Bilingual Data Security Law Draft




第一章 总 则Chapter I: General Provisions
第二章 数据安全与发展Chapter II: Data Security and Development
第三章 数据安全制度Chapter III: Data Security Systems
第四章 数据安全保护义务Chapter IV: Obligations of Data Security Protection
第五章 政务数据安全与开放Chapter V: Government Affairs Data Security and Openness
第六章 法律责任Chapter VI: Legal Responsibility
第七章 附 则Chapter VII: Supplementary Provisions
第一章 Chapter I: General Provisions
第一条 为了保障数据安全,促进数据开发利用,保护公民、组织的合法权益,维护国家主权、安全和发展利益,制定本法。Article 1: This law is formulated so as to ensure data security, promote the development and exploitation of data, protect citizens' and organizations' lawful rights and interests, and preserve state sovereignty, security, and development interests.
第二条 在中华人民共和国境内开展数据活动,适用本法。Article 2: This law applies to data activities carried out within the [mainland] territory of the People’s Republic of China.
中华人民共和国境外的组织、个人开展数据活动,损害中华人民共和国国家安全、公共利益或者公民、组织合法权益的,依法追究法律责任。Organizations and individuals outside the P.R.C. that carry out data security activities harming the national security of the P.R.C., the public interest, or the lawful rights and interests of citizens' and organizations, are to be pursued for legal responsibility in accordance with law.
第三条 本法所称数据,是指任何以电子或者非电子形式对信息的记录。Article 3: "Data" as used in this Law refers to any record of information in electronic or other forms.
数据活动,是指数据的收集、存储、加工、使用、提供、交易、公开等行为。"Data activities" refers to acts of collection, storage, processing, use, provision, transaction, or disclosure of data.
数据安全,是指通过采取必要措施,保障数据得到有效保护和合法利用,并持续处于安全状态的能力。"Data Security" refers to the employment of necessary measures to ensure that data is effectively protected and legally used, and to ensure its capacity to remain in a secure state.
第四条 维护数据安全,应当坚持总体国家安全观,建立健全数据安全治理体系,提高数据安全保障能力。Article 4: The preservation of data security shall adhere to an overall state security perspective, and establish and complete a system of data security governance, to increase capacity to ensure data security.
第五条 国家保护公民、组织与数据有关的权益,鼓励数据依法合理有效利用,保障数据依法有序自由流动,促进以数据为关键要素的数字经济发展,增进人民福祉。Article 5: The state is to protect citizens' and organizations' rights and interests related to data and is to encourage the reasonable and effective use of data in accordance with law, is to ensure the lawful and orderly free flow of data and is to promote the lawful development of the digital economy with data as a key element, to increase the people's prosperity.
第六条 中央国家安全领导机构负责数据安全工作的决策和统筹协调,研究制定、指导实施国家数据安全战略和有关重大方针政策。Article 6: The central leading group on national security is responsible for major decision making and overall coordination on data security, and is to research, draft, and guide the implementation of a national data security strategy and major directives and policies.
第七条 各地区、各部门对本地区、本部门工作中产生、汇总、加工的数据及数据安全负主体责任。Article 7: Each region and department bears primary responsibility for that region or department's efforts on data production, aggregation, and processing, as well as data security.
工业、电信、自然资源、卫生健康、教育、国防科技工业、金融业等行业主管部门承担本行业、本领域数据安全监管职责。Regulatory departments such as for industry, telecommunications, natural resources, health, education, national defense technology and industry, and finance are to undertake data security regulatory duties in the corresponding sector.
公安机关、国家安全机关等依照本法和有关法律、行政法规的规定,在各自职责范围内承担数据安全监管职责。Public security organs, state security organs, and so forth are to follow the provisions of this Law, relevant laws, and administrative regulations, to undertake data security regulation duties within the scope of their duties.
国家网信部门依照本法和有关法律、行政法规的规定,负责统筹协调网络数据安全和相关监管工作。The State internet information departments are to follow this Law, relevant laws, and administrative regulations to take responsibility for the overall coordination of online data security and relevant regulatory efforts.
第八条 开展数据活动,必须遵守法律、行政法规,尊重社会公德和伦理,遵守商业道德,诚实守信,履行数据安全保护义务,承担社会责任,不得危害国家安全、公共利益,不得损害公民、组织的合法权益。Article 8: In carrying out data activities, one must comply with laws and administrative regulations, respect social mores and ethics, comply with business ethics, be honest and trustworthy, perform obligations to protect data security, and bear social responsibility; and must not endanger national security, the public interest, or harm the lawful rights and interests of citizens and organizations.
第九条 国家建立健全数据安全协同治理体系,推动有关部门、行业组织、企业、个人等共同参与数据安全保护工作,形成全社会共同维护数据安全和促进发展的良好环境。Article 9: The state is to establish and complete systems for collaborative governance of data security, pushing relevant departments, industry organizations, enterprises, and individuals to jointly participate in efforts to protect data security, and forming a positive environment for the entire society to jointly preserve data security and promote development.
第十条 国家积极开展数据领域国际交流与合作,参与数据安全相关国际规则和标准的制定,促进数据跨境安全、自由流动。Article 10: The state is to actively carry out international exchanges and cooperation in the data sector, participate in the formulation of international rules and standards related to data security, and promote the safe and free flow of data across borders.
第十一条 任何组织、个人都有权对违反本法规定的行为向有关主管部门投诉、举报。 收到投诉、举报的部门应当及时依法处理。Article 11: 任何组织、个人都有权对违反本法规定的行为向有关主管部门投诉、举报。收到投诉、举报的部门应当及时依法处理。
第二章 数据安全与发展Chapter II: Data Security and Development
第十二条 国家坚持维护数据安全和促进数据开发利用并重,以数据开发利用和产业发展促进数据安全,以数据安全保障数据开发利用和产业发展。Article 12: The state is to persist in equally emphasizing data security and the promotion of data use; promoting data security through data use, development, and industry development; and ensuring data use, development, and industry development through data security.
第十三条 国家实施大数据战略,推进数据基础设施建设,鼓励和支持数据在各行业、各领域的创新应用,促进数字经济发展。Article 13: The state is to implement a big data strategy, advancing the establishment of data infrastructure, and encouraging and supporting innovative applications of data in each industry and field, to promote the development of the digital economy.
省级以上人民政府应当制定数字经济发展规划,并纳入本级国民经济和社会发展规划。People's governments at provincial-level or higher shall draft digital economy development plans and include them in the people's economic and social development plans for that level.
第十四条 国家加强数据开发利用技术基础研究,支持数据开发利用和数据安全等领域的技术推广和商业创新,培育、发展数据开发利用和数据安全产品和产业体系。Article 14: The state is to strengthen basic research into technologies for data use and development, support the spread and commercial innovation in areas such as the use and development of data and data security, to foster and develop data use and development, data security products, and industrial systems for the use and development of data.
第十五条 国家推进数据开发利用技术和数据安全标准体系建设。 国务院标准化行政主管部门和国务院有关部门根据各自的职责,组织制定并适时修订有关数据开发利用技术、产品和数据安全相关标准。 国家支持企业、研究机构、高等学校、相关行业组织等参与标准制定。Article 15: 国家推进数据开发利用技术和数据安全标准体系建设。国务院标准化行政主管部门和国务院有关部门根据各自的职责,组织制定并适时修订有关数据开发利用技术、产品和数据安全相关标准。国家支持企业、研究机构、高等学校、相关行业组织等参与标准制定。
第十六条 国家促进数据安全检测评估、认证等服务的发展,支持数据安全检测评估、认证等专业机构依法开展服务活动。Article 16: The state is to promote the development of services such as data security testing, appraisals, and certification, and support professional institutions carrying out data security testing, appraisals, and certification service activities.
第十七条 国家建立健全数据交易管理制度,规范数据交易行为,培育数据交易市场。Article 17: The state is to establish and complete systems for data transactions and management, regulating data transaction conduct, and fostering the data transaction market.
第十八条 国家支持高等学校、中等职业学校和企业等开展数据开发利用技术和数据安全相关教育和培训,采取多种方式培养数据开发利用技术和数据安全专业人才,促进人才交流。Article 18: The State is to support schools of higher education, secondary vocational schools, enterprises, and so forth, is carrying out education and training related to data use and development and data security, employing diverse methods to cultivate professional data use and development and data security talent, and promote professional exchanges.
第三章 数据安全制度Chapter III: Data Security Systems
第十九条 国家根据数据在经济社会发展中的重要程度,以及一旦遭到篡改、破坏、泄露或者非法获取、非法利用,对国家安全、公共利益或者公民、组织合法权益造成的危害程度,对数据实行分级分类保护。Article 19: The state is to implement graded and categorical data protections based on the level of importance of data in economic and social development and the extent of harm that would be caused to national security, the public interest, or the lawful rights and interests of citizens and organizations if the data were altered, destroyed, lacked, or illegally obtained or used.
各地区、各部门应当按照国家有关规定,确定本地区、本部门、本行业重要数据保护目录,对列入目录的数据进行重点保护。Each region and each department shall follow relevant state provisions to designate a catalog of important data for protection in the corresponding region, departments, or industry, and carry out key protections for data included in the catalog.
第二十条 国家建立集中统一、高效权威的数据安全风险评估、报告、信息共享、监测预警机制,加强数据安全风险信息的获取、分析、研判、预警工作。Article 20: The state is to establish a uniform, highly effective, and authoritative data security risk assessment, reporting, information sharing, monitoring, and early warning system to strengthen the acquisition, analyses, assessment, and early warnings for information on data security risks.
第二十一条 国家建立数据安全应急处置机制。 发生数据安全事件,有关主管部门应当依法启动应急预案,采取相应的应急处置措施,消除安全隐患,防止危害扩大,并及时向社会发布与公众有关的警示信息。Article 21: 国家建立数据安全应急处置机制。发生数据安全事件,有关主管部门应当依法启动应急预案,采取相应的应急处置措施,消除安全隐患,防止危害扩大,并及时向社会发布与公众有关的警示信息。
第二十二条 国家建立数据安全审查制度,对影响或者可能影响国家安全的数据活动进行国家安全审查。Article 22: The state is to establish systems for data security reviews and conduct national security reviews of data activities that impact or might impact national security.
依法作出的安全审查决定为最终决定。Security review decisions made in accordance with law are final decisions.
第二十三条 国家对与履行国际义务和维护国家安全相关的属于管制物项的数据依法实施出口管制。Article 23: The state is to implement export controls in accordance with law for data that are controlled items related to fulfilling international obligations and maintaining national security.
第二十四条 任何国家或者地区在与数据和数据开发利用技术等有关的投资、贸易方面对中华人民共和国采取歧视性的禁止、限制或者其他类似措施的,中华人民共和国可以根据实际情况对该国家或者地区采取相应的措施。Article 24: Where any nation or region employs discriminatory, restrictive, or other similar measures against the PRC in terms of investment or trade in data and technology for the exploitation and development of data, the P.R.C. may employ corresponding measures against that nation or region based on the actual circumstances.
第四章 数据安全保护义务Chapter IV: Data Security Protection Obligations
第二十五条 开展数据活动应当依照法律、行政法规的规定和国家标准的强制性要求,建立健全全流程数据安全管理制度,组织开展数据安全教育培训,采取相应的技术措施和其他必要措施,保障数据安全。Article 25: The carrying out of data activities shall be in accordance with laws and administrative regulations and national the mandatory requirements of national standards, establishing and completing a data management system for the entire process, organizing education and training on data security, and employing related technical measures and other necessary measures to ensure data security.
重要数据的处理者应当设立数据安全负责人和管理机构,落实数据安全保护责任。Those processing important data shall set up persons responsible for data security and data security management bodies to implement the responsibility for data security protections.
第二十六条 开展数据活动以及研究开发数据新技术,应当有利于促进经济社会发展,增进人民福祉,符合社会公德和伦理。Article 26: The carrying out of data activities and research into new data technologies shall be conducive to promoting economic and social development, further the people's wellbeing, and comply with social mores and ethics.
第二十七条 开展数据活动应当加强风险监测,发现数据安全缺陷、漏洞等风险时,应当立即采取补救措施;发生数据安全事件时,应当按照规定及时告知用户并向有关主管部门报告。Article 27: The carrying out of data activities shall strengthen risk monitoring, and where risks such as data security flaws or holes are discovered, remedial measures shall be employed immediately; when data security incidents are discovered, users shall be promptly informed and a report made to the relevant regulatory departments.
第二十八条 重要数据的处理者应当按照规定对其数据活动定期开展风险评估,并向有关主管部门报送风险评估报告。Article 28: Those processing important data shall follow provisions to periodically carry out risk assessments of their data activities as provided, and send risk assessment reports to the relevant regulatory departments.
风险评估报告应当包括本组织掌握的重要数据的种类、数量,收集、存储、加工、使用数据的情况,面临的数据安全风险及其应对措施等。Risk assessment reports shall include the types and amounts of important data in the organization's hands; the circumstances of data storage, processing, and usage; the data risks being confronted and methods for addressing them.
第二十九条 任何组织、个人收集数据,必须采取合法、正当的方式,不得窃取或者以其他非法方式获取数据。Article 29: Any organization or individual collecting data must employ lawful and appropriate methods and must not steal or obtain data through other illegal methods.
法律、行政法规对收集、使用数据的目的、范围有规定的,应当在法律、行政法规规定的目的和范围内收集、使用数据,不得超过必要的限度。Where laws and administrative regulations have provisions on the purpose or scope of data collection and use, data is to be collected or used within the purpose and scope provided for in those laws and administrative regulations, and must not exceed necessary limits.
第三十条 从事数据交易中介服务的机构在提供交易中介服务时,应当要求数据提供方说明数据来源,审核交易双方的身份,并留存审核、交易记录。Article 30: When institutions engaged in data transaction intermediary services provide those services, they shall require the party providing data to explain the sources of the data, verify the identities of both parties, and store a record of the review and transaction.
第三十一条 专门提供在线数据处理等服务的经营者,应当依法取得经营业务许可或者备案。 具体办法由国务院电信主管部门会同有关部门制定。Article 31: 专门提供在线数据处理等服务的经营者,应当依法取得经营业务许可或者备案。具体办法由国务院电信主管部门会同有关部门制定。
第三十二条 公安机关、国家安全机关因依法维护国家安全或者侦查犯罪的需要调取数据,应当按照国家有关规定,经过严格的批准手续,依法进行,有关组织、个人应当予以配合。Article 32: Public security organs and state security organs collecting data as necessary to lawfully preserve national security or investigate crimes shall follow relevant state provisions and complete strict approval formalities to do so, and relevant organizations and individuals shall cooperate.
第三十三条 境外执法机构要求调取存储于中华人民共和国境内的数据的,有关组织、个人应当向有关主管机关报告,获得批准后方可提供。 中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约、协定对外国执法机构调取境内数据有规定的,依照其规定。Article 33: 境外执法机构要求调取存储于中华人民共和国境内的数据的,有关组织、个人应当向有关主管机关报告,获得批准后方可提供。中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约、协定对外国执法机构调取境内数据有规定的,依照其规定。
第五章 政务数据安全与开放Chapter V: Government Affairs Data Security and Disclosure
第三十四条 国家大力推进电子政务建设,提高政务数据的科学性、准确性、时效性,提升运用数据服务经济社会发展的能力。Article 34: The state is to forcefully advance the establishment of e-governance, increasing the scientific nature, accuracy, and efficacy of government affairs data, and increasing the use of data in service of economic and social development.
第三十五条 国家机关为履行法定职责的需要收集、使用数据,应当在其履行法定职责的范围内依照法律、行政法规规定的条件和程序进行。Article 35: State organs performance of legally-prescribed duties that require the collection and use of data shall be within the scope of the legally-prescribed duties and proceed in accordance with the requirements and procedures of laws and administrative regulations.
第三十六条 国家机关应当依照法律、行政法规的规定,建立健全数据安全管理制度,落实数据安全保护责任,保障政务数据安全。Article 36: State organs shall follow laws and administrative regulations to establish and complete data security management systems and implement responsibility for data security protections to ensure the security of government affairs data.
第三十七条 国家机关委托他人存储、加工政务数据,或者向他人提供政务数据,应当经过严格的批准程序,并应当监督接收方履行相应的数据安全保护义务。Article 37: Where state organs entrust others to store or process government affairs data or provide others with government affairs data, they shall go through strict approval procedures shall oversee the receiving party's performance of the corresponding data security protection olbigations.
第三十八条 国家机关应当遵循公正、公平、便民的原则,按照规定及时、准确地公开政务数据。 依法不予公开的除外。Article 38: 国家机关应当遵循公正、公平、便民的原则,按照规定及时、准确地公开政务数据。依法不予公开的除外。
第三十九条 国家制定政务数据开放目录,构建统一规范、互联互通、安全可控的政务数据开放平台,推动政务数据开放利用。Article 39: The state is to draft a catalog of government affairs data to be disclosed, and build a uniform, regulated, interconnected, secure, and controllable platform for disclosure of government affairs data and promoting the use of disclosed government affairs data.
第四十条 具有公共事务管理职能的组织为履行公共事务管理职能开展数据活动,适用本章规定。Article 40: The provisions of this chapter apply to organizations that have public affairs management functions performance of those functions.
第六章 法律责任Chapter VI: Legal Responsibility
第四十一条 有关主管部门在履行数据安全监管职责中,发现数据活动存在较大安全风险的,可以按照规定的权限和程序对有关组织和个人进行约谈。 有关组织和个人应当按照要求采取措施,进行整改,消除隐患。Article 41: 有关主管部门在履行数据安全监管职责中,发现数据活动存在较大安全风险的,可以按照规定的权限和程序对有关组织和个人进行约谈。有关组织和个人应当按照要求采取措施,进行整改,消除隐患。
第四十二条 开展数据活动的组织、个人不履行本法第二十五条、第二十七条、第二十八条、第二十九条规定的数据安全保护义务或者未采取必要的安全措施的,由有关主管部门责令改正,给予警告,可以并处一万元以上十万元以下罚款,对直接负责的主管人员可以处五千元以上五万元以下罚款;拒不改正或者造成大量数据泄漏等严重后果的,处十万元以上一百万元以下罚款,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处一万元以上十万元以下罚款。Article 42: Where organizations or individuals carrying out data activities do not perform the data security protection provided for in articles 25, 27, 28, and 29, or fail to employ security measures, the relevant regulatory departments are to order that corrections be made, give warnings, and may give a fine of between 10,000 and 100,000 RMB and fine the directly responsible managers between 5,000 and 50,000 RMB; where corrections are refused or serious consequences such as leaks of large amount of data are caused, a fine of between 100,000 and 1,000,000 RMB is to be given, and the directly responsible managers and other directly responsible persons are to be given a fine of between 10,000 and 100,000 RMB.
第四十三条 数据交易中介机构未履行本法第三十条规定的义务,导致非法来源数据交易的,由有关主管部门责令改正,没收违法所得,处违法所得一倍以上十倍以下罚款,没有违法所得的,处十万元以上一百万元以下罚款,并可以由有关主管部门吊销相关业务许可证或者吊销营业执照;对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处一万元以上十万元以下罚款。Article 43: Where data transaction intermediary establishments fail to perform the obligations provided for in article 30 of this Law leading to transactions in data from illegal sources, the relevant regulatory departments are to order corrections, confiscate unlawful gains, and give a fine of between 1 and 10 times the value of unlawful gains; where there are no unlawful gains, a fine of between 100,000 and 1,000,000 RMB is to be given, and the relevant regulatory departments are to revoke relevant permits or business licenses; and the directly responsible managers and other directly responsible personnel are to be given a fine of between 10,000 and 100,000 RMB.
第四十四条 未取得许可或者备案,擅自从事本法第三十一条规定业务的,由有关主管部门责令改正或者予以取缔,没收违法所得,处违法所得一倍以上十倍以下罚款;没有违法所得的,处十万元以上一百万元以下罚款;对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处一万元以上十万元以下罚款。Article 44: Where without getting permits or making filings one engages in the operations provided for in article 31 of this Law without authorizations, the relevant regulatory departments are to order that corrections be made or shut them down, confiscate unlawful gains, and give a fine of between 1 and 10 times the value of unlawful gains; where there are not unlawful gains, give a fine of between 100,000 and 1,000,000 RMB; and give a fine of between 10,000 and 100,000 RMB to directly responsible managers and other directly responsible personnel.
第四十五条 国家机关不履行本法规定的数据安全保护义务的,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员依法给予处分。Article 45: Where state organs do not perform obligations to protect data security as provided for in this Law, the directly responsible managers and other directly responsible personnel are to be given sanctions in accordance with law.
第四十六条 履行数据安全监管责任的国家工作人员玩忽职守、滥用职权、徇私舞弊,尚不构成犯罪的,依法给予处分。Article 46: Where state personnel with responsibility for regulating data security derelict their duties, abuse their authority, or twist the law for personal gain, and it does not constitute a crime, they are to be sanctioned in accordance with law.
第四十七条 通过数据活动危害国家安全、公共利益,或者损害公民、组织合法权益的,依照有关法律、行政法规的规定处罚。Article 47: Where data activities are used to harm national security or the public interest, or to harm the lawful rights and interests of citizens, and organizations, punishment is to be given in accordance with relevant laws and administrative regulations.
第四十八条 违反本法规定,给他人造成损害的,依法承担民事责任。Article 48: Where violations of this Law's provisions cause harms to others, civil liability is to be borne in accordance with Law.
违反本法规定,构成违反治安管理处罚行为的,依法给予治安管理处罚;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。Where violations of this Law constitute violations of public security administration, public security administration punishments are to be given in accordance with law; where crimes are constituted, criminal responsibility is to be pursued in accordance with law.
第七章 Chapter VII: Supplemental Provisions
第四十九条 涉及国家秘密的数据活动,适用《中华人民共和国保守国家秘密法》等法律、行政法规的规定。Article 49: Data activities that involve state secrets are to apply the "P.R.C. Law on the Protection of State Secrets" and other relevant laws and administrative regulations.
开展涉及个人信息的数据活动,应当遵守有关法律、行政法规的规定。The carrying out of data activities involving personal information shall comply with relevant laws and administrative regulations.
第五十条 军事数据安全保护的办法,由中央军事委员会另行制定。Article 50: Methods for military data security are to be separately drafted by the Central Military Commission.
第五十一条 本法自 年 月 日起施行。Article 51: This Law shall take effect on xx-xx-xxxx.


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