Opinions on Improving Systems of Judicial Responsiblity for Procurators




I. Goals and Basic Principles

II. Completing Judicial Case-handling Organization and Operational Mechanisms

III. Completing Operational Mechanisms for the Procuratorate Committee

IV. Clarifying the Scope of Authority of the Procuratorate Personnel

V. Completing Mechanisms for Procuratorate Management and Oversight

VI. Strict Determination and Pursuit of Judicial Responsibility

VII. Other

To better ensure that people's procuratorates lawfully and independently exercise the procuratorate powers, to raise the credibility of the judiciary, the following Opinions are hereby made on improving people's procuratorates' judicial responsibility systems.

  I. Goals and Basic Principles

1.The goals of improving the people's procuratorate judicial responsibility system are: establishing sound organization for judicial case handling, scientifically delineating the scope of case handling authority within the judiciary, improving judicial case handling responsibility systems, linking fair and effective operating mechanisms for the judiciary with mechanisms for the determination and pursuit of judicial responsibility, and making it so that whoever handles a case or makes a decision is responsible for it.

2. The basic principles of the people's procuratorate judicial responsibility system are: Persist in following judicial discipline complying with the professional characteristics of the procuratorate; persist in emphasizing the prime role of procurators in case handling and strengthen combined supervision and restraints; persist in clarifying rights and obligations, and having parity between rights and obligations; persist in having subjective fault corresponding to objective acts, and having punishments adapted to the culpability.

  II. Completing Judicial Case-handling Organization and Operational Mechanisms

3. Implement procurator responsibility systems. Implement classification management of procurators, put into place quantity controls on [the number of] procuratorial officials. Procurators must be the front line of the justice [system] in handling cases, and shall bear lifelong responsibility for the quality of the way in which a case has been handled. The number of cases handled by the procurator assuming the role of leader of a procuratorial office must reach a specified number. The manager of the business/operations department [业务部门] must have served as a procuratorial official.

4. Complete models of judicial case-handling organization. Carry out a model of individual procurators or procurator case-handling groups handling cases as necessary for the performance of duties and based on the type of case and its degree of complexity and difficulty.

Procurators undertaking a case alone, will have necessary procuratorate support staff appointed.

A procuratorial case handling team shall consist of two or more procurators, who shall be provided with necessary procuratorial support staff. A procuratorial case handling team may be a comparatively fixed arrangement, or it may be put together on a temporary basis depending upon judicial case handling needs, the presiding procurator is to be the responsible person for the procuratorial case handling team.

5. Review for arrest and review for prosecution cases are generally undertaken by a single procurator; major, difficult or complicated cases may also be undertaken by a procurator case handling group. 独任检察官、主任检察官对检察长(分管副检察长)负责,在职权范围内对办案事项作出决定。

6.Case directly accepted and investigated by the people's procuratorate are generally undertaken by a procurator case-handling group; simple cases may also be undertaken by a single procurator; The decision to commence 决定初查、立案、侦查终结等事项,由主任检察官或独任检察官提出意见,经职务犯罪侦查部门负责人审核后报检察长(分管副检察长)决定。

7.Litigation supervision and other legal supervision cases, may be undertaken by a single procurator and may also be undertaken by a procurator case-handling group. 独任检察官、主任检察官对检察长(分管副检察长)负责,在职权范围内对办案事项作出决定。 以人民检察院名义提出纠正违法意见、检察建议、终结审查、不支持监督申请或提出(提请)抗诉的,由检察长(分管副检察长)或检察委员会决定。

8.Where chief procurators, (deputy chief procurators in charge) participate in a procurator case-handling group or independently handle a case, they may make case-handling decisions within the scope of their authority.

9.Legal documents released in the name of people's procuratorates are to be signed by the chief procurators, (deputy chief procurators in charge) .

10. Chief procurators, (deputy chief procurators in charge) have the authority to conduct reviews of cases handled by single procurators or by procurator case-handling groups. 检察长(分管副检察长)不同意检察官处理意见,可以要求检察官复核或提请检察委员会讨论决定,也可以直接作出决定。 要求复核的意见、决定应当以书面形式作出,归入案件卷宗。

检察官执行检察长(分管副检察长)决定时,认为决定错误的,可以提出异议;检察长(分管副检察长)不改变该决定,或要求立即执行的,检察官应当执行,执行的后果由检察长(分管副检察长)负责,检察官不承担司法责任。 检察官执行检察长(分管副检察长)明显违法的决定的,应当承担相应的司法责任。

III. Completing Operational Mechanisms for the Procuratorate Committee

11. Increase the levels of legal governance, democratization, and scientific methods in the work of the Procuratorate Committee, in order to develop the functionality of the Procuratorate Committee in determining policy, providing guidance, and conducting oversight regarding important cases and other important issues. The cases to be discussed and decided by the Procuratorate Committee primarily include cases handled by this agency that are considered to be important, difficult, or complex cases, cases that concern national security, foreign affairs, or social stability, or cases that the lower People's Procuratorate have proposed for reconsideration.

12. The Procuratorate committee is composed of the Chief Procurator, the Deputy Chief-Procurator, full time members, and a portion of the senior procurators.

13.Procurators may submit a request that the procuratorate committee discuss a case they are undertaking, and follow procedures to report to the chief procurator for a decision.

14.Before the procuratorate committee puts the case to a vote, it shall conduct sufficient discussion. 表决实行主持人末位表态制。 检察委员会会议由专门人员如实记录,并按照规定存档备查。

15.Improve decision making consultation mechanisms for the procuratorate committee. 建立健全专家咨询委员会、专业研究小组等检察委员会决策辅助机构。 检察委员会讨论案件,可以邀请有关专家到场发表咨询意见。

  IV. Clarifying the Scope of Authority of the Procuratorate Personnel

16.The chief procurator uniformly leads the procuratorate's work, following the law and relevant provisions to perform the following duties:

(1) Deciding whether to arrest or permit the arrest of a criminal suspect;

(2) Deciding whether to initiate litigation;










17.Procurators perform their duties in accordance with statutory provisions and the chief procurator's delegation.


Procurators personally bear responsibility for the following matters:




(4) Preside over open reviews and announce disposition decisions;

(5) Represent the procuratorate in presenting supervisory opinions.

(6) appear at court;

(7) Other matters for which procurators should personally bear responsibility.

18. The principle procurator shall perform the following duties in addition to the duties of a procurator:









20.Procuratorate assistants perform the following duties under the procurators guidance.








21.省级人民检察院结合本地实际,根据检察业务类别、办案组织形式,制定辖区内各级人民检察院检察官权力清单,可以将检察长的部分职权委托检察官行使。 各省级人民检察院制定的权力清单报最高人民检察院备案。

V. Completing Mechanisms for Procuratorate Management and Oversight

22.加强上级人民检察院对下级人民检察院司法办案工作的领导。 上级人民检察院可以指令下级人民检察院纠正错误决定,或依法撤销、变更下级人民检察院对案件的决定;可以对下级人民检察院管辖的案件指定异地管辖;可以在辖区内人民检察院之间调配检察官异地履行职务。


23.下级人民检察院就本院正在办理的案件的处理或检察工作中的重大问题请示上级人民检察院的,应当经本院检察委员会讨论。 在请示中应当载明检察委员会讨论情况,包括各种意见及其理由以及检察长意见。

24.司法办案工作应当在统一业务应用系统上运行,实现办案信息网上录入、办案流程网上管理、办案活动网上监督。 检察长(分管副检察长)和业务部门负责人对办案工作审核、审批,应当在统一业务应用系统上进行。


26.建立随机分案为主、指定分案为辅的案件承办确定机制。 重大、疑难、复杂案件可以由检察长指定检察官办案组或独任检察官承办。

27.当事人举报投诉检察官违法办案,律师申诉、控告检察官阻碍其依法行使诉讼权利,或有迹象表明检察官违法办案的,检察长可以要求检察官报告办案情况。 检察长认为确有必要的,可以更换承办案件的检察官,并将相关情况记录在案。

28.建立以履职情况、办案数量、办案质效、司法技能、外部评价等为主要内容的检察官业绩评价体系。 评价结果作为检察官任职和晋职晋级的重要依据。

29.建立办案质量评价机制,以常规抽查、重点评查、专项评查等方式对办案质量进行专业评价。 评价结果应当在一定范围内公开。

30. Build open, dynamic, transparent, and convenient sunshine judicial mechanisms. 建立健全案件程序性信息查询平台、重要案件信息发布平台、法律文书公开平台、辩护与代理预约平台,推进新媒体公开平台建设。

31.Conscientiously accept the supervision of the people's congress, political consultative committees, all aspects of society, news media and people's supervisors; ensure lawyers' practice rights in accordance with law. Further improve internal check mechanisms, strengthen the oversight by discipline and inspection review institutions

VI. Strict Determination and Pursuit of Judicial Responsibility

32.Procuratorate personnel shall bear judicial responsibility for their performance of judicial duties, and be responsible for life for the quality of cases within the scope of their duties.

Judicial responsibility includes responsibility for intentional violations of laws and regulations, responsibility for gross negligence and responsibility for oversight and management. Other conduct of judicial personnel that violates laws and regulations, but is not related to judicial case-handling activities, is handled in accordance with the law, the "Procuratorate Personnel Disciplinary Sanctions Regulations (Provisional)" and other relevant provisions.



34. Procuratorial staff who, in the course of handling judicial cases, intentionally perform one of the following acts, shall bear judicial responsibility:

(1) Shielding or indulging/colluding with reported persons, criminal suspects or defendants, or pursuing judicial responsibility for persons who are innocent;

(2) Destroying, fabricating, altering or concealing evidence;

(3) Extracting evidence through torture or using violence to obtain evidence or using other unlawful methods to obtain evidence;

(4) Violating regulations to deprive or restrict the personal freedom of parties or witnesses;

(5) Violating regulations to restrict litigants in the exercise of their rights to engage in litigation, resulting in grave or odious consequences;

(6) Acting in excess of jurisdictional authority for criminal cases in preliminary investigations (chucha) or in filing cases for criminal investigation (li'an);

(7) Unlawfully seizing or damaging/destroying parties' property;

(8) Sealing, seizing, freezing, taking care of or handling property involved in a case in violation of laws or regulations;

(9) Either refusing to, or delaying, the payment of compensation in cases where it has already been decided that state compensation will be paid;

(10) Using weapons, or police implements in violation of laws or regulations;

(11) Other violations of litigation procedure or regulations for the handling of judicial cases, which cause grave or odious consequences.

25. Where procuratorate personnel have gross negligence, lax performance or incorrect performance of duties in judicial case-handling, causing any of the following consequences, they shall bear judicial responsibility:




(4) Where persons involved in the case commit suicide, harm themselves, or commit acts of violence;





36.Where procuratorate personnel responsible for oversight management duties either intentionally or through gross negligence, are lax in exercising, or improperly exercise, oversight management powers, causing a serious error in judicial case handling work, they shall bear corresponding judicial responsibility.

37.In cases where a single procurator undertakes the case and makes decisions, the single procurator bears responsibility.

检察官办案组承办的案件,由其负责人和其他检察官共同承担责任。 办案组负责人对职权范围内决定的事项承担责任,其他检察官对自己的行为承担责任。


38.检察辅助人员参与司法办案工作的,根据职权和分工承担相应的责任。 检察官有审核把关责任的,应当承担相应的责任。

39.检察长(副检察长)除承担监督管理的司法责任外,对在职权范围内作出的有关办案事项决定承担完全责任。 对于检察官在职权范围内作出决定的事项,检察长(副检察长)不因签发法律文书承担司法责任。 检察官根据检察长(副检察长)的要求进行复核并改变原处理意见的,由检察长(副检察长)与检察官共同承担责任。 检察长(副检察长)改变检察官决定的,对改变部分承担责任。







人民检察院纪检监察机构应当及时向检察官惩戒委员会通报当事检察官的故意违反法律法规或重大过失事实及拟处理建议、依据,并就其故意违反法律法规或重大过失承担举证责任。 当事检察官有权进行陈述、辩解、申请复议。


A work charter for the procurator disciplinary committee is to be separately drafted.





45. Where procuratorate personnel are not satisfied with a disposition decision, they have the right to submit an appeal in accordance with the "People's Procuratorate Work Regulations"

46.Procurators receive the protection of law when performing their duties in accordance with law. 非因法定事由、非经法定程序,不得将检察官调离、辞退或作出免职、降级等处分。 检察官依法办理案件不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。 检察官对法定职责范围之外的事务有权拒绝执行。

  VII. Other


48.The Supreme People's Procuratorate is Responsible for Interpreting these Opinions.

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