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Civil Code Draft Part on Rights in Rem (Second Deliberation Draft)

Period for Solicitation of Comments:2019-04-26 through 2019-05-25
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Table of Contents

Subpart I: General Provisions

Chapter I: Ordinary Provisions

Chapter II: Creation, Modification, Transfer, and Extinguishment of Rights in Rem

Section 1: Real Estate Registration

Section 2: Delivery of Chattel

Section 3: Other Provisions

Chapter III: Protection of Rights in Rem

Subpart II: Ownership Rights

Chapter IV: Ordinary Provisions

Chapter V: Ownership Rights of the State, the Collective, and Individuals

Chapter VI: Condominium Ownership Rights of Property Owners

Chapter VII: Neighboring Relations

Chapter VIII: Joint Ownership

Chapter IX: Special Provisions on the Acquisition of Ownership Rights

Subpart III: Usufructs

Chapter X: Ordinary Provisions

Chapter XI: Right to Land Contractual Management

Chapter XII: Right to the Use of Land for Construction

Chapter XIII: Homestead Land Use Rights

Chapter XIV: Residency Rights

Chapter XV: Easements

Subpart IV: Security Interest in Property

Chapter XVI: Ordinary Provisions

Chapter XVII: Mortgage Rights

Section 1: Ordinary Mortgage Rights

Section 2: Maximum Mortgage Interest Rights

第十八章 质权

第一节 动产质权

第二节 权利质权

Chapter XIX: Lien

Sub-Part V: Possession

Chapter XX: Possession

Civil Code Draft Part on Rights in Rem, Second Deliberation Draft

Subpart I: General Provisions

Chapter I: Ordinary Provisions

Article 1: This Part regulates civil relationships resulting from the attribution and use of property.

Article 2: In the primary stage of socialism, the State upholds the basic economic system under which public ownership is dominant and the economic sectors of diverse forms of ownership develop side by side.

The State consolidates and develops the public sectors of the economy, and encourages, supports, and guides the development of the non-public sectors of the economy.

The State maintains a socialist market economy and guarantees the equal legal status and the right to development of all market entities.

Article 3: The rights in rem of the State, collectives, and individuals, and the rights in rem of other rights holders are protected by law, and must not be infringed upon by any organization or individual.

Article 4: The creation, modification, transfer, and extinguishment of the rights in rem in real property shall be registered in accordance with the provisions of law. The creation and transfer of rights in rem in chattel shall be delivered in accordance with the provisions of law.

Chapter II: Creation, Modification, Transfer, and Extinguishment of Rights in Rem

Section 1: Real Estate Registration

Article 5: The creation, modification, transfer and extinguishment of rights in rem in real property shall take effect upon registration and shall not become effective without being registered, unless otherwise set forth in the law.

Any natural resources owned by the State pursuant to the law can be exempted from ownership registration.

Article 6: Registration of real estate is to be handled by the registration body for the area where the real estate is located.

The state implements a uniform registration system for real estate. The scope of uniform registration, registration bodies, and registration methods are to be provided for in laws and administrative regulations.

Article 7: Based on different matters for registration, the parties applying for registration shall provide proofs of ownership and necessary materials such as the borders and area of real estate,

Article 8: Registration bodies shall perform the following duties:

(1) To examine and verify the title certificates and other necessary materials provided by applicants;

(2) To inquire applicants on relevant registration matters;

(3) To register the relevant matters in a truthful and timely manner; and

(4) Other duties provided by laws and administrative regulations.

Where circumstance related to real estate for which registration has been applied require further proofs, the registration body may request that the applicant supplement materials, and when necessary may make on site inspections.

Article 9: Registration bodies must not have the following conduct:

(1) Requesting to conduct appraisal of real estate.

(2) Conducting duplicate registration in the name of annual inspections and the like;

(3) Other conduct exceeding the scope of registration duties;

Article 10: The establishment, modification, transfer, and extinguishment of rights in real property that shall be recorded in accordance with law take effect upon their recording in the real estate registry.

Article 11: Contracts concluded by the parties regarding the establishment, modification, transfer, and extinguishment of property rights, take effect when the contract is formed, except as otherwise provided for by law or agreements of the parties; where the property rights are not registered, it does not impact the efficacy of the contract.

Article 12: The real estate register is the basis for the ownership and content of rights in rem.

Registry bodies are to manage the real estate registries.

Article 13: Deeds are proof that the rights holder enjoys the corresponding rights in real estate. The matters recorded in a deed shall be consistent with the real estate registry; and where the record is inconsistent, the real estate registry is controlling except where there is proof that it is truly in error.

Article 14: Rightsholders and interested parties can apply to for inquiries or reproductions of the real estate registry materials, and the registry bodies shall provide them.

Article 15: 利害关系人不得非法使用、公开权利人的不动产登记资料。

Article 16: Where rightsholders and interested parties find that matters recorded int he real estate registry are in error, they may apply to correct it. Where the rightsholders indicated in the real estate registry consent in writing to the correction or there is proof showing that the registration is in error, the registration body shall make the correction.

Where the rightsholder in the real estate registry does not consent to correction, stakeholders may apply to object to the registration. 登记机构予以异议登记的,申请人在异议登记之日起十五日内不起诉,异议登记失效。 Where the objection registration is improper and causes harm to the rightsholder, the rightsholder may apply for the losses to be compensated.

Article 17: Parties signing agreements to buy and sell houses, or signing other agreements on real estate, may apply to a real estate registry for advance registration in accordance with their agreement to preserve the future property rights. After the advance registration, where the real estate is disposed of without the consent of the rightsholder of the advance notice registration, it does not take effect as a property right.


Article 18: Where parties provide fake materials in registration applications causing harms to others, they shall bear responsibility for compensation.

Where errors in registration cause harms to others, the registration body shall bear responsibility for compensation. After compensation is made by the registration body, compensation may be sought from the person who caused the error.

Article 19: Real estate registration fees are collected by item and must not be collected based on the area, volume, or price.

Section 2: Delivery of Chattel

Article 20: The establishment and transfer of rights in chattel take effect from the date of delivery, except as otherwise provided by law.

Article 21: The establishment, alteration, transfer, and extinction of the property rights in ships, aircraft, and motor vehicles, etc., without registration, must not counter a good faith third party.

Article 22: Where the rightsholder is already in possession before the establishment or transfer of property rights, the property rights take force when the civil juristic acts become effective.

Article 23: Where before rights in rem are established or transferred, a third party takes possession of the chattel concerned, the persons with responsibility for delivery may demand that the third party return the original property in place of delivering it through the transfer.

Article 24: 动产物权转让时,双方又约定由出让人继续占有该动产的,物权自该约定生效时发生效力。

Section 3: Other Provisions

Article 25: 因人民法院、仲裁委员会的法律文书或者人民政府的征收决定等,导致物权设立、变更、转让或者消灭的,自法律文书或者征收决定等生效时发生效力。

Article 26: Where rights in rem are acquired by inheritance, they take force beginning from the date of inheritance.

Article 27: Where property rights are established or extinguished due to factual conduct such as the lawful building or demolition of a house, they shall become effective when the factual conduct is accomplished.

Article 28: 处分依照本法第二十五条至第二十七条规定享有的不动产物权,依照法律规定需要办理登记的,未经登记,不发生物权效力。

Chapter III: Protection of Rights in Rem

Article 29: Where rights in rem are violated, the rights holder may resolve it through channels such as settlement, mediation, arbitration, or litigation.

Article 30: Where the attribution or content of rights in rem are disputed, stakeholders may demand a confirmation of rights.

Article 31: Where possession of real estate or chattel is take without rights, the rights holder may demand return of the original property.

Article 32: Where rights in rem are prejudiced or might be prejudiced, the rights holder may demand that violations be stopped, obstacles be removed, or risks eliminated.

Article 33: Where real estate or chattel are destroyed, the rights holder may lawfully demand its repair, recreation, exchange, or restoration to its original state.

Article 34: Where violations of rights in rem cause harms to the rights holder, the rights holder may demand compensation for the losses in accordance with law, and may also demand that civil responsibility be borne in accordance with law.

Article 35: The methods for protecting right in rem provided for in this chapter may be applied independently and may applied jointly based on the circumstances of rights being violated.

Subpart II: Ownership Rights

Chapter IV: Ordinary Provisions

Article 36: Those with ownership rights enjoy the rights to possession, use, earnings, and disposition of their own real estate and chattel.

Article 37: Those with ownership rights have the right to establish usufructory rights and security interests in their own real estate and chattel. Usufurtory rights holders' and security interest rights holders' exercise of their rights must not harm the rights and interests of the ownership rights holder.

Article 38: Ownership rights of real estate and chattel that the law provides is designated for state ownership must not be acquired by any organization or individual.

Article 39: As necessary for the public interest, collectively owned land, and the houses or other real estate of organizations and individuals, may be expropriated in accordance with legally provided authority and procedures.



Compensation for expropriation and other such fees must not be embezzled, misappropriated, privately divided, withheld, or unpaid by any organization or individual.

Article 40: The state implements special protection of cultivated land, strictly limiting the transformation of land used for farming into land used for construction, and controlling the total amount of construction land. Collectively owned land must not be expropriated in violation of the legally provided scope of authority and procedures.

Article 41: 因抢险、救灾等紧急需要,依照法律规定的权限和程序可以征用组织、个人的不动产或者动产。 After the expropriated real estate or chattel is used, it shall be returned. Where organizations' and individuals' real estate or chattel is expropriated or is damaged or used up after expropriation, they shall be given compensation.

Chapter V: Ownership Rights of the State, the Collective, and Individuals

Article 42: Property that the law provides is state-owned is owned by the state, that is, by all citizens.

The State Council exercises ownership of state-owned property on behalf of the State; where laws provide otherwise, follow those provisions.

Article 43: Mineral deposits, waterways, and sea areas are owned by the State.

Article 43-1: Uninhabited offshore islands are owned by the State, and the State Council exercises ownership of uninhabited offshore islands on behalf of the State.

Article 44: Urban land is owned by the State. Rural and suburban land that the law provides is owned by the State is owned by the State.

Article 45: Forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land, beaches, and other natural resources are owned by the State, except those owned by the collectives as prescribed by law.

Article 46: Wild fauna and flora that the law provides are owned by the State are owned by the State.

Article 47: Radio frequency spectrum resources are owned by the State.

Article 48: Cultural relics that the law provides are state-owned are owned by the State.

Article 49: National defense assets are owned by the State.

Railways, highways, power facilities, telecommunications facilities, oil and gas pipelines, and other infrastructure that are owned by the State in accordance with the provisions of law, are owned by the State.

Article 50: State organs enjoy the right to possess, use, and dispose of the real estate and chattel directly under their control in accordance with the law and the relevant provisions of the State Council.

Article 51: Public institutions established by the state enjoy the right to possess and use the real estate and chattel directly under their control, as well as to receive and dispose of them in accordance with the law and the relevant provisions of the State Council.

Article 52: The State Council and local people's governments are to follow the laws and administrative regulations to respectively represent the state in carrying out investor duties and enjoy the rights and interests of investors.

Article 53: State owned assets are protected by law, and it is prohibited for any organization or individual to occupy, loot, privately divide, withhold or destroy it.

Article 54: Institutions performing duties to manage or oversee state-owned assets, and their staffs, shall strengthen the management and oversight of the state-owned assets in accordance with law, maintain and increase its value and preventing losses; and those who abuse ther authority or neglect their duties, causing losses to state-owned assets shall bear legal liability in accordance with law.

Where provisions on the management of state-owned assets are violated in processes such as restructuring, merger, division, or related-part transactions, causing losses to the state-owned assets through means such as low-priced transfers, conspiring to divvy up proceeds, or unauthorized guarantees, legal liability shall be borne in accordance with law.

Article 55: Collectively owned real estate and chattel include:




(4) Other collectively owned real estate and chattel.

Article 56: Real estate and chattel owned by rural collectives are collectively owned by the members of the collective.

The following matters shall be decided upon by the members of collectives in accordance with legally prescribed procedures:





(5) Other matters provided for by law.

Article 57: Ownership of collectively owned land, forests, mountains, grasslands, wasteland, beaches, and so forth, is to be implemented in accordance with the following provisions:




Article 58: 城镇集体所有的不动产和动产,依照法律、行政法规的规定由本集体享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。

Article 59: 农村集体经济组织或者村民委员会、村民小组应当依照法律、行政法规以及章程、村规民约向本集体成员公布集体财产的状况。 集体成员有权查阅、复制相关资料。

Article 60: Collectively owned assets are protected by law, and it is prohibited for any organization or individual to occupy, loot, privately divide, or destroy them.


Article 61: 私人对其合法的收入、房屋、生活用品、生产工具、原材料等不动产和动产享有所有权。

Article 62: Private lawful assets are protected by law, and it is prohibited for any organization or individual to occupy, loot, or destroy them.

Article 63: 国家、集体和私人依法可以出资设立有限责任公司、股份有限公司或者其他企业。 国家、集体和私人所有的不动产或者动产,投到企业的,由出资人按照约定或者出资比例享有资产收益、重大决策以及选择经营管理者等权利并履行义务。

Article 64: 营利法人对其不动产和动产依照法律、行政法规以及章程享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。


Article 65: 社会团体法人、捐助法人依法所有的不动产和动产,受法律保护。

Chapter VI: Condominium Ownership Rights of Property Owners

Article 66: 业主对建筑物内的住宅、经营性用房等专有部分享有所有权,对专有部分以外的共有部分享有共有和共同管理的权利。

Article 67: 业主对其建筑物专有部分享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。 业主行使权利不得危及建筑物的安全,不得损害其他业主的合法权益。

Article 68: 业主对建筑物专有部分以外的共有部分,享有权利,承担义务;不得以放弃权利不履行义务。


Article 69: 建筑区划内的道路,属于业主共有,但是属于城镇公共道路的除外。 建筑区划内的绿地,属于业主共有,但是属于城镇公共绿地或者明示属于个人的除外。 建筑区划内的其他公共场所、公用设施和物业服务用房,属于业主共有。

Article 70: 建筑区划内,规划用于停放汽车的车位、车库的归属,由当事人通过出售、附赠或者出租等方式约定。


Article 71: 建筑区划内,规划用于停放汽车的车位、车库应当首先满足业主的需要。

Article 72: 业主可以设立业主大会,选举业主委员会。 业主大会、业主委员会成立的具体条件和程序,依照法律、法规的规定。


Article 73: 下列事项由业主共同决定:










业主共同决定事项,应当由专有部分面积占比三分之二以上的业主且人数占比三分之二以上的业主参与表决。 决定前款第六项至第八项规定的事项,应当经参与表决专有部分面积四分之三以上的业主且参与表决人数四分之三以上的业主同意。 决定前款其他事项,应当经参与表决专有部分面积过半数的业主且参与表决人数过半数的业主同意。

Article 74: 业主不得违反法律、法规以及管理规约,将住宅改变为经营性用房。 业主将住宅改变为经营性用房的,除遵守法律、法规以及管理规约外,应当经有利害关系的业主一致同意。

Article 75: 业主大会或者业主委员会的决定,对业主具有约束力。


Article 76: 建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金,属于业主共有。 经业主共同决定,可以用于电梯、屋顶、外墙、无障碍设施等共有部分的维修、更新和改造。 维修资金的筹集、使用情况应当公布。


Article 77: 建设单位、物业服务企业或者其他管理人等利用业主的共有部分产生的收入,在扣除合理成本之后,属于业主共有。

Article 78: 建筑物及其附属设施的费用分摊、收益分配等事项,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照业主专有部分面积所占比例确定。

Article 79: 业主可以自行管理建筑物及其附属设施,也可以委托物业服务企业或者其他管理人管理。


Article 80: 物业服务企业或者其他管理人根据业主的委托,依照本法合同编有关物业服务合同的规定管理建筑区划内的建筑物及其附属设施,并接受业主的监督。


Article 81: 业主应当遵守法律、法规以及管理规约。



Article 82: 业主对建设单位、物业服务企业或者其他管理人以及其他业主侵害自己合法权益的行为,有权请求其承担民事责任。

Chapter VII: Neighboring Relations

Article 83: 不动产的相邻权利人应当按照有利生产、方便生活、团结互助、公平合理的原则,正确处理相邻关系。

Article 84: 法律、法规对处理相邻关系有规定的,依照其规定;法律、法规没有规定的,可以按照当地习惯。

Article 85: 不动产权利人应当为相邻权利人用水、排水提供必要的便利。

对自然流水的利用,应当在不动产的相邻权利人之间合理分配。 对自然流水的排放,应当尊重自然流向。

Article 86: 不动产权利人对相邻权利人因通行等必须利用其土地的,应当提供必要的便利。

Article 87: 不动产权利人因建造、修缮建筑物以及铺设电线、电缆、水管、暖气和燃气管线等必须利用相邻土地、建筑物的,该土地、建筑物的权利人应当提供必要的便利。

Article 88: 建造建筑物,不得违反国家有关工程建设标准,妨碍相邻建筑物的通风、采光和日照。

Article 89: 不动产权利人不得违反国家规定弃置固体废物,排放大气污染物、水污染物、噪声、光、电磁波辐射等有害物质。

Article 90: 不动产权利人挖掘土地、建造建筑物、铺设管线以及安装设备等,不得危及相邻不动产的安全。

Article 91: 不动产权利人因用水、排水、通行、铺设管线等利用相邻不动产的,应当尽量避免对相邻的不动产权利人造成损害。

Chapter VIII: Joint Ownership

Article 92: 不动产或者动产可以由两个以上组织、个人共有。 共有包括按份共有和共同共有。

Article 93: 按份共有人对共有的不动产或者动产按照其份额享有所有权。

Article 94: 共同共有人对共有的不动产或者动产共同享有所有权。

Article 95: 共有人按照约定管理共有的不动产或者动产;没有约定或者约定不明确的,各共有人都有管理的权利和义务。

Article 96: 处分共有的不动产或者动产以及对共有的不动产或者动产作重大修缮、变更性质或者用途的,应当经占份额三分之二以上的按份共有人或者全体共同共有人同意,但是共有人之间另有约定的除外。

Article 97: 共有人对共有物的管理费用以及其他负担,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按份共有人按照其份额负担,共同共有人共同负担。

Article 98: 共有人约定不得分割共有的不动产或者动产,以维持共有关系的,应当按照约定,但是共有人有重大理由需要分割的,可以请求分割;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按份共有人可以随时请求分割,共同共有人在共有的基础丧失或者有重大理由需要分割时可以请求分割。 因分割对其他共有人造成损害的,应当给予赔偿。

Article 99: 共有人可以协商确定分割方式。 达不成协议,共有的不动产或者动产可以分割并且不会因分割减损价值的,应当对实物予以分割;难以分割或者因分割会减损价值的,应当对折价或者拍卖、变卖取得的价款予以分割。


Article 100: 按份共有人可以转让其享有的共有的不动产或者动产份额。 其他共有人在同等条件下享有优先购买的权利。

Article 101: 按份共有人转让其享有的共有的不动产或者动产份额的,应当将转让条件及时通知其他共有人。 其他共有人应当在合理期间内行使优先购买权。


Article 102: 因共有的不动产或者动产产生的债权债务,在对外关系上,共有人享有连带债权、承担连带债务,但是法律另有规定或者第三人知道共有人不具有连带债权债务关系的除外;在共有人内部关系上,除共有人另有约定外,按份共有人按照份额享有债权、承担债务,共同共有人共同享有债权、承担债务。 偿还债务超过自己应当承担份额的按份共有人,有权向其他共有人追偿。

Article 103: 共有人对共有的不动产或者动产没有约定为按份共有或者共同共有,或者约定不明确的,除共有人具有家庭关系等外,视为按份共有。

Article 104: 按份共有人对共有的不动产或者动产享有的份额,没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照出资额确定;不能确定出资额的,视为等额享有。

Article 105: 两个以上组织、个人共同享有用益物权、担保物权的,参照适用本章规定。

Chapter IX: Special Provisions on the Acquisition of Ownership Rights

Article 106: 无处分权人将不动产或者动产转让给受让人的,所有权人有权追回;除法律另有规定外,符合下列情形的,受让人取得该不动产或者动产的所有权:






Article 107: 所有权人或者其他权利人有权追回遗失物。 该遗失物通过转让被他人占有的,权利人有权向无处分权人请求损害赔偿,或者自知道或者应当知道受让人之日起二年内向受让人请求返还原物,但是受让人通过拍卖或者向具有经营资格的经营者购得该遗失物的,权利人请求返还原物时应当支付受让人所付的费用。 权利人向受让人支付所付费用后,有权向无处分权人追偿。

Article 108: 善意受让人取得动产后,该动产上的原有权利消灭,但是善意受让人在受让时知道或者应当知道该权利的除外。

Article 109: 拾得遗失物,应当返还权利人。 拾得人应当及时通知权利人领取,或者送交公安等有关部门。

Article 110: 有关部门收到遗失物,知道权利人的,应当及时通知其领取;不知道的,应当及时发布招领公告。

Article 111: 拾得人在遗失物送交有关部门前,有关部门在遗失物被领取前,应当妥善保管遗失物。 因故意或者重大过失致使遗失物毁损、灭失的,应当承担民事责任。

Article 112: 权利人领取遗失物时,应当向拾得人或者有关部门支付保管遗失物等支出的必要费用。



Article 113: 遗失物自发布招领公告之日起一年内无人认领的,归国家所有。

Article 114: 拾得漂流物、发现埋藏物或者隐藏物的,参照适用拾得遗失物的有关规定。 Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.

Article 115: 主物转让的,从物随主物转让,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 116: 天然孳息,由所有权人取得;既有所有权人又有用益物权人的,由用益物权人取得。 当事人另有约定的,按照约定。


Article 117: 因加工、附合、混合而产生的物的归属,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,依照法律规定;法律没有规定的,按照充分发挥物的效用以及保护无过错的当事人的原则确定。 因一方当事人的过错或者确定物的归属给另一方当事人造成损失的,应当给予赔偿或者补偿。

Subpart III: Usufructs

Chapter X: Ordinary Provisions

Article 118: 用益物权人对他人所有的不动产或者动产,依法享有占有、使用和收益的权利。

Article 119: 国家所有或者国家所有由集体使用以及法律规定属于集体所有的自然资源,组织、个人依法可以占有、使用和收益。

Article 120: 国家实行自然资源有偿使用制度,但是法律另有规定的除外。

Article 121: 用益物权人行使权利,应当遵守法律有关保护和合理开发利用资源的规定。 所有权人不得干涉用益物权人行使权利。

Article 122: 因不动产或者动产被征收、征用致使用益物权消灭或者影响用益物权行使的,用益物权人有权依照本法第三十九条、第四十一条的规定获得相应补偿。

Article 123: 依法取得的海域使用权受法律保护。

Article 124: 依法取得的探矿权、采矿权、取水权和使用水域、滩涂从事养殖、捕捞的权利受法律保护。

Chapter XI: Right to Land Contractual Management

Article 125: The rural collective economic organizations apply the dual operation system characterized by the combination of centralized operation with decentralized operation on the basis of operation by households under a contract.


Article 126: 土地承包经营权人依法对其承包经营的耕地、林地、草地等享有占有、使用和收益的权利,有权从事种植业、林业、畜牧业等农业生产。

Article 127: The contract term for arable land is to be 30 years. The contracting term for grassland is to be 30 to 50 years. The contracting term for forestland is to be 30 to 70 years.


Article 128: 土地承包经营权自土地承包经营权合同生效时设立。


Article 129: 土地承包经营权人依照法律规定,有权将土地承包经营权互换、转让。 During the contracting period, contracted land must not be used for non-agricultural construction without approval.

Article 130: 土地承包经营权互换、转让的,当事人可以向登记机构申请登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 131: (Moved to be article 134-2)

Article 132: During the contract term, the contract issuer must not readjust contracted land.


Article 133: During the contract term, the contract issuer must not take back the contracted land. Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.

Article 134: 承包地被征收的,土地承包经营权人有权依照本法第三十九条第二款的规定获得相应补偿。

Article 134-1: 土地承包经营权人可以自主决定依法采取出租、入股或者其他方式向他人流转土地经营权。

Article 134-2: 土地经营权人有权在合同约定的期限内占有农村土地,自主开展农业生产经营并取得收益。

Article 134-3: 流转期限为五年以上的土地经营权,自流转合同生效时设立。 当事人可以向登记机构申请土地经营权登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 135: 通过招标、拍卖、公开协商等方式承包农村土地,经依法登记取得权属证书的,可以依法采取出租、入股、抵押或者其他方式流转土地经营权。

Article 136: 国家所有的农用地实行承包经营的,参照适用本编的有关规定。

Chapter XII: Right to the Use of Land for Construction

Article 137: 建设用地使用权人依法对国家所有的土地享有占有、使用和收益的权利,有权利用该土地建造建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施。

Article 138: 建设用地使用权可以在土地的地表、地上或者地下分别设立。

Article 139: 设立建设用地使用权应当符合节约资源、保护生态环境的要求,应当遵守法律、行政法规关于土地用途的规定,不得损害已设立的用益物权。

Article 140: 设立建设用地使用权,可以采取出让或者划拨等方式。



Article 141 : 采取招标、拍卖、协议等出让方式设立建设用地使用权的,当事人应当采用书面形式订立建设用地使用权出让合同。

Contracts establishing land use rights are normally to contain the following clauses:

(1) The parties' names and residences;

(2) The boundaries and area of the land, etc.


(4) land uses and planning conditions;

(5) The period of use;

(6) The sale cost and other expenses, as well as the method of payment;

(7) Methods of dispute resolution.

Article 142: 设立建设用地使用权的,应当向登记机构申请建设用地使用权登记。 建设用地使用权自登记时设立。 登记机构应当向建设用地使用权人发放权属证书。

Article 143: 建设用地使用权人应当合理利用土地,不得改变土地用途;需要改变土地用途的,应当依法经有关行政主管部门批准。

Article 144: 建设用地使用权人应当依照法律规定以及合同约定支付出让金等费用。

Article 145 : 建设用地使用权人建造的建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施的所有权属于建设用地使用权人,但是有相反证据证明的除外。

Article 146: 建设用地使用权人有权将建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资、赠与或者抵押,但是法律另有规定的除外。

Article 147: 建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资、赠与或者抵押的,当事人应当采用书面形式订立相应的合同。 使用期限由当事人约定,但是不得超过建设用地使用权的剩余期限。

Article 148: 建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,应当向登记机构申请变更登记。

Article 149: 建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,附着于该土地上的建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施一并处分。

Article 150: 建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,该建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并处分。

Article 151: 建设用地使用权期间届满前,因公共利益需要提前收回该土地的,应当依照本法第三十九条的规定对该土地上的房屋及其他不动产给予补偿,并退还相应的出让金。

Article 152: 住宅建设用地使用权期间届满的,自动续期。 续期费用的缴纳或者减免,依照法律、行政法规的规定办理。

非住宅建设用地使用权期间届满后的续期,依照法律规定办理。 该土地上的房屋及其他不动产的归属,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,依照法律、行政法规的规定办理。

Article 153: 建设用地使用权消灭的,出让人应当及时办理注销登记。 登记机构应当收回权属证书。

Article 154: 集体所有的土地作为建设用地的,应当依照土地管理的法律规定办理。

Chapter XIII: Homestead Land Use Rights

Article 155: 宅基地使用权人依法对集体所有的土地享有占有和使用的权利,有权依法利用该土地建造住宅及其附属设施。

Article 156: 宅基地使用权的取得、行使和转让,适用土地管理的法律和国家有关规定。

Article 157: 宅基地因自然灾害等原因灭失的,宅基地使用权消灭。 对失去宅基地的村民,应当重新分配宅基地。

Article 158: 已经登记的宅基地使用权转让或者消灭的,应当及时办理变更登记或者注销登记。

Chapter XIV: Residency Rights

Article 159: 居住权人有权按照合同约定,对他人的住宅享有占有、使用的用益物权,以满足生活居住的需要。

Article 159-1: 设立居住权,当事人应当采用书面形式订立居住权合同。





(4) Methods of dispute resolution.

Article 159-2: 设立居住权的,应当向登记机构申请居住权登记。 居住权自登记时设立。

Article 160: 居住权无偿设立,不得转让、继承。 设立居住权的住宅不得出租,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 161: 居住权人死亡的,居住权消灭,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 162: 以遗嘱方式设立居住权的,参照适用本章规定。

Chapter XV: Easements

Article 163: 地役权人有权按照合同约定,利用他人的不动产,以提高自己的不动产的效益。


Article 164: 设立地役权,当事人应当采用书面形式订立地役权合同。







(6) Methods of dispute resolution.

Article 165: 地役权自地役权合同生效时设立。 当事人要求登记的,可以向登记机构申请地役权登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 166: 供役地权利人应当按照合同约定,允许地役权人利用其不动产,不得妨害地役权人行使权利。

Article 167: 地役权人应当按照合同约定的利用目的和方法利用供役地,尽量减少对供役地权利人物权的限制。

Chapter 168: 地役权的期限由当事人约定,但是不得超过土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等用益物权的剩余期限。

Article 169 : 土地所有权人享有地役权或者负担地役权的,设立土地承包经营权、宅基地使用权等用益物权时,该用益物权人继续享有或者负担已设立的地役权。

Article 170 : 土地上已设立土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权、宅基地使用权等用益物权的,未经用益物权人同意,土地所有权人不得设立地役权。

Article 171: 地役权不得单独转让。 土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等转让的,地役权一并转让,但是合同另有约定的除外。

Article 172: 地役权不得单独抵押。 土地经营权、建设用地使用权等抵押的,在实现抵押权时,地役权一并转让。

Article 173: 需役地以及需役地上的土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等部分转让时,转让部分涉及地役权的,受让人同时享有地役权。

Article 174 : 供役地以及供役地上的土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等部分转让时,转让部分涉及地役权的,地役权对受让人具有约束力。

Article 175 : 地役权人有下列情形之一的,供役地权利人有权解除地役权合同,地役权消灭:



Article 176 : 已经登记的地役权变更、转让或者消灭的,应当及时办理变更登记或者注销登记。

Subpart IV: Security Interest in Property

Chapter XVI: Ordinary Provisions

Article 177: 担保物权人在债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现担保物权的情形,依法享有就担保财产优先受偿的权利,但是法律另有规定的除外。

Article 178: 债权人在借贷、买卖等民事活动中,为保障实现其债权,需要担保的,可以依照本法和其他法律的规定设立担保物权。

第三人为债务人向债权人提供担保的,可以要求债务人提供反担保。 反担保适用本法和其他法律的规定。

Article 179: 设立担保物权,应当依照本法和其他法律的规定订立担保合同。 担保合同是主债权债务合同的从合同。 主债权债务合同无效,担保合同无效,但是法律另有规定的除外。


Article 180: 担保物权的担保范围包括主债权及其利息、违约金、损害赔偿金、保管担保财产和实现担保物权的费用。 当事人另有约定的,按照约定。

Article 181: 担保期间,担保财产毁损、灭失或者被征收等,担保物权人可以就获得的保险金、赔偿金或者补偿金等优先受偿。 被担保债权的履行期未届满的,也可以提存该保险金、赔偿金或者补偿金等。

Article 182: 第三人提供担保,未经其书面同意,债权人允许债务人转移全部或者部分债务的,担保人不再承担相应的担保责任。

Article 183: 被担保的债权既有物的担保又有人的担保的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现担保物权的情形,债权人应当按照约定实现债权;没有约定或者约定不明确,债务人自己提供物的担保的,债权人应当先就该物的担保实现债权;第三人提供物的担保的,债权人可以就物的担保实现债权,也可以要求保证人承担保证责任。 提供担保的第三人承担担保责任后,有权向债务人追偿。

Article 184: 有下列情形之一的,担保物权消灭:





Chapter XVII: Mortgage Rights

Section 1: Ordinary Mortgage Rights

Article 185: 为担保债务的履行,债务人或者第三人不转移财产的占有,将该财产抵押给债权人的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,债权人有权就该财产优先受偿。


Article 186: 债务人或者第三人有权处分的下列财产可以抵押:









Article 187: 企业、个体工商户、农业生产经营者可以将现有的以及将有的生产设备、原材料、半成品、产品抵押,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,债权人有权就抵押财产确定时的动产优先受偿。

Article 188: 以建筑物抵押的,该建筑物占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并抵押。 以建设用地使用权抵押的,该土地上的建筑物一并抵押。


Article 189: 乡镇、村企业的建设用地使用权不得单独抵押。 以乡镇、村企业的厂房等建筑物抵押的,其占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并抵押。

Article 190: The following property must not be mortgaged:

(1) Land use rights;






Article 191: 设立抵押权,当事人应当采用书面形式订立抵押合同。






Article 192: 抵押权人在债务履行期届满前,不得与抵押人约定债务人不履行到期债务时抵押财产归债权人所有。

Article 193: 以本法第一百八十六条第一款第一项至第三项规定的财产或者第五项规定的正在建造的建筑物抵押的,应当办理抵押登记。 抵押权自登记时设立。

Article 194: 以动产抵押的,抵押权自抵押合同生效时设立;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 195: 以动产抵押的,不得对抗正常经营活动中已支付合理价款并取得抵押财产的买受人。

Article 196: 抵押权设立前抵押财产已出租并转移占有的,原租赁关系不受该抵押权的影响。

Article 197: 抵押期间,抵押人转让抵押财产的,应当通知抵押权人。 Where the parties have agreed otherwise, follow those agreements.

抵押财产转让的,抵押权不受影响。 抵押权人能够证明抵押财产转让可能损害抵押权的,可以请求抵押人将转让所得的价款向抵押权人提前清偿债务或者提存。 转让的价款超过债权数额的部分归抵押人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。

Article 198: 抵押权不得与债权分离而单独转让或者作为其他债权的担保。 债权转让的,担保该债权的抵押权一并转让,但是法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 199: 抵押人的行为足以使抵押财产价值减少的,抵押权人有权要求抵押人停止其行为。 抵押财产价值减少的,抵押权人有权要求恢复抵押财产的价值,或者提供与减少的价值相应的担保。 抵押人不恢复抵押财产的价值也不提供担保的,抵押权人有权要求债务人提前清偿债务。

Article 200: 抵押权人可以放弃抵押权或者抵押权的顺位。 抵押权人与抵押人可以协议变更抵押权顺位以及被担保的债权数额等内容,但是抵押权的变更,未经其他抵押权人书面同意,不得对其他抵押权人产生不利影响。


Article 201: 债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,抵押权人可以与抵押人协议以抵押财产折价或者以拍卖、变卖该抵押财产所得的价款优先受偿。 协议损害其他债权人利益的,其他债权人可以请求人民法院撤销该协议。



Article 202: 依照本法第一百八十七条规定设定抵押的,抵押财产自下列情形之一发生时确定:





Article 203: 债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,致使抵押财产被人民法院依法扣押的,自扣押之日起抵押权人有权收取该抵押财产的天然孳息或者法定孳息,但是抵押权人未通知应当清偿法定孳息的义务人的除外。


Article 204: 抵押财产折价或者拍卖、变卖后,其价款超过债权数额的部分归抵押人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。

Article 205: 同一财产向两个以上债权人抵押的,拍卖、变卖抵押财产所得的价款依照下列规定清偿:





Article 206: 同一财产既设立抵押权又设立质权的,拍卖、变卖该财产所得的价款按照登记、交付的时间先后确定清偿顺序。

Article 207: 动产抵押担保的主债权是抵押物的价款,标的物交付后十日内办理抵押登记的,该抵押权人优先于抵押物买受人的其他担保物权人受偿,但是留置权除外。

Article 208: 建设用地使用权抵押后,该土地上新增的建筑物不属于抵押财产。 该建设用地使用权实现抵押权时,应当将该土地上新增的建筑物与建设用地使用权一并处分,但是新增建筑物所得的价款,抵押权人无权优先受偿。

Article 209: 以集体所有的土地使用权依法抵押的,实现抵押权后,未经法定程序,不得改变土地所有权的性质和土地用途。

Article 210: 抵押权人应当在主债权诉讼时效期间行使抵押权;未行使的,人民法院不予保护。

Section 2: Maximum Mortgage Interest Rights

Article 211: 为担保债务的履行,债务人或者第三人对一定期间内将要连续发生的债权提供担保财产的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,抵押权人有权在最高债权额限度内就该担保财产优先受偿。


Article 212: 最高额抵押担保的债权确定前,部分债权转让的,最高额抵押权不得转让,但是当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 213: 最高额抵押担保的债权确定前,抵押权人与抵押人可以通过协议变更债权确定的期间、债权范围以及最高债权额,但是变更的内容不得对其他抵押权人产生不利影响。

Article 214: 有下列情形之一的,抵押权人的债权确定:







Article 215: 最高额抵押权除适用本节规定外,适用本章第一节一般抵押权的规定。

第十八章 质权

第一节 动产质权

Article 216: 为担保债务的履行,债务人或者第三人将其动产出质给债权人占有的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现质权的情形,债权人有权就该动产优先受偿。


Article 217: 法律、行政法规禁止转让的动产不得出质。

Article 218: 设立质权,当事人应当采用书面形式订立质押合同。







Article 219: 质权人在债务履行期届满前,不得与出质人约定债务人不履行到期债务时质押财产归债权人所有。

Article 220: 质权自出质人交付质押财产时设立。

Article 221: 质权人有权收取质押财产的孳息,但是合同另有约定的除外。


Article 222: 质权人在质权存续期间,未经出质人同意,擅自使用、处分质押财产,给出质人造成损害的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 223: 质权人负有妥善保管质押财产的义务;因保管不善致使质押财产毁损、灭失的,应当承担赔偿责任。


Article 224: 因不能归责于质权人的事由可能使质押财产毁损或者价值明显减少,足以危害质权人权利的,质权人有权要求出质人提供相应的担保;出质人不提供的,质权人可以拍卖、变卖质押财产,并与出质人通过协议将拍卖、变卖所得的价款提前清偿债务或者提存。

Article 225: 质权人在质权存续期间,未经出质人同意转质,造成质押财产毁损、灭失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 226: 质权人可以放弃质权。 债务人以自己的财产出质,质权人放弃该质权的,其他担保人在质权人丧失优先受偿权益的范围内免除担保责任,但是其他担保人承诺仍然提供担保的除外。

Article 227: 债务人履行债务或者出质人提前清偿所担保的债权的,质权人应当返还质押财产。



Article 228: 出质人可以请求质权人在债务履行期届满后及时行使质权;质权人不行使的,出质人可以请求人民法院拍卖、变卖质押财产。


Article 229: 质押财产折价或者拍卖、变卖后,其价款超过债权数额的部分归出质人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。

Article 230: 出质人与质权人可以协议设立最高额质权。


第二节 权利质权

Article 231: 债务人或者第三人有权处分的下列权利可以出质:








Article 232: 以汇票、本票、支票、债券、存款单、仓单、提单出质的,质权自权利凭证交付质权人时设立;没有权利凭证的,质权自办理出质登记时设立。

Article 233: 汇票、本票、支票、债券、存款单、仓单、提单的兑现日期或者提货日期先于主债权到期的,质权人可以兑现或者提货,并与出质人协议将兑现的价款或者提取的货物提前清偿债务或者提存。

Article 234: 以基金份额、股权出质的,质权自办理出质登记时设立。

基金份额、股权出质后,不得转让,但是经出质人与质权人协商同意的除外。 出质人转让基金份额、股权所得的价款,应当向质权人提前清偿债务或者提存。

Article 235: 以注册商标专用权、专利权、著作权等知识产权中的财产权出质的,质权自办理出质登记时设立。

知识产权中的财产权出质后,出质人不得转让或者许可他人使用,但是经出质人与质权人协商同意的除外。 出质人转让或者许可他人使用出质的知识产权中的财产权所得的价款,应当向质权人提前清偿债务或者提存。

Article 236: 以应收账款出质的,质权自办理出质登记时设立。

应收账款出质后,不得转让,但是经出质人与质权人协商同意的除外。 出质人转让应收账款所得的价款,应当向质权人提前清偿债务或者提存。

Article 237: 权利质权除适用本节规定外,适用本章第一节动产质权的规定。

Chapter XIX: Lien

Article 238: 债务人不履行到期债务,债权人可以留置已经合法占有的债务人的动产,并有权就该动产优先受偿。


Article 239: 债权人留置的动产,应当与债权属于同一法律关系,但是企业之间留置的除外。

Article 240: 法律规定或者当事人约定不得留置的动产,不得留置。

Article 241: 留置财产为可分物的,留置财产的价值应当相当于债务的金额。

Article 242: 留置权人负有妥善保管留置财产的义务;因保管不善致使留置财产毁损、灭失的,应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 243: Lien holders have the right to receive the fruits of the property under lien.


Article 244: 留置权人与债务人应当约定留置财产后的债务履行期间;没有约定或者约定不明确的,留置权人应当给债务人两个月以上履行债务的期间,但是鲜活易腐等不易保管的动产除外。 债务人逾期未履行的,留置权人可以与债务人协议以留置财产折价,也可以就拍卖、变卖留置财产所得的价款优先受偿。


Article 245: 债务人可以请求留置权人在债务履行期届满后行使留置权;留置权人不行使的,债务人可以请求人民法院拍卖、变卖留置财产。

Article 246: 留置财产折价或者拍卖、变卖后,其价款超过债权数额的部分归债务人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。

Article 247: 同一动产上已设立抵押权或者质权,该动产又被留置的,留置权人优先受偿。

Article 248: 留置权人对留置财产丧失占有或者留置权人接受债务人另行提供担保的,留置权消灭。

Sub-Part V: Possession

Chapter XX: Possession

Article 249: 基于合同关系等产生的占有,有关不动产或者动产的使用、收益、违约责任等,按照合同约定;合同没有约定或者约定不明确的,依照有关法律规定。

Article 250: 占有人因使用占有的不动产或者动产,致使该不动产或者动产受到损害的,恶意占有人应当承担赔偿责任。

Article 251: 不动产或者动产被占有人占有的,权利人可以请求返还原物及其孳息,但是应当支付善意占有人因维护该不动产或者动产支出的必要费用。

Article 252: 占有的不动产或者动产毁损、灭失,该不动产或者动产的权利人请求赔偿的,占有人应当将因毁损、灭失取得的保险金、赔偿金或者补偿金等返还给权利人;权利人的损害未得到足够弥补的,恶意占有人还应当赔偿损失。

Article 253: 占有的不动产或者动产被侵占的,占有人有权请求返还原物;对妨害占有的行为,占有人有权请求停止侵害、排除妨碍或者消除危险;因侵占或者妨害造成损害的,占有人有权请求损害赔偿。


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