People’s Courts Online Mediation Rules

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2021年12月30日

Legal Interpretation [2021] No. 23

People’s Courts Online Mediation Rules

The "Online Mediation Rules of the People's Courts", which were adopted at the 1859th meeting of the Judicial Committee of the Supreme People's Court on December 27, 2021, and will come into effect on January 1, 2022.

为方便当事人及时解决纠纷,规范依托人民法院调解平台开展的在线调解活动,提高多元化解纠纷效能,根据《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》《中华人民共和国行政诉讼法》《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》等法律的规定,结合人民法院工作实际,制定本规则。

Article 1: These rules apply to online mediation carried out through a people’s court’s mediation platform before case-docketing or during the course of litigation.

Article 2: Online mediation includes the use of the people’s court’s mediation platform by people’s courts, parties, mediation organizations, or mediators to carry out all or some of the mediation activities such as online applications, the appointment of delegates, audio or video mediation, the preparation of mediation agreements, applications for judicial confirmation of mediation agreements, or the preparation of mediation documents.

Article 3: Online mediation may be carried out for disputes that the law provides may be mediated or settled such as in civil, administrative, enforcement, or private criminal prosecution proceedings, as well as in civil litigation incidental to a criminal case where the defendant or convict is not in custody,

Where laws and judicial interpretations have other provisions on the online mediation of administrative or private criminal prosecution proceedings, or of civil litigation incidental to criminal proceedings, follow those provisions.

Article 4: People’s courts employing online mediation shall obtain the parties' consent and comprehensively consider factors such as the specific circumstances of the case and technical requirements.

Article 5: Adjudicators of the people’s courts, full part-time mediators, specially invited mediation organizations or mediators, as well as other units or individuals invited by the people’s court, may conduct online mediation

To facilitate the parties' selection, information such as on the basic circumstances of online mediation organizations and mediators, the scope of the disputes they accept, their areas of expertise, whether fees are charged, and people's courts that invited them shall be published on the people's court mediation platform

Article 6: The people's court may invite eligible foreigners to join the people's court mediation platform and participate in the mediation of civil and commercial disputes in which one or both parties are foreigners, stateless persons, or foreign enterprises or organizations.

Eligible residents of Hong Kong and Macao may join the people’s court’s mediation platform to participate in the mediation of civil and commercial disputes in which one or both parties are residents, legal persons, or unincorporated organizations of the Hong Kong or Macao Special Administrative Regions, as well as mainland enterprises funded by Hong Kong or Macao.

Eligible residents of the Taiwan region may join the people’s court’s mediation platform to participate in the mediation of civil and commercial disputes in which one or both parties are residents, legal persons, or unincorporated organizations of the Taiwan region, as well as mainland enterprises funded by Taiwan.

Article 7: Where prior to the docketing of the case or during the litigation process, the people's court's case-filing or adjudication personnel feel that the dispute is suitable for online mediation, they may fully explain the advantages of online mediation orally, in writing, online, or through other means, giving information about online mediation such as its main forms, rights and obligations, legal consequences and operational methods, and guiding the parties to prioritize selecting online mediation methods to resolve the dispute.

Article 8: Where the parties agree to online mediation, they shall fill in information on the people's court mediation platform, such as their identification information, a brief description of the dispute, a valid contact telephone number, and an address for the electronic service of process on the people's court mediation platform; and shall upload electronic versions of the application materials for initiating litigation. Where the parties have submitted electronic application materials for intimating litigation through the electronic litigation platform, they will not need to submit them again.

Where the parties have difficulty filling out or submitting electronic application materials for initiating litigation, the people's courts may assist the parties in electronically processing the hard-copy materials and entering them into the people's court mediation platform.

Article 9: In any of the following situations, where the parties apply for online mediation before the filing of a case, the people's courts are to return the application and address it according to the following distinct ways:

(1) Where the parties apply for mediation of disputes that are not within the range accepted by the people's court, inform them of other dispute resolution methods that may be used.

(2) Where the people's court that has established an invitation relationship with the online mediation organization or mediator selected by the parties has no jurisdiction over the dispute, notify them to select a mediation organization or mediator that has been invited by the people's court with jurisdiction over the dispute to conduct the mediation.

(3) Where the dispute for which the parties applied for mediation is not suitable for online mediation, notify them to go to the people's courts' litigation services hall in person to handle formalities for mediation or initiating litigation.

Article 10: Where one of the parties agrees to online mediation before filing the case, the people's court shall designate a mediation organization or mediator after seeking the party's opinions.

Where both parties agree to online mediation, they may jointly choose a mediation organization or mediator from among the online mediation organizations and mediators designated by the court with jurisdiction over the case Where the parties agree to have the people's court designate a mediation organization or mediator, or where they are unable to jointly choose a mediation organization or mediator within two working days of agreeing to online mediation, the people's court shall designate a mediation organization or mediator.

The people's court shall designate a mediation organization or mediator within three working days of receiving the parties' application for online mediation.

Article 11: Online mediation is normally to be conducted by a single mediator, but where the case is significant, difficult and complex, or is more highly specialized, it may be mediated by two or more mediators, and the parties are to jointly select one of them to preside over the mediation. Where they cannot make a joint selection, the people's court shall designate a mediator to preside over the mediation.

Article 12: 调解组织或者调解员应当在收到人民法院委派委托调解信息或者当事人在线调解申请后三个工作日内,确认接受人民法院委派委托或者当事人调解申请。 纠纷不符合调解组织章程规定的调解范围或者行业领域,明显超出调解员擅长领域或者具有其他不适宜接受情形的,调解组织或者调解员可以写明理由后不予接受。

调解组织或者调解员不予接受或者超过规定期限未予确认的,人民法院、当事人可以重新指定或者选定。

Article 13: 主持或者参与在线调解的人员有下列情形之一,应当在接受调解前或者调解过程中进行披露:

(一)是纠纷当事人或者当事人、诉讼代理人近亲属的;

(二)与纠纷有利害关系的;

(三)与当事人、诉讼代理人有其他可能影响公正调解关系的。

当事人在调解组织或者调解员披露上述情形后或者明知其具有上述情形,仍同意调解的,由该调解组织或者调解员继续调解。

Article 14: 在线调解过程中,当事人可以申请更换调解组织或者调解员;更换后,当事人仍不同意且拒绝自行选择的,视为当事人拒绝调解。

Article 15: 人民法院对当事人一方立案前申请在线调解的,应当征询对方当事人的调解意愿。 调解员可以在接受人民法院委派调解之日起三个工作日内协助人民法院通知对方当事人,询问是否同意调解。

对方当事人拒绝调解或者无法联系对方当事人的,调解员应当写明原因,终结在线调解程序,即时将相关材料退回人民法院,并告知当事人。

Article 16: 主持在线调解的人员应当在组织调解前确认当事人参与调解的方式,并按照下列情形作出处理:

(一)各方当事人均具备使用音视频技术条件的,指定在同一时间登录人民法院调解平台;无法在同一时间登录的,征得各方当事人同意后,分别指定时间开展音视频调解;

(二)部分当事人不具备使用音视频技术条件的,在人民法院诉讼服务中心、调解组织所在地或者其他便利地点,为其参与在线调解提供场所和音视频设备。

各方当事人均不具备使用音视频技术条件或者拒绝通过音视频方式调解的,确定现场调解的时间、地点。

在线调解过程中,部分当事人提出不宜通过音视频方式调解的,调解员在征得其他当事人同意后,可以组织现场调解。

Article 17: 在线调解开始前,主持调解的人员应当通过证件证照在线比对等方式核实当事人和其他参与调解人员的身份,告知虚假调解法律后果。 立案前调解的,调解员还应当指导当事人填写《送达地址确认书》等相关材料。

Article 18: 在线调解过程中,当事人可以通过语音、文字、视频等形式自主表达意愿,提出纠纷解决方案。 除共同确认的无争议事实外,当事人为达成调解协议作出妥协而认可的事实、证据等,不得在诉讼程序中作为对其不利的依据或者证据,但法律另有规定或者当事人均同意的除外。

Article 19: 调解员组织当事人就所有或者部分调解请求达成一致意见的,应当在线制作或者上传调解协议,当事人和调解员应当在调解协议上进行电子签章;由调解组织主持达成调解协议的,还应当加盖调解组织电子印章,调解组织没有电子印章的,可以将加盖印章的调解协议上传至人民法院调解平台。

调解协议自各方当事人均完成电子签章之时起发生法律效力,并通过人民法院调解平台向当事人送达。 调解协议有给付内容的,当事人应当按照调解协议约定内容主动履行。

Article 20: 各方当事人在立案前达成调解协议的,调解员应当记入调解笔录并按诉讼外调解结案,引导当事人自动履行。 依照法律和司法解释规定可以申请司法确认调解协议的,当事人可以在线提出申请,人民法院经审查符合法律规定的,裁定调解协议有效。

各方当事人在立案后达成调解协议的,可以请求人民法院制作调解书或者申请撤诉。 人民法院经审查符合法律规定的,可以制作调解书或者裁定书结案。

Article 21: 经在线调解达不成调解协议,调解组织或者调解员应当记录调解基本情况、调解不成的原因、导致其他当事人诉讼成本增加的行为以及需要向人民法院提示的其他情况。 人民法院按照下列情形作出处理:

(一)当事人在立案前申请在线调解的,调解组织或者调解员可以建议通过在线立案或者其他途径解决纠纷,当事人选择在线立案的,调解组织或者调解员应当将电子化调解材料在线推送给人民法院,由人民法院在法定期限内依法登记立案;

(二)立案前委派调解的,调解不成后,人民法院应当依法登记立案;

(三)立案后委托调解的,调解不成后,人民法院应当恢复审理。

审判人员在诉讼过程中组织在线调解的,调解不成后,应当及时审判。

Article 22: 调解员在线调解过程中,同步形成电子笔录,并确认无争议事实。 经当事人双方明确表示同意的,可以以调解录音录像代替电子笔录,但无争议事实应当以书面形式确认。

After electronic records are checked and confirmed through online methods, they possess the same legal validity as written records.

Article 23: 人民法院在审查司法确认申请或者出具调解书过程中,发现当事人可能采取恶意串通、伪造证据、捏造事实、虚构法律关系等手段实施虚假调解行为,侵害他人合法权益的,可以要求当事人提供相关证据。 当事人不提供相关证据的,人民法院不予确认调解协议效力或者出具调解书。

经审查认为构成虚假调解的,依照《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》等相关法律规定处理。 发现涉嫌刑事犯罪的,及时将线索和材料移送有管辖权的机关。

Article 24: 立案前在线调解期限为三十日。 各方当事人同意延长的,不受此限。 立案后在线调解,适用普通程序的调解期限为十五日,适用简易程序的调解期限为七日,各方当事人同意延长的,不受此限。 立案后延长的调解期限不计入审理期限。

委派委托调解或者当事人申请调解的调解期限,自调解组织或者调解员在人民法院调解平台确认接受委派委托或者确认接受当事人申请之日起算。 审判人员主持调解的,自各方当事人同意之日起算。

Article 25: In any of the following situations, the online mediation procedures are to concludes:

(1) The parties reach a mediation agreement;

(2) The parties settle on their own and withdraw the application for mediation;

(3) The parties cannot be contacted within the mediation period;

(4) One of the parties explicitly expresses their unwillingness to continue mediation;

(5) The parties have great differences of opinion and it is difficult to reach a mediation agreement;

(六)调解期限届满,未达成调解协议,且各方当事人未达成延长调解期限的合意;

(七)当事人一方拒绝在调解协议上签章;

(八)其他导致调解无法进行的情形。

Article 26: 立案前调解需要鉴定评估的,人民法院工作人员、调解组织或者调解员可以告知当事人诉前委托鉴定程序,指导通过电子诉讼平台或者现场办理等方式提交诉前委托鉴定评估申请,鉴定评估期限不计入调解期限。

诉前委托鉴定评估经人民法院审查符合法律规定的,可以作为证据使用。

Article 27: 各级人民法院负责本级在线调解组织和调解员选任确认、业务培训、资质认证、指导入驻、权限设置、业绩评价等管理工作。 上级人民法院选任的在线调解组织和调解员,下级人民法院在征得其同意后可以确认为本院在线调解组织和调解员。

Article 28: 人民法院可以建立婚姻家庭、劳动争议、道路交通、金融消费、证券期货、知识产权、海事海商、国际商事和涉港澳台侨纠纷等专业行业特邀调解名册,按照不同专业邀请具备相关专业能力的组织和人员加入。

最高人民法院建立全国性特邀调解名册,邀请全国人大代表、全国政协委员、知名专家学者、具有较高知名度的调解组织以及较强调解能力的人员加入,参与调解全国法院有重大影响、疑难复杂、适宜调解的案件。

高级人民法院、中级人民法院可以建立区域性特邀调解名册,参与本辖区法院案件的调解。

Article 29: 在线调解组织和调解员在调解过程中,存在下列行为之一的,当事人可以向作出邀请的人民法院投诉:

(一)强迫调解;

(二)无正当理由多次拒绝接受人民法院委派委托或者当事人调解申请;

(三)接受当事人请托或者收受财物;

(四)泄露调解过程、调解协议内容以及调解过程中获悉的国家秘密、商业秘密、个人隐私和其他不宜公开的信息,但法律和行政法规另有规定的除外;

(五)其他违反调解职业道德应当作出处理的行为。

人民法院经核查属实的,应当视情形作出解聘等相应处理,并告知有关主管部门。

Article 30: 本规则自2022年1月1日起施行。 最高人民法院以前发布的司法解释与本规则不一致的,以本规则为准。

 

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