, they shall be represented by their legally-designated representative or obtain the consent of their legally-designated representative.

Minors over the age of 16 but below the age of 18, whose main source of income is their own labor, shall be considered persons with full capacity for civil conduct.

Article 19: Minors under the age of six are persons with no capacity for civil conduct and are represented by their legally-designated representative in carrying out civil juristic acts.

Article 20: Adults who cannot recognize their own conduct are persons with no capacity for civil conduct and are represented by their legally-designated representatives in carrying out civil juristic acts.

Where minors above the age of six cannot account for their own conduct, apply the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

Article 21: Adults who cannot fully recognize their own conduct are persons with limited capacity for civil conduct, and may independently carry out civil juristic acts purely to receive benefits or civil juristic acts that are appropriate for their intellect or mental health condition; when carrying out other civil juristic acts, they shall be represented by their legally-designated representatives or obtain their legally-designated representatives' consent.

Article 22: The guardians of persons with no capacity for civil conduct or for persons with limited capacity for civil conduct are their legally-designated representatives.

Article 23: Persons with an interest in adults who cannot or cannot fully recognize their own conduct may apply to the people's courts for a determination that they are a person with no or with limited capacity for civil conduct.

Where persons are determined by a people's court to have no or limited capacity for civil conduct, a people's court may, on the basis of their recovery of intellect and mental health, determine that they have recovered limited or full capacity for civil conduct, upon application of that person, interested parties, or relevant organizations.

"Relevant organizations" as used in the preceding paragraph include: the residents' committee or villagers' committee for the person's domicile, schools, medical and health institutions, women's federations, disabled persons' federations, seniors' organizations established according to law, and civil affairs departments.

Article 24: 自然人以户籍登记的居所为住所;经常居所与住所不一致的,经常居所视为住所。

 

Section 2: Guardianship

 

Article 25: Parents have the obligations to raise, educate, and protect their children who are minors.

Children have the obligations to support, care for, and protect their parents who have no or limited capacity for civil conduct.

Article 26: Minors' parents are the minors' guardians.

Where a minor's parents are dead or do not have the capacity for guardianship, the following persons with capacity for guardianship will serve as guardians in this order:

(1) Paternal or maternal grandparents;

(2) brothers or sisters;

(3) Other individuals or relevant organizations that are willing to assume guardianship responsibilities upon the consent of the residents' committee or villagers' committee, or the civil affairs department of the minor's domicile.

Minors' parents may designate minors' guardian by will; where the guardian designated by a minor's father and mother are different, the designation of the party who dies later shall prevail.

Article 27: Persons who have the capacity for guardianship and who are among the following persons are to act as guardians for adults without or with limited capacity for civil conduct in the following order:

(1) Spouses;

(2) Parents;

(3) Children;

(4) Other persons or relevant organizations that are willing to assume guardianship responsibilities, upon consent of the residents' or villagers' committee, or the civil affairs department, for the ward's domicile.

Article 28: Guardians may be designated by agreement. When a guardian is designated by agreement, the ward's wishes shall be respected.

Article 29: Where there is dispute as to who will serve as guardian, the residents' committee, villagers' committee, or civil affairs department for the ward's domicile will make a designation; where relevant parties are dissatisfied the designation, they can file suit in the people's courts; relevant parties may also file suit in the people's courts directly to let the people's courts designate [a guardian].

When designating guardians, residents' committees, villagers' committees, civil affairs departments, or the people's courts shall follow the principle of the wards greatest benefit, and respect the wards' wishes.

Before a guardian is designated in accordance with the provisions of the first paragraph of this article, where the ward's person, property, and other lawful rights and interests are in an unprotected state, the residents' committee, villagers' committee, relevant organizations provided for by law, or the civil affairs department for the ward's domicile, will serve as temporary guardian.

After a guardian is designated, it shall not be changed of one's own accord; where it is changed of one's own accords, the designated guardian is not exempted from guardianship responsibilities.

Article 30: Where there is no person qualified to be a guardian under Articles 26 and 27 of this Law, the residents' committee, villagers' committee, or civil affairs department for the ward's domicile shall act as guardian.

Article 31: An adult with full capacity for civil conduct may consult in advance with close relatives or other individuals or organizations that are willing to assume guardianship responsibilities, to make a written determination of his own guardianship. The guardian will assume guardianship responsibilities when that adult loses or partially loses capacity for civil conduct.

Article 32: A guardian's right to lawfully exercise guardianship is protected by law.

Where guardians do not perform guardianship responsibilities or harm wards' lawful rights and interests, they shall bear responsibility.

Article 33: Guardians shall follow the principle of the greatest benefit for their wards in performing guardianship duties, shall protect wards' lawful rights and interests in their person, property, and otherwise; and guardians must not dispose of the wards' assets except in the interest of the ward.

Minors' guardians performing guardianship duties shall, based on the ward's age and intelligence, respect ward's wishes when making decisions concerning the ward's rights and interests.

Adults' guardians performing guardianship duties shall respect wards' wishes to the fullest extent, ensure and assist wards in the independent performance of civil juristic acts as appropriate to their intellect and mental health status.

Article 34: Where guardians have any of the following circumstances, the people's courts are to revoke their guardianship qualifications upon the application of relevant personnel or organizations, and designate a new guardian for the ward based on the principle of the greatest benefit for the ward:

(1) Carrying out acts that seriously harm the ward's physical and mental health;

(2) Being remiss in performing guardianship duties, or being unable to perform guardianship duties and refusing to entrust all or part of the guardianship duties to others, leaving the ward's in a distressed condition;

(3) other conduct that seriously violates the lawful rights and interests of the ward.

"Relevant personnel and organizations" as used in the preceding paragraph includes: other persons qualified to be guardians, such as the residents' committee or villagers' committee for the ward's domicile, schools, medical and health institutions, women's federations, disabled persons' federations, lawfully established seniors' organizations, and civil affairs departments.

Where relevant persons and organizations have not promptly applied to the people's courts to revoke guardianship qualifications, the civil affairs departments shall apply to the people's courts.

Article 35: Where the original guardians are truly repentant after their guardianship qualifications are revoked by a people's court, the people's court may restore their guardianship qualifications upon their application and in light of the circumstances; and the guardianship relationship between the new guardian designated by the people's court and the ward terminates simultaneously.

Article 36: In any of the following situations, the guardianship relationship is terminated.

(1) The wards acquire or regain full capacity for civil conduct;

(2) Guardians lose the capacity for guardianship;

(3) The wards or guardians die;

(4) Other situations where the people's courts find that the guardianship relationship is terminated.

Where a ward still needs guardianship after the guardianship relationship is terminated, a guardian shall be separately designated in accordance with law.

 

Section 3: Declarations of Disappearance and Death

 

Article 37: Two years after a natural person has gone missing, interested parties may apply to the people's courts to have them declared as a missing person.

The time that a natural person is missing is calculated from the day when contact is lost with said natural person. Where they become missing during time of war, the time they are missing is calculated from the day when the war ends.

Article 38: A missing person's property is placed in the custody of their spouse, parents, adult children, or other persons willing to act as custodians.

Where there is a dispute over custody, there is no person stipulated by the preceding paragraph, or the persons stipulated by the previous paragraph are unable to take custody, [the property] shall be placed in the custody of a person designated by a people's court.

Article 39: The asset custodian shall properly manage the assets of the disappeared person, and preserve their property rights.

Any taxes, debts, and other unpaid expenses owed by a missing person shall be defrayed by the asset custodian out of the missing person's property.

Where asset custodians cause losses to a missing person's assets, either intentionally or by gross negligence, they shall bear responsibility for compensation.

Article 40: Where asset custodians do not perform custodial duties, harm the missing person's property rights or interests, or lose the capacity for custody, interested parties of the missing person may apply to the people's courts to change the asset custodian.

Where asset custodians have legitimate reason, they may apply to the people's courts to have a different asset custodian designated.

Article 41: Where a person who has been declared missing reappears, the people's courts shall revoke the declaration of disappearance upon the application of that person or of interested parties.

Where a person who has been declared missing reappears, they have the right to request that the assets custodian promptly transfer relevant assets to them and report on the custody of assets.

Article 42: Where a natural person has any of the following situations, interested parties may apply to the people's courts for a declaration of his death:

(1) has gone missing for four years;

(2) has gone missing for two years due to an accident;

Where a natural person becomes missing due to an accident, and relevant organs demonstrate that it is impossible for said person to have survived, the application to declare him dead is not subject to the two-year time limit.

The provisions of Article 37, paragraph 2 of this Law apply to the calculation of the time during which a person is missing.

Article 43: With respect to the same natural person, where some interested parties apply to have him declared dead and some apply to have him declared missing, the people's court shall declared him dead if the legally prescribed conditions for the declaration of death are met.

Article 44: For a person who is declared dead, the day on which the people's court's makes a ruling on the declaration of death, or the date determined by the ruling, is deemed the date of his death.

Article 45: Where natural persons are declared dead, it does not impact the validity of civil juristic acts carried out by them after they are declared dead.

Article 46: Where a person who has been declared dead reappears, the people's court shall revoke the declaration of death upon the application of that person or interested parties.

Article 47: The marital relationship between a person who is declared dead and their spouse is extinguished on the day when their death is declared. Where a declaration of death is revoked and the person's spouse has not remarried, the relationship of husband and wife is automatically reinstated on the day when the death declaration is revoked, except where either party is unwilling to have it automatically reinstate; where the person's spouse has remarried, the spousal relationship is not automatically reinstated.

Article 48: Where during the period that a person have been declared dead, their children are lawfully adopted by others, after the declaration of death is revoked, they must not argue that the adoptive relationship is invalid solely on the basis that they did not give consent.

Article 49: A person whose declaration of death is revoked has the right to request the return of his assets. Natural persons, legal persons, or non-legal person organizations that acquire his properties in accordance with the Inheritance Law shall return original items; and where they are unable to return the original, shall make compensation.

Where interested parties concealed the truth, causing another person to be declared dead and acquiring his assets, they shall not only return the original items, but also bear responsibility for compensating any resulting damages.

 

Section 4: Individually-operated Businesses and Leaseholding Rural Households

 

Article 50: Natural persons who engage in industrial or commercial operations after registering in accordance with law, are individual-operated businesses. Privately-owned businesses may adopt brand names (字号).

Article 51: 农村集体经济组织的成员,依法取得农村土地承包经营权,从事家庭承包经营的,为农村承包经营户。

Article 52: 个体工商户的债务,个人经营的,以个人财产承担;家庭经营的,以家庭财产承担;无法区分个人经营和家庭经营的,以家庭财产承担。

农村承包经营户的债务,以家庭财产承担。

 

Chapter III: Legal Persons

Section 1: General Provisions

 

Article 53: Legal persons are organizations with the capacity for civil rights and the capacity for civil conduct that independently enjoy civil rights and bear civil liabilities in accordance with law.

Article 54: Legal persons shall be established according to law.

法人应当有自己的名称、组织机构和住所。 法人成立的具体条件和程序,依照法律的规定。

设立法人,法律规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。

Article 55: 法人的民事权利能力和民事行为能力,从法人成立时产生,到法人终止时消灭。

Article 56: 法人以其全部财产独立承担民事责任。

Article 57: 依照法律或者法人章程规定,代表法人从事民事活动的负责人,为法人的法定代表人。

Legally-prescribed representative engage in civil activities in the name of the legal person, and the legal consequences are borne by the legal person.

法人的章程或者权力机构对法定代表人的代表权范围的限制,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 58: 法定代表人因执行职务造成他人损害的,由法人承担民事责任。

法人承担民事责任后,根据法律或者法人章程的规定,可以向有过错的法定代表人追偿。

Article 59: The registered domicile of legal persons is their domicile.

法人的主要办事机构所在地与住所不一致的,其主要办事机构所在地视为住所。

法人依法不需要办理登记的,其主要办事机构所在地为住所。

Article 60: 法人在其存续期间登记事项发生变化的,应当依法向登记机关申请变更登记。

Article 61: 法人的实际情况与其登记的事项不一致的,不得对抗信赖登记的善意第三人。

Article 62: 登记机关应当通过信息公示系统依法及时公示法人登记的有关信息。

Article 63: 法人合并、分立的,其权利和义务由变更后的法人享有和承担。

Article 64: 有下列情形之一的,法人解散:

(一)法人章程规定的存续期间届满或者法人章程规定的其他解散事由出现的;

(二)法人的权力机构决议解散的;

(三)法人依法被吊销营业执照、登记证书,责令关闭或者被撤销的;

(四)出现法律规定的其他情形的。

Article 65: 法人解散的,清算义务人应当及时组成清算组进行清算。

法人的董事、理事等执行机构成员为清算义务人,但是法人章程另有规定,法人权力机构另有决议,或者法律另有规定的除外。

清算义务人怠于履行清算义务的,主管机关或者利害关系人可以申请人民法院指定有关人员组成清算组进行清算。

Article 66: 公司的清算程序和清算组职权,适用公司法的有关规定。

公司以外的法人的清算程序和清算组职权,依照有关法律的规定;没有规定的,参照适用公司法的有关规定。

Article 67: 清算期间,法人存续,但是不得从事与清算无关的活动。

法人清算后的剩余财产,根据法人章程的规定或者法人权力机构的决议处理,法律另有规定的除外。

清算终结,并完成法人注销登记时,法人终止;法人依法不需要办理登记的,清算终结时,法人终止。

Article 68: 清算义务人怠于履行清算义务,造成法人财产损失的,应当在造成损失范围内对法人债务等承担责任。

清算义务人怠于履行清算义务,导致法人主要财产、账册、重要文件等灭失,无法进行清算的,对法人债务等承担连带责任。

Article 69: 法人被宣告破产的,依法进行破产清算并完成法人注销登记时,法人终止。

Article 70: 法人可以依法设立分支机构。 法律规定分支机构应当办理登记的,依照其规定。

分支机构以自己的名义从事民事活动,由此产生的民事责任由法人承担。

Article 71: 设立人为设立法人从事的民事活动,其法律后果在法人成立后由法人承受;法人未成立的,其法律后果由设立人承受,设立人为二人以上的,承担连带责任。

Article 72: 法律对合作社法人有规定的,依照其规定。

 

Section 2: For-profit Legal Persons

 

Article 73: 以取得利润并分配给其股东或者其他出资人等成员为目的成立的法人,为营利性法人。

营利性法人包括有限责任公司、股份有限公司和其他企业法人等。

Article 74: 营利性法人,经依法登记成立,取得法人资格。

Article 75: 依法设立的营利性法人,由法人登记机关发给营利性法人营业执照。 营业执照签发日期为营利性法人的成立日期。

Article 76: 营利性法人的权力机构为成员大会。

营利性法人设董事会或者执行董事的,董事会或者执行董事为其执行机构,董事长、执行董事或者经理依照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人;未设董事会或者执行董事的,法人章程规定的主要负责人为其执行机构和法定代表人。

法律对营利性法人的组织机构、法定代表人另有规定的,依照其规定。

Article 77: 营利性法人超越登记的经营范围从事经营活动的,依法承担相应的责任,但是除违反法律、行政法规的效力性强制性规定外,民事法律行为有效。

Article 78: 营利性法人从事经营活动,必须遵守法律、行政法规,遵守社会公德、商业道德,诚实信用,接受政府和社会公众的监督,承担社会责任。

Article 79: 营利性法人的成员应当遵守法律、行政法规和法人章程,依法行使成员权利,不得滥用成员权利损害法人或者其他成员的利益,不得滥用法人独立地位和成员有限责任损害法人债权人的利益。

Article 80: 本节没有规定的,适用公司法等有关法律的规定。

 

Section 3: Non-profit Legal Persons

 

Article 81: 为公益目的或者其他非营利目的成立的法人,为非营利性法人。

非营利性法人不得向其成员或者设立人分配利润。

为公益目的成立的非营利性法人终止时,不得向其成员或者设立人分配剩余财产;其剩余财产应当按照章程的规定或者权力机构的决议用于公益目的;不能按照法人章程规定或者权力机构的决议处理的,由主管机关主持转给宗旨相同或者相近的以公益为目的的法人,并向社会公告。

Article 82: 具备法人条件,为实现公益目的设立的事业单位,经依法登记成立,取得事业单位法人资格;依法不需要办理法人登记的,从成立之日起,具有事业单位法人资格。

Article 83: 事业单位法人设理事会的,理事会为其决策机构。 事业单位法定代表人按照其章程的规定产生。

法律对事业单位法人的组织机构、法定代表人另有规定的,依照其规定。

Article 84: 具备法人条件,基于会员共同意愿,为实现公益目的或者会员共同利益等非营利目的设立的社会团体,经依法登记成立,取得社会团体法人资格;依法不需要办理法人登记的,从成立之日起,具有社会团体法人资格。

Article 85: 社会团体法人应当制定章程,设会员大会或者会员代表大会等权力机构。

Social Group Legal Persons shall establish councils and other such implementation bodies. 理事长或者会长等主要负责人依照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人。

Article 86: 具备法人条件,为实现公益目的,以捐助财产设立的基金会等,经依法登记成立,取得捐助法人资格。

Where religious activity sites established in accordance with law have the capacity to become legal persons, they may apply to register as a legal person and obtain certification as an endowed legal person.

Article 87: 捐助法人应当制定章程,设理事会、民主管理组织等决策机构、执行机构。 理事长等主要负责人依照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人。

Endowed Legal Persons shall establish a board of supervisors and other supervisory bodies.

Article 88: 捐助人有权向捐助法人查询捐助财产的使用、管理情况,并提出意见和建议,捐助法人应当及时、如实答复。

捐助法人的决策机构、执行机构或者其法定代表人作出的决定违反捐助法人章程的,捐助人等利害关系人或者主管机关可以请求人民法院予以撤销。

Article 89: 有独立经费的机关、承担行政职能的法定机构从成立之日起,具有机关法人资格,可以从事为履行职能所需要的民事活动。

Article 90: 机关法人被撤销的,法人终止,其民事责任由继续履行其职能的机关法人承担;没有继续履行其职能的机关法人的,由撤销该机关法人的机关法人承担。

 

Chapter IV: Non-Legal Person Organizations

 

Article 91: 非法人组织是不具有法人资格,但是依法能够以自己的名义从事民事活动的组织。

非法人组织包括个人独资企业、合伙企业、营利性法人或者非营利性法人依法设立的分支机构等。

Article 92: 非法人组织应当依法登记。

设立非法人组织,法律规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。

Article 93: 非法人组织的成员或者设立人对该组织的债务承担无限责任。 Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.

Article 94: 非法人组织可以确定一人或者数人代表该组织从事民事活动。

Article 95: 非法人组织以登记的住所为住所。

非法人组织的主要办事机构所在地与住所不一致的,其主要办事机构所在地视为住所。

Article 96: 有下列情形之一的,非法人组织解散:

(一)设立人或者其成员决定解散的;

(二)章程或者组织规章规定的存续期间届满的;

(三)章程或者组织规章规定的其他解散事由出现的;

(四)出现法律规定的其他情形的。

Article 97: 非法人组织解散的,应当依法进行清算。 清算终结,并完成注销登记时,非法人组织终止。

Article 98: 非法人组织除适用本章规定外,参照适用本法第三章第一节的有关规定。

 

Chapter V: Civil Rights

 

Article 99: Natural persons' physical liberty and human dignity are protected by law.

Article 100: 自然人享有生命权、健康权、身体权、姓名权、肖像权、名誉权、荣誉权、隐私权、婚姻自主权等权利。

Legal persons and unincorporated organizations enjoy name rights, reputation rights, honor rights and other such rights.

Article 101: 自然人因婚姻、家庭关系产生的人身权利受法律保护。

Article 102: 民事主体依法享有的收入、储蓄、房屋、生活用品、生产工具、投资及其他财产权利受法律保护。

Article 103: 民事主体依法享有物权。

物权是权利人依法对特定的物享有直接支配和排他的权利,包括所有权、用益物权、担保物权。

Article 104: 物包括不动产和动产。 法律规定具体权利或者网络虚拟财产作为物权客体的,依照其规定。

Article 105: 民事主体依法享有债权。

债权是因合同、单方允诺、侵权行为、无因管理、不当得利以及法律的其他规定,权利人请求特定义务人为一定行为的权利。

Article 106: 没有法定的或者约定的义务,为避免他人利益受损失进行管理或者服务的,有权请求受益人偿还由此而支付的必要费用。

Article 107: 没有合法根据,取得不当利益,造成他人损失的,应当将取得的不当利益返还受损失的人。

Article 108: Civil entities enjoy intellectual property rights in accordance with law.

知识产权是指权利人依法就下列客体所享有的权利:

(1) works;

(二)专利;

(3) trademarks;

(四)地理标记;

(5) Commercial secrets;

(6) Integrated Circuit Designs;

(7) new varieties of plants;

(八)数据信息;

(9) Other content provided for by laws or administrative regulations.

Article 109: Natural persons enjoy succession rights in accordance with law.

Article 110: Civil subjects entities stock rights or other civil rights in accordance with law.

Article 111: 法律对未成年人、老年人、残疾人、妇女、消费者等的民事权利有特别保护规定的,依照其规定。

 

Chapter VI: Civil Juristic Acts

Section 1: General Provisions

 

Article 112: Civil juristic acts are acts of natural persons, legal persons, or non-legal person organizations, through the expression of intention, to establish, change, or terminate civil rights or civil liabilities.

Article 113: 民事法律行为可以基于单方的意思表示成立,也可以基于双方或者多方的意思表示一致成立。

法人、非法人组织的决议行为应当依照法律或者章程规定的程序和表决规则成立。

Article 114: 民事法律行为可以采用书面形式、口头形式或者其他形式;法律规定或者当事人约定采用特定形式的,应当采用特定形式。

Article 115: 民事法律行为自成立时生效,法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。 行为人非依法律规定或者取得对方同意,不得擅自变更或者解除民事法律行为。

 

Section 2: Expressions of Intent

 

Article 116: 以对话方式作出的意思表示,相对人了解其内容时生效。 Where expression of intent is through non-interactive methods, it is effective on the date it reaches the counterpart.

Article 117: Where the counterpart has designated a specific system for receiving digital data documents, non-interactive expressions of intent made through digital data documents are effective from the date on which they enter that system; where a specific system has not be designated, the digital data document takes effect when the counterpart knows or should know that it has entered their system. Where the parties agree otherwise on the effective time for an expression of meaning in the form of a data message, follow their agreement.

以公告方式作出的意思表示,公告发布时生效。

无相对人的意思表示,表示完成时生效,法律另有规定的除外。

Article 118: 行为人可以明示或者默示作出意思表示。

沉默只有在有法律规定、当事人约定或者习惯时,方可以视为意思表示。

Article 119: 行为人可以撤回意思表示。 The notification of a withdrawal of expression of intent shall reach the counterpart before or at the same time as the expression of intent.

Article 120: 有相对人的意思表示的解释,应当按照所使用的词句,结合相关条款、行为的性质和目的、习惯、相对人的合理信赖以及诚实信用原则,确定意思表示的含义。

无相对人的意思表示的解释,不能拘泥于所使用的词句,而应当结合相关条款、行为的性质和目的、习惯以及诚实信用原则,确定行为人的真实意思。

 

Section 3: Force of Civil Juristic Acts

 

Article 121: Civil juristic acts meeting the following conditions are valid:

(1) the actor has the corresponding capacity for civil conduct;

(2) the intention expressed is genuine;

(三)不违反法律、行政法规的效力性强制性规定,不违背公序良俗。

Article 122: Civil juristic acts performed by persons without capacity for civil conduct are invalid.

Article 123: 限制民事行为能力人实施的民事法律行为,经法定代理人同意或者追认后有效,但是纯获利益的民事法律行为或者与其年龄、智力、精神健康状况相适应的民事法律行为,不需经法定代理人同意或者追认。

The counterpart may urge the legally-designated agent to give subsequent ratification within one month of receiving notification. Where the legally-designated agent does not respond, it is viewed as a refusal to ratify. Before civil legal acts are subsequently ratified, good faith counterparts have the right of revocation. Revocations shall be made by notification.

Article 124: 行为人与相对人串通,以虚假的意思表示实施的民事法律行为无效,但是双方均不得以此对抗善意第三人。

行为人以虚假的意思表示隐藏的民事法律行为,依照有关法律规定处理。

Article 125: 基于重大误解实施的民事法律行为,行为人有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。

Article 126: 一方以欺诈手段,使对方在其违背真实意思的情况下实施的民事法律行为,受欺诈方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。

Article 127: 第三人实施欺诈行为,使一方在违背其真实意思的情况下实施的民事法律行为,对方知道或者应当知道该欺诈行为的,受欺诈方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。

Article 128: 一方或者第三人以胁迫手段,使对方在违背其真实意思的情况下实施的民事法律行为,受胁迫方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。

Article 129: 一方利用对方处于困境、缺乏判断能力或者对自己信赖等情形,致使民事法律行为成立时显失公平的,受损害方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。

Article 130: 民事法律行为因重大误解、欺诈、显失公平被撤销的,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 131: 有下列情形之一的,撤销权消灭:

(一)当事人自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内没有行使撤销权的;

(二)当事人受胁迫,自胁迫行为终止之日起一年内没有行使撤销权的;

(三)当事人知道撤销事由后明确表示或者以自己的行为表明放弃撤销权的;

(四)当事人自民事法律行为发生之日起五年内没有行使撤销权的。

Article 132: 违反法律、行政法规的效力性强制性规定或者违背公序良俗的民事法律行为无效。

Article 133: 行为人与相对人恶意串通,损害他人合法权益的民事法律行为无效。

Article 134: 无效的或者被撤销的民事法律行为,从民事法律行为开始时起就没有法律约束力。

Article 135: 民事法律行为无效、被撤销或者确定不发生效力后,行为人因该行为取得的财产,应当予以返还;不能返还或者没有必要返还的,应当折价补偿。 A party with fault shall compensate the other party for the harm it caused; where all parties have fault, they shall each bear the corresponding liability. Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.

Article 136: 民事法律行为部分无效,不影响其他部分效力的,其他部分仍然有效。

 

Section 4: Conditions and Time Limits for Civil Juristic Acts

 

Article 137: 民事法律行为可以附条件,但是依照其性质不得附条件的除外。 Civil juristic acts that have effective conditions attached, are effective when the conditions are achieved. Civil juristic acts with release conditions become ineffective when the condition is achieved.

Article 138: 附条件的民事法律行为,当事人为自己的利益不正当地阻止条件成就的,视为条件已成就;不正当地促成条件成就的,视为条件不成就。

第一百三十九条 民事法律行为可以附期限,但是依照其性质不得附期限的除外。 Civil juristic acts with time limits on their taking effect will take effect at the completion of that time period. Civil juristic acts with time limits for their termination, cease to have effect at the completion of that time period.

 

Chapter VII: Agency

Section 1: General Provisions

 

Article 140: Natural persons, legal persons, and non-legal person organizations can perform civil juristic acts through agents.

Article 141 : 代理人在代理权限内,以被代理人名义实施的民事法律行为,对被代理人发生效力。

Civil juristic acts that shall be carried out by the persons themselves in accordance with the provisions of law, agreement of the parties, or the nature of the civil juristic act, must not be done through an agent.

Article 142: 代理人在代理权限内以自己的名义与第三人实施民事法律行为,第三人知道代理人与被代理人之间的代理关系的,该民事法律行为直接约束被代理人和第三人,但是有确切证据证明该民事法律行为只约束代理人和第三人的除外。

Article 143: Agency includes entrusted agency and statutory agency.

Retained agents exercise powers of agency in accordance with the principal's retention. Legally-designated agents exercise the powers of agency in accordance with provisions of law.

法定代理,本章没有规定的,适用本法和其他法律有关规定。

Article 144: 代理人不履行职责,造成被代理人损害的,应当承担民事责任。

代理人和第三人恶意串通,损害被代理人合法权益的,由代理人和第三人承担连带责任。

 

Section 2: Retention of Agency

 

Article 145 : 委托代理可以采用书面形式、口头形式或者其他形式;法律规定或者当事人约定采用特定形式的,应当采用特定形式。

授权委托书应当载明代理人的姓名或者名称、代理事项、权限和期间,并由被代理人签名或者盖章。

Article 146: 数人为同一委托事项的代理人的,应当共同行使代理权,法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 147: 代理人知道或者应当知道代理的事项违法仍然实施代理行为,或者被代理人知道或者应当知道代理人的代理行为违法未作反对表示的,被代理人和代理人应当承担连带责任。

Article 148: 代理人不得以被代理人的名义与自己实施民事法律行为,法律另有规定或者被代理人同意、追认的除外。

代理人不得以被代理人的名义与其同时代理的其他人实施民事法律行为,法律另有规定或者被代理的双方同意、追认的除外。

Article 149: 代理人需要转委托第三人代理的,应当取得被代理人的同意或者追认。

转委托代理经被代理人同意或者追认的,被代理人可以就代理事务直接指示转委托的第三人,代理人仅就第三人的选任及其对第三人的指示承担责任。

Where the transfer of agency is not consented to or subsequently ratified by the principal, the agent shall bear liability for the acts of the third party, except in emergency circumstances where it was necessary to transfer agency so as to preserve the principal's interests

Article 150: 执行法人或者非法人组织工作任务的人,就其职权范围内的事项,以法人或者非法人组织的名义实施民事法律行为,对法人或者非法人组织发生效力。

法人或者非法人组织对其工作人员职权范围的限制,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 151: 行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后,仍然实施代理行为,未经被代理人追认的,代理行为无效。

The counterpart may urge the principal to subsequently ratify for one month after they receive the notification. Where the principal does not respond, it is viewed as a refusal to ratify. 无权代理人实施的行为被追认前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。 Revocations shall be made by notification.

无权代理人实施的行为未被追认的,善意相对人有权要求无权代理人履行债务或者就其受到的损害要求无权代理人赔偿,但是赔偿的范围不得超过代理行为有效时所能获得的利益。

相对人知道或者应当知道代理人无权代理的,相对人和代理人按照各自的过错承担责任。

Article 152: 行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后,仍然实施代理行为,相对人有理由相信行为人有代理权的,代理行为有效,但是有下列情形之一的除外:

(一)行为人伪造他人的公章、合同书或者授权委托书等,假冒他人的名义实施民事法律行为的;

(二)被代理人的公章、合同书或者授权委托书等遗失、被盗,或者与行为人特定的职务关系已经终止,并且已经以合理方式公告或者通知,相对人应当知悉的;

(3) Other situations provided by law.

 

Section III: Termination of Agency

 

Article 153: 有下列情形之一的,委托代理终止:

(一)代理期间届满或者代理事务完成的;

(二)被代理人取消委托或者代理人辞去委托的;

(三)代理人丧失民事行为能力的;

(四)代理人或者被代理人死亡的;

(五)作为代理人或者被代理人的法人、非法人组织终止的。

Article 154: 被代理人死亡后,有下列情形之一的,委托代理人实施的代理行为有效:

(一)代理人不知道并且不应当知道被代理人死亡的;

(二)被代理人的继承人均予以承认的;

(三)授权中明确代理权在代理事项完成时终止的;

(四)在被代理人死亡前已经实施,在被代理人死亡后为了被代理人继承人的利益继续完成的。

Where the principal a legal person or an unincorporated organization and is terminated, apply the provisions of the preceding paragraph by reference.

Article 155: 有下列情形之一的,法定代理终止:

(一)被代理人取得或者恢复完全民事行为能力的;

(二)代理人丧失民事行为能力的;

(三)被代理人或者代理人死亡的;

(4) Those with other situations provided for by law.

 

Chapter VIII: Civil Liability

 

Article 156: 民事主体应当依照法律规定或者当事人约定履行民事义务。

民事主体不履行或者不完全履行民事义务的,应当依法承担民事责任。

Article 157: 二人以上不履行或者不完全履行民事义务的,应当依法分担责任或者承担连带责任。

Article 158: 二人以上依法承担按份责任的,责任人按照各自责任份额向权利人承担民事责任。

Article 159: 二人以上依法承担连带责任的,每一个责任人应当向权利人承担全部民事责任。 责任人实际承担责任超过其应当承担份额的,可以向其他连带责任人追偿。

Article 160: 承担民事责任的方式主要有:

(1) stopping infringement;

(2) removal of obstructions;

(3) the elimination of dangers;

(4) restitution of assets;

(五)恢复原状、修复生态环境;

(6) repairing, remaking, or replacing;

(7) Compensate losses;

(八)支付违约金;

(九)消除影响、恢复名誉;

(十)赔礼道歉。

前款规定的承担民事责任的方式,可以单独适用,也可以合并适用。

Article 161: 因不可抗力不能履行民事义务的,不承担民事责任,法律另有规定的除外。

不可抗力是指不能预见、不能避免并不能克服的客观情况。

Article 162: 因正当防卫造成损害的,不承担责任。 正当防卫超过必要的限度,造成不应有的损害的,正当防卫人应当承担适当的责任。

Article 163: 因紧急避险造成损害的,由引起险情发生的人承担责任。 如果危险是由自然原因引起的,紧急避险人不承担责任或者给予适当补偿。 紧急避险采取措施不当或者超过必要的限度,造成不应有的损害的,紧急避险人应当承担适当的责任。

Article 164: 为保护他人民事权益而使自己受到损害的,由侵权人承担责任,受益人可以给予适当补偿。 没有侵权人、侵权人逃逸或者无力承担责任,受害人请求补偿的,受益人应当给予适当补偿。

Article 165: 因当事人一方的违约行为,损害对方人身、财产权益的,受损害方有权选择要求其承担违约责任或者侵权责任。

第一百六十六条 民事主体因同一行为应当承担民事责任、行政责任和刑事责任的,承担行政责任或者刑事责任不影响依法承担民事责任;民事主体的财产不足以支付的,先承担民事责任。

 

Chapter IX: Limitation periods for litigation and Scheduled Period

Section 1: Limitations periods for litigation

 

Article 167: 向人民法院请求保护民事权利的诉讼时效期间为三年,法律另有规定的除外。

诉讼时效期间自权利人知道或者应当知道权利受到损害以及义务人之日起开始计算,法律另有规定的除外。 但是,自权利受到损害之日起超过二十年的,人民法院不予保护;有特殊情况的,人民法院可以延长。

Chapter 168: 当事人约定同一债务分期履行的,诉讼时效期间从最后一期履行期限届满之日起计算。

Article 169 : 诉讼时效期间届满的,义务人可以提出不履行义务的抗辩。

诉讼时效期间届满后,义务人自愿履行的,不受诉讼时效限制;义务人同意履行的,不得以诉讼时效期间届满为由抗辩。

Article 170 : 人民法院不得主动适用诉讼时效的规定。

Article 171: 在诉讼时效期间的最后六个月内,因下列障碍,不能行使请求权的,诉讼时效中止:

(1) Force majeure;

(二)无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人没有法定代理人,或者法定代理人死亡、丧失代理权或者丧失民事行为能力;

(3) After inheritance begins, heirs or executors have not been determines;

(4) Where the rights holder is controlled by the obligor or another person;

(5) Other obstacles that make it so that the rights holder is unable to exercise their right to make demands.

The limitations period is completed six months after the reasons for the suspension of the limitations period have been eliminated.

Article 172: 无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人与其法定代理人之间的请求权的诉讼时效,自该法定代理关系终止之日起开始计算。

Article 173: 有下列情形之一的,诉讼时效中断,从中断或者有关程序终结时起,诉讼时效期间重新计算:

(一)权利人向义务人提出履行请求的;

(二)义务人同意履行义务的;

(三)权利人提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的;

(四)有与提起诉讼或者申请仲裁具有同等效力的其他情形的。

Article 174 : 对连带权利人或者连带义务人中的一人发生诉讼时效中断的,中断的效力及于全部连带权利人或者连带义务人。

Article 175 : 下列请求权不适用诉讼时效:

(1) demands to stop infringement, remove obstructions, or eliminate dangers;

(二)登记的物权人请求返还财产;

(三)请求支付赡养费、抚养费或者扶养费;

(4) Other claims that do not apply the limitations period in accordance with law.

Article 176 : 诉讼时效的期间、计算方法以及中止、中断的事由由法律规定,当事人约定无效。

Parties' anticipatory renunciations of benefits from the limitations period are void.

 

Section 2: Scheduled Period

 

Article 177 : 法律规定或者当事人约定的撤销权、解除权等权利的存续期间,为除斥期间。

除斥期间届满,当事人的撤销权、解除权等权利消灭。

Article 178: 除斥期间自权利人知道或者应当知道权利产生之日起开始计算,法律另有规定的除外。

第一百七十九条 除斥期间不适用本法有关诉讼时效中止、中断和延长的规定。

 

Chapter X: Calculation of Time Periods

 

Article 180: 民事法律所称的期间按照公历年、月、日、小时计算。

Article 181: 按照小时计算期间的,自法律规定或者当事人约定的时间起算。

按照日、月、年计算期间的,开始的当日不计入,自下一日起算。

Article 182: 按照月、年计算期间的,最后一月与期间开始当日的相应日为期间的最后一日;最后一月没有相应日的,其结束日为期间的最后一日。

Article 183: 期间的最后一日是法定休假日的,以法定休假日结束的次日为期间的最后一日。

期间的最后一日的截止时间为二十四点;有业务时间的,到停止业务活动的时间截止。

Article 184: 期间的计算方法依照本法的规定,法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。

 

 

Chapter XI: Supplementary Provisions

 

Article 185: As used in this law, "above", "below", "within" and "at the completion of", include that number; "under", "over", and "beyond, do not include the number itself.

Article 186: This Law shall take effect on xx-xx-xxxx.

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