Plan on Building the Rule of Law in China (2020–2025)

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The rule of law is an important symbol of progress in human civilization, it is the basic method of governing the country, and is steadfast pursuit of the Communist Party of China and the Chinese people. Thriving rule of law makes the country thrive, and strong rule of law makes the country strong. This plan is formulated for the overall coordination and advancement of the construction of the rule of law in China.

I. Unerringly Follow the Path of Socialist Rule of Law with Chinese Characteristics, and Strive to Build a China Under Rule of Law with Good Laws and Good Governance

党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央从坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的全局和战略高度定位法治、布局法治、厉行法治,将全面依法治国纳入“四个全面”战略布局,加强党对全面依法治国的集中统一领导,全面推进科学立法、严格执法、公正司法、全民守法,形成了习近平法治思想,开创了全面依法治国新局面,为在新的起点上建设法治中国奠定了坚实基础。

当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局,我国正处于实现中华民族伟大复兴关键时期,改革发展稳定任务艰巨繁重,全面对外开放深入推进,人民群众在民主、法治、公平、正义、安全、环境等方面的要求日益增长,需要更好发挥法治固根本、稳预期、利长远的保障作用。 在统揽伟大斗争、伟大工程、伟大事业、伟大梦想,全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程上,必须把全面依法治国摆在全局性、战略性、基础性、保障性位置,向着全面建成法治中国不断前进。

(1) Guiding Ideology

高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,坚持以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观、习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,全面贯彻党的十九大和十九届二中、三中、四中、五中全会精神,全面贯彻习近平法治思想,增强“四个意识”、坚定“四个自信”、做到“两个维护”,坚持党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一,坚定不移走中国特色社会主义法治道路,培育和践行社会主义核心价值观,以解决法治领域突出问题为着力点,建设中国特色社会主义法治体系,建设社会主义法治国家,在法治轨道上推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,提高党依法治国、依法执政能力,为全面建设社会主义现代化国家、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦提供有力法治保障。

(2) Main principles

——Persist in the centralized and unified leadership of the Party. 牢牢把握党的领导是社会主义法治最根本的保证,坚持党领导立法、保证执法、支持司法、带头守法,充分发挥党总揽全局、协调各方的领导核心作用,确保法治中国建设的正确方向。

——Persist in implementing the theory of Socialist Rule of Law with Chinese Characteristics. 深入贯彻习近平法治思想,系统总结运用新时代中国特色社会主义法治建设的鲜活经验,不断推进理论和实践创新发展。

——Persist in being centered on the people. 坚持法治建设为了人民、依靠人民,促进人的全面发展,努力让人民群众在每一项法律制度、每一个执法决定、每一宗司法案件中都感受到公平正义,加强人权法治保障,非因法定事由、非经法定程序不得限制、剥夺公民、法人和其他组织的财产和权利。

——Persist in overall coordination and advancement. 坚持依法治国、依法执政、依法行政共同推进,坚持法治国家、法治政府、法治社会一体建设,坚持依法治国和以德治国相结合,坚持依法治国和依规治党有机统一,全面推进科学立法、严格执法、公正司法、全民守法。

——Persist in being problem-focused and goal-oriented. 聚焦党中央关注、人民群众反映强烈的突出问题和法治建设薄弱环节,着眼推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,固根基、扬优势、补短板、强弱项,切实增强法治中国建设的时代性、针对性、实效性。

---Persist in proceeding from the realities in China. 立足我国基本国情,统筹考虑经济社会发展状况、法治建设总体进程、人民群众需求变化等综合因素,汲取中华法律文化精华,借鉴国外法治有益经验,循序渐进、久久为功,确保各项制度设计行得通、真管用。

(3) Overall Goals

建设法治中国,应当实现法律规范科学完备统一,执法司法公正高效权威,权力运行受到有效制约监督,人民合法权益得到充分尊重保障,法治信仰普遍确立,法治国家、法治政府、法治社会全面建成。

到2025年,党领导全面依法治国体制机制更加健全,以宪法为核心的中国特色社会主义法律体系更加完备,职责明确、依法行政的政府治理体系日益健全,相互配合、相互制约的司法权运行机制更加科学有效,法治社会建设取得重大进展,党内法规体系更加完善,中国特色社会主义法治体系初步形成。

到2035年,法治国家、法治政府、法治社会基本建成,中国特色社会主义法治体系基本形成,人民平等参与、平等发展权利得到充分保障,国家治理体系和治理能力现代化基本实现。

II. Comprehensively Implement the Constitution; Resolutely Preserve the Dignity and Authority of the Constitution

建设法治中国,必须高度重视宪法在治国理政中的重要地位和作用,坚持依宪治国、依宪执政,把全面贯彻实施宪法作为首要任务,健全保证宪法全面实施的体制机制,将宪法实施和监督提高到新水平。

(4) Persist in having the Constitution as the fundamental norm for activities. 全国各族人民、一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织,都负有维护宪法尊严、保证宪法实施的职责,都不得有超越宪法法律的特权。 坚持宪法法律至上,维护国家法制统一、尊严、权威,一切法律法规规章规范性文件都不得同宪法相抵触,一切违反宪法法律的行为都必须予以追究。 党带头尊崇和执行宪法,把党领导人民制定和实施宪法法律同党坚持在宪法法律范围内活动统一起来,保障宪法法律的有效实施。

(5) Strengthen Constitutional Enforcement and Oversight. The National People's Congress and its Standing Committee must truly undertake duties of Constitutional oversight, strengthening implementation and oversight of the Constitution and making it an important part of the Standing Committee's annual report. Laws, decisions, and resolutions passed or made by the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee shall ensure their compliance with the provisions and spirit of the Constitution. Advance constitutional review efforts, complete systems for constitutional review, and clarify the principles, contents, and procedures of constitutional review. Establish and complete systems for prior review and consultation involving constitutional issues; in which a written request for Constitutional review is submitted to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress in accordance with relevant provisions for all proposed administrative regulations, military regulations, supervision regulations, local regulations, special economic zone regulations, autonomous regulations and special regulations, departmental rules, local government rules, judicial interpretations and other normative documents, important policies, and major measures in relevant areas that involve questions of how to understand, implement or apply provisions of the Constitution. In recording-and-review work, emphasis shall be on reviewing whether there is any content that does not conform to the provisions and the spirit of the Constitution. Strengthen efforts on constitutional interpretation, put procedures and mechanisms for constitutional interpretation in place, and respond to concerns related to constitutional issues.

(6) Advance publicity and education on the Constitution. Carry out in-depth publicity and education activities for the whole society on respecting, studying, obeying, preserving, and using the Constitution, popularize the knowledge of the Constitution and carry forward its spirit. Take hold of the "key minority" of leading cadres, making the study of the Constitution and the laws an important part of the organized study in Party committee (group) theoretical study centers, and incorporating it into the training and education system for Party and State personnel Fully implement the constitutional oath system. Strengthen education for youths on the constitution and laws, enhancing their awareness of rules and their conception of rule of law. Build the National Constitution Publicy and Education Hall on the foundation of the "May 4th Constitution" historical materials exhibition pavillion. Strengthen the compilation, revision, and use of research and teaching materials on constitutional theory, consolidating the characteristics of our nation's Constitution in this era and in practice, to form a socialist constitutional theory and discourse system with Chinese characteristics.

III. Build a Complete System of Legal Norms, and Use Good Laws to Promote Development and Ensure Good Governance

To establish a China with rule of law, legislative work must be strengthened and improved to thoroughly advance legislation that is scientific, democratic, and law-based, and continuously improve its quality and efficiency, to guarantee high-quality development through high-quality legislation, promote comprehensive and deep reforms, and maintain overall social stability.

(7) Improve the framework for legislative work. Strengthen the party’s leadership over legislative work, and improve the legislative work structure featuring party committee leadership, NPC leadership, government support, and participation of all parties. The Party Central Committee is to lead the country’s legislative work and is to study and decide upon major issues in the country’s legislative work; Party committees in places with legislative authority are to lead the legislative work in their respective regions in accordance with the policies of the Party Central Committee.

Improve the system and mechanism under which the people’s congresses leading the legislative work. Strengthen people’s congresses' organization and coordination of legislative work, and give play to the deliberation and gatekeeping role of the people’s congresses and their standing committees. Complete mechanisms for the relevant NPC special committees and NPCSC working bodies taking the lead in drafting important bills. Give greater play to the role of people's congress delegates in drafting and revising laws and regulations; meetings of people's congresses shall all generally arrange for the deliberation of laws and regulations. Study and improve the meeting system of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, and explore increasing the number of meetings for the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress to deliberate laws and regulations. Give full play to the role of the constituent members of the standing committees of people’s congresses in legislation, and gradually increase the proportion of full-time standing committee members, especially those with experience in rule-of-law practice.

Emphasize giving play to the important role of government in legislative work. Do a good job of drafting laws and local rules, and strengthen legislative coordination between government departments. Formulate administrative regulations and rules, in strict accordance with legally-prescribed authority and procedures to ensure the quality of administrative regulations and rules.

Broaden the channels and means for all aspects of society to orderly participate in legislation. Strengthen legislative consultations, and give full play to the role of CPPCC members, democratic parties, federations of industry and commerce, people without party affiliation, people's organizations, and social organizations in legislative consultations.

(8) Persist in combining legislation, revision, abolition, and interpretation. Strengthen legislation in key fields, emerging fields, and fields related to foreign interests. Promote the implementation of new concepts of development and build a new framework of development, accelerating the improvement of urgently needed laws and regulations such as on deepening supply-side structural reforms, promoting innovation-driven development, and preventing and defusing financial risks. Strengthen restraints and oversight on the use of power, complete laws and regulations that regulate joint administrative actions, and research and draft an Administrative Procedures Law. Focusing on strengthening the construction of socialist culture, improve laws and regulations on the development of cultural affairs, cultural industries, and the protection of intellectual property rights. Strengthen the construction of legal systems that safeguard and improve the people’s livelihood and innovate in terms of social governance, in order to provide strong guarantees for advancing the modernization of education, implementing the Healthy China strategy, and maintaining social order. Strengthen the establishment of legislation and accompanying schemes for epidemic prevention and control, improving related punishment procedures, strengthening safeguards for public safety, and building a legal system for responding to public health emergencies that is comprehensive, scientifically standardized, and effectively implemented. Strengthen the construction of legal systems associated with and complementary to the Civil Code. Strengthen legislation in the field of national security. Improve the legal scheme for integrated military-civilian development. Strengthen legislation in the field of information technology, and promptly follow up on and study relevant legal schemes on issues such as the digital economy, internet finance, artificial intelligence, big data, and cloud computing, to make up for shortcomings without delay. Strengthen the construction of legal schemes for coordinated regional development. In formulating and revising laws and regulations, effort must be made to solve the problems of the cost of violations being low and punishment levels too low. Coordinate the resolution of problems of laws and regulations not being as rigid, strict, or severe as they should be in some sectors, such as food and medicine, ecology and environment, and production safety,

Promptly organize clean-ups for problems such as inconsistencies, incongruity, and incompatibility between legal provisions. Where there are multiple laws in a certain sector, codification should be carried out when conditions are ripe. Strengthen the coordination and supporting work for legislation, simultaneously researching and drafting both the draft law and its supporting regulations, to enhance the effectiveness of legal norms as a whole. Strengthen legislative evaluation and assessment work. Strengthen the interpretation of laws and regulations. Build a national unified information platform for laws, regulations, rules, administrative normative documents, judicial interpretations, and internal party regulations.

Persist in the linkage and promotion of legislation and reform, ensuring that major reforms are based on law, and giving full play to the leading and promoting role of legislation. Where reform is urgently needed and conditions are ripe for legislation, it should be quickly introduced; where the conditions are not yet ripe for legislation and advance trials are required, an authorizing or reform decision or reform decision is to be promptly made in accordance with law. Where reform measures involved in the authorization or reform decision are proven feasible in practice, the relevant laws and regulations shall be promptly formulated or revised in accordance with procedures.

Improve the legal policy systems that promote the Core Socialist Values, and integrate the requirements of the Core Socialist Value ​​into the establishment of rule of law and social governance.

Strengthen rule of law safeguards for major national development strategies such as the coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, the integrated development of the Yangtze River Delta, the ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin, and the advancement of comprehensive deepening of reform and opening n Hainan.

(9) Complete mechanisms for legislative work. Complete mechanisms for initiating, drafting, debating, coordinating, and deliberating legislation, to increase the focus, timeliness, systematicness, and feasibility of legislation. Improve systems for the formulation of legislative plans, giving full play to the overall planning and guiding role of the legislative plans. Complete mechanisms for public consultation on draft laws, expand the coverage and representativeness of public participation, and enhance transparency in legislating. For legislative projects that are closely related to the operations of enterprises, fully hear out the opinions of relevant enterprises, industry associations, and chambers of commerce. Complete mechanisms for soliciting public opinions and accepting feedback, so that explanations shall be given where relatively concentrated opinions are not adopted. Make full use of big data analysis to provide statistical analysis and a basis for decision-making on major issues in legislation. Strengthen debate and consultation on legislation that involves adjustments of major interests, and advance the introduction of third-party assessments for important legislative matters over which there is significant controversy. Establish and complete coordination mechanisms for major legislative disputes to prevent long delays in legislative projects. Improve the technical specifications for legislation and strengthen legislative guidance.

(10) Strengthen local legislative work. Regions with legislative authority shall closely integrate local development needs and actual conditions, highlight local characteristics, and complete legislative work in a focussed, effective, and creative fashion. Complete mechanisms for local legislative work to improve the quality of legislation, ensure that it does not conflict with higher-level laws, and truly avoid legislation that exceeds legal authority, duplicative legislation, or blind legislation. Establish and complete mechanisms for coordinating regional legislative work and strengthen the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress's uniform guidance over local legislation that crosses regions. Before the end of 2025, complete rotational training for local legislators across the country.

IV. Establish High-efficacy Systems for Implementing the Rule of Law, Thoroughly Advancing Strict Law Enforcement, A Fair Judiciary, and a Population that Complies with Law

Strict law enforcement, a just judiciary, and the whole population's compliance with law must be thoroughly advanced to establish rule of law in China, completing a system of rule of law safeguards for social fairness and justice, tightly weaving the net of rule of law, strengthening the force of rule of law, and continuously strengthen the people's feelings of gain, happiness, and security.

(11) Build government governance systems with clear duties and administration in accordance with law. Governments at all levels must persist in administration in accordance with law, must act according to statutory responsibilities, and must not act without lawful authorization; and government activities must be fully put on the path of the rule of law.

Perform government functions fully in accordance with law, emphasize clarifying the relationships between government and market and between government and society, and pay more attention to the use of laws and systems to curb improper interference in economic activities. Thoroughly advance the streamlining of administration and delegation of power, and continue to rectify violations of laws and regulations in the indirect establishment of matters for administrative licensing. Vigorously promote the administration list system and implement dynamic management; compiling and publishing the lists of items for administrative licensing and items for filing management set at the central level, and completing compilation and publication of the list of State Council departmental authority and responsibilities in the first half of 2022.

Strictly implement systems for major administrative decision-making procedures to effectively prevent illegal, improper, and delayed decision-making. Give full play to the role of legal consultants and government lawyers in major administrative decision-making. Establish and complete the feedback tracking and assessment systems for major administrative decision-making. Fully advance mechanisms for reviewing the legality of administrative normative documents, wherein any administrative normative documents that involve the rights and obligations of citizens, legal persons, or other organizations should be reviewed for legality.

Deepen reforms of the administrative law enforcement system, coordinate the allocation of administrative law enforcement functions and resources, and minimize unnecessary administrative law enforcement matters as much as possible. Further integrate administrative law enforcement teams and continue to explore the implementation of comprehensive law enforcement across sectors and departments. Promote the shift of the focus of law enforcement down to the city and county governments, and increasingly slanting the focus of law enforcement personnel, funds, resources, and equipment to the grassroots level. Complete ex-ante , interim, and ex-post mechanisms for effective oversight connections, information interconnectivity and sharing, coordination and cooperation. Improve the coordination mechanism for administrative law enforcement authority. Complete linkage mechanisms between administrative law enforcement and criminal justice, and comprehensively advance the construction and application of the "Linking the two Laws" information platform. Improve the systems and mechanisms for compulsory administrative enforcement. Establish and improve mechanisms for joint military-local law enforcement.

Persist in strict, fair, and civilized law enforcement, fully implementing the administrative law enforcement publicity system, the system for recording the full process of law enforcement, and the legal review system for major law enforcement decisions. Strengthen law enforcement in key areas related to the vital interests of the people, such as food and medicine, public health, ecological environment, production safety, labor security, and wildlife protection. Advance the establishment of unified management for administrative law enforcement personnel qualifications and credentials, basic standards of administrative law enforcement documents, and the comprehensive management and oversight system for administrative law enforcement. Fully implement the system of norms for administrative discretion and regulate discretion in law enforcement. Improve and innovate in law enforcement methods, strengthen the use of non-compulsory administrative tactics such as administrative guidance, administrative rewards, and administrative settlement. Establish a case guidance system for administrative law enforcement. Establish and complete risk prevention and control mechanisms for administrative law enforcement. Strictly implement laws and regulations on emergency response, implement emergency response measures in accordance with law, and comprehensively increase the capacity and level of emergency response in accordance with law.

Strengthen and innovate in oversight during and after the fact, advancing joint cross-departmental “Double Random, Single Disclosure” oversight, strengthen key oversight for key sectors; explore new forms of oversight methods such as credit oversight, big data oversight, and permissive and prudent oversight; and strive to form systems for interim and ex post oversight that have full coverage, zero tolerance, greater transparency, emphasize efficacy, and preserve safety. Continue to carry out the action to "reduce documents for the people's convenience", and implement the notification and pledge system for certification matters.

持续营造法治化营商环境,实施统一的市场准入负面清单制度,清理破除隐性准入壁垒,普遍落实“非禁即入”。 全面清理、废止对非公有制经济的各种形式不合理规定,坚决纠正滥用行政权力排除、限制竞争行为。 全面清理违法违规的涉企收费、检查、摊派事项和评比达标表彰活动。 加强政务诚信建设,重点治理政府失信行为,加大惩处和曝光力度。 实行知识产权侵权惩罚性赔偿制度,激励和保护科技创新。

加快推进“互联网+政务服务”,政务服务重点领域和高频事项基本实现“一网、一门、一次”。 2022年年底前建成全国一体化政务服务平台,除法律法规另有规定或涉及国家秘密等外,政务服务事项全部纳入平台办理,全面实现“一网通办”。

(12) Establish a socialist justice system with Chinese characteristics that is just, highly-effective, and authoritative. 紧紧抓住影响司法公正、制约司法能力的深层次问题,坚持符合国情和遵循司法规律相结合,坚持和加强党对司法工作的绝对领导。 健全公安机关、检察机关、审判机关、司法行政机关各司其职,侦查权、检察权、审判权、执行权相互配合、相互制约的体制机制。 深化司法体制综合配套改革,全面落实司法责任制。

Clarify the functional positioning of the four-level courts and give full play to the supervisory function of the trial level. 完善民事再审程序,探索将具有普遍法律适用指导意义、关乎社会公共利益的案件交由较高层级法院审理。 Improve the working mechanisms of the circuit courts of the Supreme People's Court and complete comprehensive supporting measures. Improve the construction of special courts for intellectual property, finance, and maritime affairs, and strengthen the construction of Internet courts. Deepen the reform of a system of judicial jurisdictions appropriately distinct from administrative regions. Improve the judicial protection system for minors.

Persist in "letting those who hear a case make the judgment, and holding those who make the judgment responsible", to empower judges hearing cases alone and collegiate panels in accordance with the law. Complete mechanisms for the trial of major, difficult, and complicated cases by division heads and court presidents. 坚持“谁办案谁负责、谁决定谁负责”,落实检察官办案主体地位。 Improve the system of procurators in leadership positions directly handling cases. 加强办案团队建设,推动司法人员专业化分工、类案专业化办理。 健全专业法官会议、检察官联席会议制度,切实发挥为办案组织提供法律咨询的功能。 Strengthen and improve the guiding case system to ensure uniform application of law.

深化以审判为中心的刑事诉讼制度改革。 健全侦查机关调查收集证据制度,规范补充侦查、不起诉、撤回起诉制度。 完善庭前会议、非法证据排除制度,规范法庭调查和庭审量刑程序,落实证人、鉴定人、侦查人员出庭作证制度,完善技术侦查证据的法庭调查和使用规则。 完善认罪认罚从宽制度,落实宽严相济刑事政策。 改革刑事申诉制度,对不服司法机关生效裁判和决定的申诉,逐步实行由律师代理制度。 健全落实法律援助值班律师制度,实现刑事案件律师辩护、法律帮助全覆盖。 健全有关工作机制,依法从严从快惩处妨碍突发事件应对的违法犯罪行为。

Improve systems and institutions for civil litigation. 探索扩大小额诉讼程序适用范围,完善其与简易程序、普通程序的转换适用机制。 Explore expanding the range for applying single judge trials. Optimize the application of judicial confirmation procedures. Reform the litigation fee system. 全面建设集约高效、多元解纷、便民利民、智慧精准、开放互动、交融共享的现代化诉讼服务体系。 加快推进跨域立案诉讼服务改革,2022年年底前实现诉讼服务就近能办、同城通办、异地可办。

深化执行体制改革,加强执行难综合治理、源头治理。 深入推进审执分离,优化执行权配置,落实统一管理、统一指挥、统一协调的执行工作机制。 Improve the systems for enforcing criminal punishments and unify enforcement structures. Deepen reforms of the prison system and mechanisms, implementing a system divided by types of crimes and prison level. Improve the community corrections system. 完善监狱、看守所与社区矫正和安置帮教机构之间的工作对接机制。

(13) Thoroughly advance the populations' compliance with law. 全面依法治国需要全社会共同参与,必须大力弘扬社会主义法治精神,建设社会主义法治文化,引导全体人民做社会主义法治的忠实崇尚者、自觉遵守者、坚定捍卫者。

改进创新普法工作,加大全民普法力度,增强全民法治观念。 建立健全立法工作宣传报道常态化机制,对立法热点问题主动发声、解疑释惑。 全面落实“谁执法谁普法”普法责任制。 深入开展法官、检察官、行政复议人员、行政执法人员、律师等以案释法活动。 加强突发事件应对法治宣传教育和法律服务。

广泛推动人民群众参与社会治理,打造共建共治共享的社会治理格局。 完善群众参与基层社会治理的制度化渠道。 加快推进市域社会治理现代化。 健全社会治理规范体系。 发挥工会、共青团、妇联等群团组织引领联系群众参与社会治理的作用。 加快推进社会信用立法,完善失信惩戒机制。 规范失信惩戒对象名单制度,依法依规明确制定依据、适用范围、惩治标准和救济机制,在加强失信惩戒的同时保护公民、企业合法权益。 加强对产权的执法司法保护,健全涉产权错案甄别纠正机制。 完善对暴力袭警行为的刑事责任追究制度。 加大对暴力伤害医务人员犯罪行为打击力度。

紧紧围绕人民日益增长的美好生活需要加强公共法律服务,加快整合律师、公证、调解、仲裁、法律援助、司法鉴定等公共法律服务资源,到2022年基本形成覆盖城乡、便捷高效、均等普惠的现代公共法律服务体系。 构建公共法律服务评价指标体系,以群众满意度来检验公共法律服务工作成效。 Promote the construction of a high-quality foreign-related legal service team and build a group of high-level foreign-related legal service institutions.

积极引导人民群众依法维权和化解矛盾纠纷,坚持和发展新时代“枫桥经验”。 Give full play to the role of people's mediation as the front-line firewall, improving systems for connecting the work of people's mediation, administrative mediation, and judicial mediation. 全面开展律师调解工作。 完善调解、信访、仲裁、行政裁决、行政复议、诉讼等社会矛盾纠纷多元预防调处化解综合机制,整合基层矛盾纠纷化解资源和力量,充分发挥非诉纠纷解决机制作用。 深化法律援助制度改革,扩大法律援助覆盖面。 有序推进行政裁决工作,探索扩大行政裁决适用范围。

V. Establish a tight legal supervision system to effectively strengthen the supervision of legislation, law enforcement, and judicial work

建设法治中国,必须抓紧完善权力运行制约和监督机制,规范立法、执法、司法机关权力行使,构建党统一领导、全面覆盖、权威高效的法治监督体系。

(14) Advance overall oversight of rule of law work. 加强党对法治监督工作的集中统一领导,把法治监督作为党和国家监督体系的重要内容,保证行政权、监察权、审判权、检察权得到依法正确行使,保证公民、法人和其他组织合法权益得到切实保障。 加强国家机关监督、民主监督、群众监督和舆论监督,形成法治监督合力,发挥整体监督效能。 推进执纪执法贯通、有效衔接司法。 完善人民监督员制度。 坚持以公开为常态、不公开为例外,全面推进立法公开、执法公开、司法公开,逐步扩大公开范围,提升公开服务水平,主动接受新闻媒体舆论监督和社会监督。 党委政法委应当指导、推动政法单位建立健全与执法司法权运行机制相适应的制约监督体系,构建权责清晰的执法司法责任体系,健全政治督察、综治督导、执法监督、纪律作风督查巡查等制度机制。

(15) Strengthen legislative oversight work. 建立健全立法监督工作机制,完善监督程序。 推进法律法规规章起草征求人大代表、政协委员意见工作。 依法处理国家机关和社会团体、企业事业组织、公民对法规规章等书面提出的审查要求或者审查建议。

加强备案审查制度和能力建设,实现有件必备、有备必审、有错必纠。 完善备案审查程序,明确审查范围、标准和纠正措施。 强化对地方各级政府和县级以上政府部门行政规范性文件、地方各级监察委员会监察规范性文件的备案审查。 加强对司法解释的备案监督。 将地方法院、检察院制定的规范性文件纳入本级人大常委会备案审查范围。 加快建立全国统一的备案审查信息平台。 建立健全党委、人大常委会、政府、军队等之间的备案审查衔接联动机制。 建立健全备案审查工作年度报告制度。

(16) Strengthen oversight of law enforcement work. 加强省市县乡四级全覆盖的行政执法协调监督工作体系建设,强化全方位、全流程监督,提高执法质量。 加大对执法不作为、乱作为、选择性执法、逐利执法等有关责任人的追责力度,落实行政执法责任制和责任追究制度。 完善行政执法投诉举报和处理机制。

加强和改进行政复议工作,强化行政复议监督功能,加大对违法和不当行政行为的纠错力度。 推进行政复议体制改革,整合行政复议职责,畅通行政复议渠道,2022年前基本形成公正权威、统一高效的行政复议工作体制。 健全行政复议案件审理机制,加强行政复议规范化、专业化、信息化建设。 规范和加强行政应诉工作。

(17) Strengthen oversight of judicial activities. 健全对法官、检察官办案的制约和监督制度,促进司法公正。 全面推行法官、检察官办案责任制,统一规范法官、检察官办案权限。 加强审判权、检察权运行监督管理,明确法院院长、庭长和检察院检察长、业务部门负责人监督管理权力和责任,健全审判人员、检察人员权责清单。 完善对担任领导职务的法官、检察官办案情况的考核监督机制,配套建立内部公示、定期通报机制。 健全落实司法机关内部人员过问案件记录追责、规范司法人员与律师和当事人等接触交往行为的制度。 构建科学合理的司法责任认定和追究制度。 完善司法人员惩戒制度,明确惩戒情形和程序。

完善民事、行政检察监督和检察公益诉讼案件办理机制。 健全对最高人民法院巡回法庭、知识产权法院、金融法院、互联网法院等的法律监督机制。 拓展公益诉讼案件范围,完善公益诉讼法律制度,探索建立民事公益诉讼惩罚性赔偿制度。 Improve the system of procuratorial suggestions.

完善刑事立案监督和侦查监督工作机制。 健全刑事案件统一审核、统一出口工作机制,规范证据审查判断与运用。 健全侦查机关办理重大案件听取检察机关意见建议制度。 完善对查封、扣押、冻结等侦查措施的监督机制。 健全刑事申诉案件受理、移送、复查机制。 推动在市县公安机关建设执法办案管理中心。

加强人权司法保障。 建立重大案件侦查终结前对讯问合法性进行核查制度。 健全讯问犯罪嫌疑人、听取辩护人意见工作机制。 建立对监狱、看守所的巡回检察制度。 完善看守所管理制度。 完善有效防范和及时发现、纠正冤假错案工作机制。 健全辩护人、诉讼代理人行使诉讼权利保障机制。

VI. Establish a Forceful System of Rule of Law Safeguards, Building a Robust Backing for a China with Rule of Law

建设法治中国,必须加强政治、组织、队伍、人才、科技、信息等保障,为全面依法治国提供重要支撑。

(18) Strengthen political and organizational safeguards. 各级党委(党组)和领导干部要支持立法、执法、司法机关开展工作,支持司法机关依法独立公正行使职权。 党的各级组织部门等要发挥职能作用,保障推进法治中国建设。 中央和省级党政部门要明确负责本部门法治工作的机构。 各级立法、执法、司法机关党组(党委)要加强领导、履职尽责,机关基层党组织和党员要充分发挥战斗堡垒和先锋模范作用,保障宪法法律实施。 严格执行《领导干部干预司法活动、插手具体案件处理的记录、通报和责任追究规定》。

(19) Strengthen team and personnel safeguards. 牢牢把握忠于党、忠于国家、忠于人民、忠于法律的总要求,大力提高法治工作队伍思想政治素质、业务工作能力、职业道德水准,努力建设一支德才兼备的高素质法治工作队伍。

建设革命化、正规化、专业化、职业化的法治专门队伍。 坚持把政治标准放在首位,加强科学理论武装,深入开展理想信念教育。 完善法律职业准入、资格管理制度,建立法律职业人员统一职前培训制度和在职法官、检察官、警官、律师同堂培训制度。 完善从符合条件的律师、法学专家中招录立法工作者、法官、检察官、行政复议人员制度。 加强立法工作队伍建设。 建立健全立法、执法、司法部门干部和人才常态化交流机制,加大法治专门队伍与其他部门具备条件的干部和人才交流力度。 加强边疆地区、民族地区和基层法治专门队伍建设。 健全法官、检察官员额管理制度,规范遴选标准、程序。 加强执法司法辅助人员队伍建设。 建立健全符合职业特点的法治工作人员管理制度,完善职业保障体系。 健全执法司法人员依法履职免责、履行职务受侵害保障救济、不实举报澄清等制度。 加强法治专门队伍教育培训。

加快发展律师、公证、司法鉴定、仲裁、调解等法律服务队伍。 健全职业道德准则、执业行为规范,完善职业道德评价机制。 把拥护中国共产党领导、拥护我国社会主义法治作为法律服务人员从业的基本要求。 坚持和加强党对律师工作的领导,推动律师行业党的建设。 完善律师执业权利保障制度机制。 健全法官、检察官、律师等法律职业人员惩戒机制,建立律师不良执业信息记录披露和查询制度。 发展公职律师、公司律师和党政机关、企事业单位、村(居)法律顾问队伍。

构建凸显时代特征、体现中国特色的法治人才培养体系。 坚持以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,坚持立德树人、德法兼修,解决好为谁教、教什么、教给谁、怎样教的问题。 推动以马克思主义为指导的法学学科体系、学术体系、教材体系、话语体系建设。 深化高等法学教育改革,优化法学课程体系,强化法学实践教学,培养信念坚定、德法兼修、明法笃行的高素质法治人才。 推进教师队伍法治教育培训。 加强法学专业教师队伍建设。 Improve the curriculum of the foreign-related law specialty in colleges and universities. Strengthen the training of foreign-related legal personnel, and innovate the training model of foreign-related legal personnel. Establish and improve a two-way exchange mechanism among legal education, legal research workers and legal practitioners.

(20) Strengthen safeguards for technology and information technology. 充分运用大数据、云计算、人工智能等现代科技手段,全面建设“智慧法治”,推进法治中国建设的数据化、网络化、智能化。 优化整合法治领域各类信息、数据、网络平台,推进全国法治信息化工程建设。 加快公共法律服务实体平台、热线平台、网络平台有机融合,建设覆盖全业务、全时空的公共法律服务网络。

VII. Establish and improve intra-party legal systems, persisting in unerringly advancing Party governance in accordance with regulations.

建设法治中国,必须坚持依法治国和依规治党有机统一,加快形成覆盖党的领导和党的建设各方面的党内法规体系,增强党依法执政本领,提高管党治党水平,确保党始终成为中国特色社会主义事业的坚强领导核心。

(21) Complete the system of intra-Party regulations. 坚持和加强党的全面领导,坚持党要管党、全面从严治党,以党章为根本,以民主集中制为核心,不断完善党的组织法规、党的领导法规、党的自身建设法规、党的监督保障法规,构建内容科学、程序严密、配套完备、运行有效的党内法规体系。 坚持立改废释并举,与时俱进做好党内法规制定修订工作,完善清理工作机制,加大解释力度,提高党内法规质量。 健全党内法规备案审查制度,坚持有件必备、有备必审、有错必纠,维护党内法规体系统一性和权威性。 注重党内法规同国家法律的衔接和协调,努力形成国家法律和党内法规相辅相成、相互促进、相互保障的格局。

(22) Do a good job of implementing intra-Party regulations. 把提高党内法规执行力摆在更加突出位置,把抓“关键少数”和管“绝大多数”统一起来,以各级领导机关和党员领导干部带头尊规学规守规用规,带动全党遵规守纪。 加强学习教育,把重要党内法规列为党委(党组)理论学习中心组学习的重要内容,列为党校(行政学院)、干部学院重要教学内容,列入法治宣传教育规划重要任务。 加大党内法规公开力度,提高党内法规的普及度和知晓率。 落实党内法规执行责任制,做到有规必执、执规必严。 开展党内法规实施评估工作,推动党内法规实施。 强化监督检查和追责问责,将党内法规执行情况作为各级党委督促检查、巡视巡察重要内容,严肃查处违反党内法规的各种行为。

(23) Strengthen assurances for the establishment of intra-Party regulations. 加强党内法规专门工作队伍建设,突出政治标准,加强专业化建设,充实各级党内法规工作机构人员力量。 加快补齐党内法规理论研究方面短板,重点建设一批党内法规研究高端智库和研究教育基地,推动形成一批高质量研究成果,引领和聚集一批党内法规研究人才。 健全后备人才培养机制,继续推进在部分高校开展党内法规研究方向的研究生教育,加强学科建设,为党内法规事业持续发展提供人才支撑。

8. Tightly Focus on the Overall Situation of the Party and State in the New Era to Preserve National Sovereignty, Security, and Developmental Interests in Accordance with Law

建设法治中国,必须高度重视依法保障“一国两制”实践、巩固和深化两岸关系和平发展,运用法治思维和法治方式处理好国际经济、政治、社会事务,深入推进依法治军从严治军,更好维护和实现我国和平发展的战略目标。

(24) Lawfully ensure the implementation of "one country, two systems" and advance the unification of the motherland. Uphold the Constitutions position as the highest law with the highest legal effect; unerringly persist in fully and accurately implementing the directives of 'One Country, Two Systems', 'Hong Kong being governed by people of Hong Kong', 'Macao being governed by people of Macao', and a high degree of autonomy; persist in governing Hong Kong and Macao in accordance with law, preserve order in the Constitutional system of the special administrative regions set forth in the Constitution and Basic Law; organically unify the Center's comprehensive power to govern the special administrative regions with safeguards for the administrative regions' high degree of autonomy; improve systems and mechanisms related to the administrative regions' implementation of the Constitution and Basic Law. Support the chief executive and government of the special administrative region and in governance and positive action in accordance with the law, and fulfilling the constitutional responsibility to safeguard national sovereignty, security, and development interests. Complete and implement legal systems and enforcement mechanisms for preserving national security in the special administrative regions, to ensure the steady implementation of 'one country, two systems', Prevent and oppose foreign forces' intervention in Hong Kong and Macao affairs, preserving the long-term prosperity and stability of Hong Kong and Macao.

Explore a"one country, two systems" plan for Taiwan to advance the process of peaceful reunification of the motherland. Promote the achievement of institutionalized cross-strait arrangements on peaceful development, improve and promote cross-straight communication and cooperation, thoroughly integrate cross-straight development, and ensure institutional arrangements and policy measures for the well-being of Taiwan compatriots. Support cross-strait communication and exchanges in jurisprudence and legal circles. Use the rule of law to defend the one-China principle, resolutely oppose "Taiwan independence," and resolutely preserve the national sovereignty, security, and development interests.

Protect the rights and interests of Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan compatriots in accordance with law. Comprehensively advance cooperation between the mainland, Hong Kong, and Macao, improve policy measures for facilitating development in the mainland by residents of Hong Kong and Macao. Strengthen law enforcement cooperation and judicial assistance between the Mainland and Hong Kong and Macao, and between the Mainland and Taiwan, to jointly combat cross-border illegal and criminal activities.

(25) Strengthen rule of law work involving foreign interests. To meet the high-level needs of opening to the outside world, improve the system of laws and rules related to foreign interests, compensate for shortcomings, and raise the level of bringing efforts involving foreign interests under rule of law.

Actively participate in the formulation of international rules and promote the formation of a fair and reasonable international rule system. Accelerate the advancement of the construction of a legal system applicable outside the jurisdiction of our country. Rotating around promoting international cooperation in the joint construction of the “Belt and Road”, advance the construction and improvement of international commercial courts. Promote the establishment of joint arbitration mechanisms between our nation's arbitration institutions and national arbitration institutions under the "Belt and Road" initiative. 强化涉外法律服务,维护我国公民、法人在海外及外国公民、法人在我国的正当权益。 建立涉外工作法务制度。 引导对外经贸合作企业加强合规管理,提高法律风险防范意识。 建立健全域外法律查明机制。 推进对外法治宣传,讲好中国法治故事。 加强国际法研究和运用。

加强多双边法治对话,推进对外法治交流。 深化国际司法交流合作。 完善我国司法协助体制机制,推进引渡、遣返犯罪嫌疑人和被判刑人移管等司法协助领域国际合作。 积极参与执法安全国际合作,共同打击暴力恐怖势力、民族分裂势力、宗教极端势力和贩毒走私、跨国有组织犯罪。 加强反腐败国际合作,加大海外追逃追赃、遣返引渡力度。

(26) Thoroughly advance the strict governance of the military in accordance with law. 深入贯彻习近平强军思想,坚持党对人民军队绝对领导,全面深入贯彻军委主席负责制,围绕实现党在新时代的强军目标,加快构建完善的中国特色军事法治体系,推动治军方式根本性转变。

Accelerate the advancement of urgently needed reforms, preparations for war, and key legislative projects anticipated by soldiers and officers. 有力有序推进军事政策制度改革。 完善军事立法计划管理制度。 健全军事规范性文件审查和备案制度。 完善军事法规制度定期清理机制。 推动军事法制信息化建设,推进法规制度建设集成化、军事法规法典化。 2020年年底前,完成国防和军队建设各系统各领域主干法规制度改革,构建起中国特色社会主义军事法规制度体系基本框架;到2022年,健全各领域配套法规制度,构建起比较完备的中国特色社会主义军事法规制度体系。

Clarify the enforcement responsibilities and procedures for military regulations, and put systems in place for enforcement responsibility. Strengthen officers' and soldiers' faith in the rule of law, and thoughts on the rule of law, and deepen the activities on building military camps under the rule of law. Continue to implement the theoretical research project of the military rule of law, and organize the compilation of teaching materials on the unified theory of military rule of law. Strengthen international exchanges on the military rule of law and actively participate in the creation of international military rules. Comprehensively use methods such as internal Party supervision, hierarchical oversight, and special oversight to build a normalized and standardized military rule of law oversight system.

Establish a leadership system for the governance of military organizations in accordance with law, and establish a leading body for the military commission's governance of military organizations in accordance with law, and it's office. Complete the military legal system, establishing, adjusting and improving specialized military legal systems. Establish a military legal advisor system. Complete mechanisms for Party leadership of the military's political-legal work, strengthening the functions and roles of the military commissions' political-legal commission. Improve systems for military justice.

IX. Strengthen the Party's Centralized Leadership of the Establishment of a China with Rule of Law, Giving Full Play to the Party's Role in Taking Charge of the Overall Situation and Coordinating All Aspects

In establishing rule of law in China, the Party’s leadership must always be the most fundamental guarantee of the socialist rule of law, and strengthening the party’s leadership is to be implemented in the entire process and all aspects of the comprehensively governing the country in accordance with law.

(27) Thoroughly study, publicize, and implement Xi Jinping thought on rule of law. Xi Jinping's thought of rule of law is the fundamental guide for compliance and action in comprehensively governing the country according to law. 要加强部署安排,持续推动广大干部群众深入学习贯彻习近平法治思想,深刻领会蕴含其中的马克思主义立场观点方法,全面准确把握精神实质、丰富内涵和核心要义,增强学习贯彻的自觉性和坚定性。 各级党委(党组)理论学习中心组要将习近平法治思想作为重点内容,党校(行政学院)和干部学院要作为重点课程。 各地区各部门要组织党员、干部进行系统学习和培训。 法治工作部门要开展全战线、全覆盖的培训轮训。 要把习近平法治思想融入学校教育,纳入高校法治理论教学体系,做好进教材、进课堂、进头脑工作。 要开展深入研究和宣传,拓展学习宣传的广度深度。 运用新媒体新技术,加强网上宣讲。

(28) Promote governance in accordance with law. 健全党的全面领导制度。 推进党的领导入法入规,着力实现党的领导制度化、法治化。 完善党领导人大、政府、政协、监察机关、审判机关、检察机关、武装力量、人民团体、企事业单位、基层群众自治组织、社会组织等制度。 将坚持党的全面领导的要求载入国家机构组织法,载入政协、民主党派、工商联、人民团体、国有企业、高等学校、有关社会组织等的章程。 完善党委依法决策机制,健全议事规则和决策程序。

建立领导干部应知应会法律法规清单制度,推动领导干部做尊法学法守法用法的模范。 把法治素养和依法履职情况纳入考核评价干部的重要内容。 各级领导干部要全面提高运用法治思维和法治方式深化改革、推动发展、化解矛盾、维护稳定、应对风险能力,绝不允许以言代法、以权压法、逐利违法、徇私枉法。

(29) Strengthen Research on the Theory of Socialist Rule of Law with Chinese Characteristics, and Accelerate the Construction of a Socialist Rule of Law System with Chinese Sharacteristics. 立足我国国情和实际,加强对社会主义法治建设的理论研究,尽快构建体现我国社会主义性质,具有鲜明中国特色、实践特色、时代特色的法治理论体系和话语体系。 坚持和发展我国法律制度建设的显著优势,深入研究和总结我国法律制度体系建设的成功经验,推进中国特色社会主义法治体系创新发展。 挖掘和传承中华优秀传统法律文化,研究、总结和提炼党领导人民推进法治建设实践和理论成果。 组织和推动高等学校、科研院所以及法学专家学者加强中国特色社会主义法治理论研究,为建设法治中国提供学理支撑。

(30) Strengthen the Party's unified leadership, unified deployments, and overall coordination of comprehensively governing in accordance with law. 健全党领导立法、保证执法、支持司法、带头守法的制度机制。 党政主要负责人要切实履行推进法治建设第一责任人职责,将履行推进法治建设第一责任人职责情况列入年终述职内容。 各级党委要将法治建设与经济社会发展同部署、同推进、同督促、同考核、同奖惩。 研究制定法治建设指标体系和考核标准。 Strengthen rule of law inspections on major issues in the rule of law.

中央全面依法治国委员会做好法治中国建设的顶层设计、总体布局、统筹协调、整体推进、督促落实,实现集中领导、高效决策、统一部署。 地方各级党委法治建设议事协调机构要加强对本地区法治建设的牵头抓总、运筹谋划、督促落实等工作。

各地区各部门要全面准确贯彻落实本规划精神和要求,结合实际制定实施方案,明确分工、压实责任,狠抓落实、务求实效,力戒形式主义、官僚主义。 中央依法治国办要强化统筹协调,加强督办、推进落实,确保规划各项任务措施落到实处。

 

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