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Implementation Outline for the Establishment of a Rule of Law-Based Society (2020-2025)

This document is quite dense, and the translation below is a bit schlock, so I’ve created a guide highlighting key points and action sites here:


A rule of law-based society is the foundation for building a country governed by law, and the establishment of a rule of law-based society is an important part of bringing about the modernization of the national governance systems and governance capacity. Building a socialist, rule of law-based society that has faith in the rule of law, is fair and just, protects rights, is law-abiding and creditworthy, is full of vitality, harmonious, and orderly is an important measure to enhance the people's sense of gain, happiness, and security. The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China set the basic establishment of a rule of law-based societyas one of the important goals of the basic realization of modernizing socialism by 2035; and it is of great significance, with far-reaching impact, and arduous tasks. This outline is drafted so as to accelerate the establishment of a rule of law-based society.

I. General Requirements

(1) Guiding Thought. Hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, adhere to the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thinking of "Three Represents", the scientific development concept, and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese characteristics for a New Era; and fully implement the spirit of the Party's 19th National Congress and its Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Plenary Sessions, fully implement Xi Jinping's thought on the rule of law, strengthen the "four awarenesses", solidify the "four self-confidences", and achieve the "two preservations'"; unerringly follow the road of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics, persist in the integration of a nation, government, and society ruled by law; cultivate and practice the Core Socialist Values, carry forward the spirit of socialist rule of law spirit, build a socialist rule of law culture, and enhance the enthusiasm and initiative of the entire society to enforce the rule of law; promote the entire society's compliance, study, and use of law; improve legal safeguards for social fairness and justice; safeguard people's rights, raise the level at which social governance is brought under rule of law, and build a solid foundation of rule of law for the Chinese dream of fully building a modern socialist country and realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese people.

(2) Main principles. Uphold the Party’s centralized and unified leadership; persist in the guidance of the theory of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics; persist in the people-centered approach; persist in respecting and preserving the authority of the Constitution and laws; uphold the equality of all before the law; persist in the unity of rights and obligations; uphold the integration of the rule of law, rule of morality, and autonomy; persist in social governance that is jointly established, jointly managed, and shared.

(3) Overall Objectives. By 2025, complete the implementation of the Eighth Five-Year Plan, have the concept of the rule of law deeply rooted in the hearts of the people, more fully complete systemic norms in societal fields, achieve visible results from the integration of the Core Socialist Values into the establishment of rule of law and social governance; have the lawful rights and interests of citizens, legal persons, and other organizations receive effective protections, noticeably improve the level to which social governance is under the law, and put together a vivid situation of establishing a society ruled by law that conforms to national conditions, reflects the times and satisfies the people, laying a solid foundation for fundamentally establishing a rule of law-based society by 2035.

II. Promote Strengthening the Whole Society's Conception of the Rule of Law

A law-abiding populace is the foundational project of a rule of law-based society. Establish legal concepts such as the supremacy of the Constitution and the equality of all before the law, cultivate faith in the law in the whole society, strengthen the focus and efficacy of publicity and education on the rule of law, guide the population at large to be loyal admirers, conscientious followers, and resolute defenders of the socialist rule of law, to make rule of law a societal consensus and basic principle.

(4) Preserve the authority of the Constitution. Thoroughly publicize the Constitution and carry forward its spirit, increasing awareness of the Constitution and promoting the formation of social atmosphere that reveres the Constitution, studies the Constitution, abides by the Constitution, preserves the Constitution, and uses the Constitution. Truly strengthen Constitutional education for state functionaries, especially all levels of leading cadres, and organize and promote state employees study of the text of the Constitution. Fully implement the Constitutional oath system; so that state employees shall take a Constitutional oath in accordance with legal provisions when taking their position. Continue to carry out national student activities "studying and speaking about the Constitution". Promote the institutionalization of centralized publicity activities on the "December 4th" National Constitution Day and "Constitution Publicity Week" to normalize publicity and education on the Constitution.

(5) Enhance the populace's conception of rule of law. Deeply study and publicize Xi Jinping’s thought on the rule of law, deeply publicize the socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics with the Constitution as the core, and extensively publicize laws and regulations closely related to economic and social development and the interests of the people, so that the people consciously respect, believe in and abide by the law. Extensively carry out popular legal education efforts on the Civil Code to make the Civil Code reach the masses and enter their hearts. Actively organize publicity and educational activities on laws, regulations, and knowledge related to disease prevention and control, wildlife protection, public health, and other such areas. Guide the whole society to respect judicial judgments and preserve judicial authority. Give full play to the role of leading cadres in modeling and driving respect, study, compliance, and use of law for the entire society, to further implement the system of studying and using the law for state employees, establish a system for routine legal study, strengthen legal training, improve mechanisms for evaluations and assessments, and continuously strengthen state employees, especially leading cadres, awareness and ability to handle matters according to law. Strengthen legal education for youths, fully implement the "Syllabus for Youth Legal Education," and include legal education into the national education system. Strengthen education and training on the rule of law for teachers, complete and fortify the corps of rule of law teachers and tutors, improve the system of vice-principals for rule of law, and complete mechanisms for teenagers to participate in the practice of rule of law. Guide enterprises to institute an awareness of compliance, truly strengthening the corporate managers' and employees' conception of the rule of law. Strengthen legal explanation and commentary on cases (incidents) that are hot topics in society, transmitting positive rule of law energy. Use new media and new technologies for popular legal education, and advance the establishment of a platform for "smart popular legal education". Research and draft a law on publicity and education on the rule of law.

(6) Improve the system of responsibility for popular legal education. Persist in combining publicity and education on the rule of law with legal practice. Earnestly implement the system of responsibility for popular legal education in which those who enforce the law conduct are to give legal education, basically achieving full coverage of the state organ popular legal education responsibility list by the end of 2020, and making the process of lawful handling cases (incidents) an open class in law. Improve the system of judges, procurators, administrative reconsideration personnel, and administrative law enforcement personnel, lawyers, and so forth using cases to explain the law, with emphasis on strengthening pronouncements on laws, regulations, and policies, to litigation participants, administrative subjects, stakeholders, and the like. Guide all aspects of society to extensively participate in legislation and turn the legislative process into a process of publicizing laws and regulations. Innovate to use multiple forms and strengthen explanations of newly put out laws, regulations, and rules. Give full play to the important role of the legal service teams in popular legal publicity and education, providing the people with professional, precise, and highly effective legal publicity. Complete systems for popular legal education from the media in the public interest, guiding media such as newspapers, radio stations, television stations, websites, and integrated media centers to conscientiously perform their legal education responsibilities. Cultivate and expand the team of volunteers for popular legal education, forming a practice model in which the people broadly participate in popular legal education activities.

(7) Establish a socialist rule of law culture. Promote the spirit of socialist rule of law, spread the concept of the rule of law, and abide by the principles of the rule of law; emphasize cultivating the conception of the rule of law and thinking in terms of rule of law, giving full play to the leading and nurturing role of the rule of law culture, and forming a social atmosphere that honors compliance with the law and shuns violations. Enrich the cultural products on the rule of law, cultivating fine cultural products on the rule of law culture, and expanding the coverage and influence of the rule of law culture. Take advantage of major memorial days, traditional holidays, and other opportunities to carry out mass legal activities on rule of law culture, organize youth volunteers for popular legal education and rule of law art and literature groups from all areas to carry out basic-level rule of law cultural activities, promoting the entry of rule of law culture deeply into people's hearts. Vigorously strengthen the stronghold of rule of law culture, effectively promoting the integrated development of the rule of law culture and traditional culture, red culture, local culture, industry culture, and corporate culture. Draft opinions on strengthening the establishment of a socialist rule of law culture before the end of 2020.

III. Complete institutional norms in societal fields

Accelerate the establishment of legal systems for societal fields, improve graded social norms for multiple sectors, enhance the establishment of moral norms, and thoroughly advance the institutionalization of the establishment of creditworthiness, and use good laws to promote social construction and ensure good social governance.

(8) Improve legislation for important societal fields. Improve laws and regulations in areas such as education, labor and employment, income distribution, social security, medicine and health, food and drugs, production safety, road transportation, poverty alleviation, charity, social assistance, and for the legitimate rights and interests of veterans, women, minors, the elderly, and the disabled, to continuously protect and improve people's livelihoods. Improve legislation related to disease prevention and control, comprehensively strengthening the establishment of laws and regulations related to the field of public health. Improve the legal system for areas such as social organizations, urban and rural communities, and social work, to further strengthen and innovate in social governance. Improve the legal and policy systems that promote the Core Socialist Values by strengthening legislation in areas such as Samaritanism, respecting heroes and martyrs, volunteer service, respecting elders, and caring for family.

(9) Promote the establishment of social norms. Give full play to the active role of social norms in areas such as coordinating social relations, retraining social conduct, and preserving social order. Strengthen the establishment of social norms such as resident conventions, villager agreements, industry rules, and social organization charters, to promote self-restraint, self-management, and self-regulation by members of society. Deepen the establishment of industry workstyles and standardize industry conduct. Strengthen oversight of the drafting and implementation of social norms, draw up model text for self-discipline norms, making the drafting and implementation of social norms comply with the spirit and principles of the rule of law.

(10) Strengthen the establishment of moral norms. Persist in the combination of governing the nation in accordance with law and governing the nation in accordance with morality, combining legal norms with moral norms, and nourishing the spirit of rule of law with morality. Advocate virtues such as taking pleasure in helping others, samaritanism, honesty and trustworthiness, professional dedication, respecting elders and caring for family, and improve mechanisms for rewards, praising good deeds so that good things come to good people. Promote the establishment of social mores and professional ethics, thoroughly carrying out education on family values and personal character, and strengthening the moral foundation of the rule of law. Strengthen the educational, assessment, and oversight functions of morals, and strive to form positive social trends and social order. Thoroughly carry out special projects on education and governance for prominent issues in the field of morality, and punish violations of public mores in accordance with the law. Vigorously advocate a scientific, healthy, and civilized lifestyle, eliminating the bad habits of overeating wild animals, and strengthening citizens' awareness of public health security and disease prevention and control. Regulate donations and the acceptance of donations in accordance with law. Pay attention to transforming basic moral norms that meet the requirements of Core Socialist Values ​​into legal norms, using the authority of law to enhance people's conscious cultivation and practice of the Core Socialist Values.

(11) Advance the establishment of societal creditworthiness. Accelerate the advancement of the establishment of the social credit system to raise awareness of social creditworthiness and credit levels. Improve legal systems for enterprise social responsibility, strengthening enterprises' awareness of social responsibility and promoting enterprises' honest, truthful, and legal business. Complete credit records of citizens compliance with law, establishing a uniform social credit code system based on citizens' identification numbers and organizations' codes. Improve long-term effective mechanisms for establishing creditworthiness, completing credit reporting systems that cover the entire society, and establishing and improving systems for punishing untrustworthiness. Consider actual conditions in establishing credit restoration mechanisms and systems for objections, encouraging and guiding untrustworthy entities to proactively correct illegal untrustworthy conduct. Strengthen the establishment of creditworthiness for industry associations and chambers of commerce, improve mechanisms for creditworthiness management and creditworthiness self-discipline. Improve the national credit information sharing platform and the national enterprise credit information announcement system, to further strengthen and regulate the aggregation and sharing of credit information. Strengthen publicity and education on the concept of creditworthiness, organizing practice activities on the theme of creditworthiness, to create a positive environment for the establishment of the social credit system. Promote the introduction of laws in the area of credit.

IV. Strengthen the Protection of Rights

Truly protect citizens' basic rights and effectively safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of all types of societal entities. Uphold the unity of rights and obligations; societal entities should perform legally-prescribed obligations and bear social responsibility.

(12) Complete systems for public participation in major public decision-making. The drafting of economic and social policies and introduction of major reform measures that are closely related to the people’s production, livelihood, and actual interests, should fully embody fairness, justice and social responsibility, should unblock the channels for public participation in major public decision-making, and should various forms to broadly listen to the opinions of the public, so as to truly safeguard the lawful rights and interest of citizens, legal persons, and other organizations. Citizens', legal persons', and other organizations' rights must not be diminished, nor their obligations increased, without a basis in laws and administrative regulations. Implement systems and mechanisms for legal consultants and government lawyers to play an active role in major public decision-making. Complete mechanisms for the participation of enterprises, employees, industry associations, chambers of commerce, and so forth in the formulation of laws, regulations, and policies related to enterprises, and equally protect the lawful rights and interests of enterprises and employees in accordance with the law.

(13) Safeguard parties' lawful rights and interests in administrative law enforcement. Regulate law enforcement conduct, improve law enforcement procedures, and advance law enforcement methods to respect and preserve the people's lawful rights and interests. Establish mechanisms for oversight and appraisals by the public to promote the continuous improvement of the force and efficacy of law enforcement in key areas related to the vital interests of the people, such as food and drugs, public health, the ecological environment, production safety, labor security, and wildlife protection. Establish and complete working mechanisms for the overall planning and coordination of property rights protection, continuing to strengthen the establishment of creditworthiness in government affairs and the business environment, and listing property rights protection as an important part of the content in special governance projects, credit demonstrations, city creation, and establishment of the business environment. Advance open government information by disclosing administrative normative documents, administrative permitting decisions, administrative penalty decisions, administrative compulsion decisions, administrative expropriation decisions, and so forth, that involve the rights and obligations of citizens, legal persons, or other organizations.

(14) Strengthen judicial safeguards of human rights. Strengthen judicial protection of citizens' lawful rights and interests. Intensify the investigation and handling of cases involving people's livelihood, and protect the people's lawful rights and interests through the handling of specific cases. Explore the establishment of a system of collective litigation for consumer rights protection. Improve the system of lawyers. Strengthen systemic guarantees for litigation participants' procedural rights. Strengthen the prevention of illegal evidence collection at its source, strictly enforce the rules for the exclusion of illegal evidence, establish and complete mechanisms for correcting cases, and effectively prevent and correct unjust, false, and wrongfully decided cases. Complete long-term effective implementation mechanisms to lawfully ensure that winning parties realize their lawful rights and interests in a timely manner. Strengthen the legal supervision of procuratorial organs over civil, administrative, and criminal litigation activities, and maintain judicial fairness. Ensure the people's participation in judicial mediation, judicial hearings, and other judicial activities. Implement the people's assessor system and improve the system of people's supervisors. Promote the deep integration of technological innovations accomplishments such as big data and artificial intelligence into judicial work, improve the internet + Litigation model, strengthen the establishment of litigation services facilities, and comprehensively build a modern litigation service system that is intensive, efficient, has diversified dispute resolution, is convenient for the people, intelligent and precise, open, interactive, blended and shared.

(15) Provide convenient and effective public legal services to the masses. By 2022, have fundamentally formed a modern public legal services system that covers rural and urban areas, is convenient and efficient, equal and inclusive, to ensure that the masses receive prompt and effective legal assistance. Strengthen policy supports for legal service professionals, social workers, and volunteers in areas that are less developed, vigorously promoting the use of remote and online legal services models, and promote the radiation of exceptional legal talent from cities to the countryside, to effectively mitigate the problem of inadequate legal service resources. Complete channels and methods for citizens' seeking remedies for their rights, improve the legal aid system and the national judicial assistance system, draft and put forward a Legal Aid Law, to safeguard the rights of the impoverished and special populations to basic public legal services. Accelerate the reform and development of lawyers, notaries, forensic evaluators, and other such sectors, improve the management systems and work mechanisms for public legal services, promote the standardization, regulation, and focus of public legal services to satisfy the masses' ever-increasing demand for long-term effective, high-quality and diverse legal services. Complete a system of village (resident) legal consultants, giving full play their role. Strengthen the establishment of the three major platforms of public legal service entities, hotlines, and networks, to promote the deep integration of technological innovations into public legal services and establish a public legal service network covering all businesses, time, and space, as soon as possible.

(16) Lead societal entities to perform legally-prescribed duties and bear social responsibility. Citizens, legal persons, and other organizations enjoy the rights provided for by the Constitution and the laws, and at the same time must perform the obligations provided for under the Constitution and the law. Strengthen awareness of rules, advocate the spirit of contract, preserve public order and good customs, guide citizens to rationally express their desires, conscientiously perform legally-prescribed obligations, social responsibilities, and family responsibilities. Guide and promote enterprises and other organizations in fulfilling their legally-prescribed obligations, assuming social responsibility, and promoting the healthy and orderly operation of society. Strengthen the role of policy guidance, create a good environment for enterprises to better fulfill their social responsibilities, and promote the establishment of a good relationship of mutual assistance and trust between enterprises and society. Support social organizations establishment of a system of social responsibility standards, leading social resources to slant towards social organizations that actively perform social responsibility.

V. Promote Bringing Social Governance Under the Law

Comprehensively improve the level at which social governance is brought under the law; follow the law in maintaining social order, solving social problems, coordinating interests and relationships, and promoting the development of societal affairs; and cultivate a rule of law environment where the whole society handles affairs according to the law, seeks the law when there's trouble, uses law to solve problems, and relies on the law to resolve conflict; promoting a society that is full of vitality, harmony, and order.

(17) Improve mechanisms for social governance systems. Improve the social governance system with party committee leadership, government responsibility, democratic consultation, social coordination, public participation, rule of law safeguards, and scientific and technological support, to create a social governance pattern of joint construction, governance, and sharing. Improve mechanism for local party committees to oversee the overall situation and coordinate the leadership of all parties in the region, and improve assessment and accountability mechanisms for the government's social governance. Lead and promote social forces to participate in social governance, build a community of social governance in which everyone has responsibility, everyone fulfils their responsibilities, and everyone enjoys, and ensure that the people participate in the process of social governance, the results are assessed, and the people share in the outcomes. Strengthen the establishment of social governance systems, and promote the institutionalization, regulation, and proceduralization of social governance.

(18) Promote graded governance in accordance with the law in many sectors. Advance innovation in city governance, lawfully accelerating the establishment of real-name registration, social credit management, property protection, and other accompanying systems, and carrying pilots in the modernization of social governance that make rule of law a core competitive force in municipal economic and social development. Intensify governance in accordance with law in rural communities, realizing positive interaction between government governance, societal modulation, and resident autonomy, under the leadership of Party organizations. District and county functional departments and township governments (community offices) are to draft and implement a list of powers and responsibilities in community governance in accordance with the principles of burden reduction and empowerment. Improve systems for deliberation and consultation at the village level, and encourage rural areas to carry out activities such as villagers' talking things over and sharing sentiments. Implement a sunshine project for village affairs, improving the "three openness" system of openness party affairs, village affairs, and finances, clear up the list of matters for openness in village affairs, and promote a supervision platform for "sunshine openness" in village affairs. Carry out activities to create rural areas governed under law. Strengthen the regulation of basic-level mass autonomous organizations, revise the Organic Law for Urban Resident Committees and the Organic Law on Villagers Comittees. Fully advance the lawful governance of basic-level units, with enterprises, schools, and other basic-level units widely improving systems of rules for all operational and management activities, and establishing platforms and mechanisms for resolving problems through lew-based methods. Widely carry out industry governance in accordance with law, advancing legalized management methods that improve of industry standards and procedures, fully review legality and compliance, promptly prevent and mitigate risks, and have effective legal oversight. Lawfully and appropriately address social problems involving ethnicity, religion, and other such factors, to promote ethnic and religious relations and harmony.

(19) Give play to the role of people's groups and social organizations in the establishment of a rule of law-based society. Under the Party's leadership, people's groups should educate and organize group members and the public they connect with to participate in managing national affairs, managing economic and cultural affairs, and managing social affairs through various channels and forms in accordance with the Constitution and laws. Promote the healthy and orderly development of social organizations, and promote social organizations in clarifying their rights and responsibilities, in being autonomous in accordance with law, and in playing a role. Uphold the Party's leadership over social organizations, strengthening the Party establishment in social organizations, and ensuring the correct political orientation for the development of social organizations. Increase the extent of efforts to cultivate social organizations, focusing on cultivating and prioritizing the development of industry associations and chambers of commerce, and social organizations such as for science and technology, public welfare and charity, and urban and rural community services. Promote and support the development of voluntary service organizations, and standardizing the establishment of volunteer services. Give full play to the self-regulatory function of industry associations and chambers of commerce, and explore the establishment of organizations for industry self-discipline. Give play to the active role of community social organizations in innovating in basic-level social governance. Improve mechanisms for government procurement of public services, promoting social organizations playing a bigger role in the provision of public services.

(20) Strengthen the societal sense of security. Accelerate the overall design and strategic planning of the social security system, and implement the opinions on accelerating the modernization of social governance and creating a new situation in the establishment of a peaceful China. Improve coordination mechanisms and mechanisms for sharing responsibilities in the establishment of a peaceful China, completing a system of indexes and evaluation standards for establishing peace. Formulate an "Internet + Public Safety" action plan before the end of 2020. Promote the normalization of clearing out the underworld, sternly combatting and punishing violations and crimes such as the violent harm of medical personnel, destroying wildlife resources, violent terrorism, pornography, drugs, gambling, high-tech crimes, and cybercrime, to contain and prevent the occurrence of serious criminal activity. Strengthen the establishment of emergency response systems to improve capacity for epidemic prevention and control, disaster prevention and reduction, and disaster relief. Strengthen the governance of key issues that endanger food and drug safety, impact production safety, or disrupt traffic safety in accordance with the law. Complete public psychological service systems, counseling mechanisms, and crisis intervention mechanisms; establish and complete basic-level psychological service work stations; develop the teams of psychological service professionals such as psychologists and social workers; strengthen humanistic care, psychiatric care and psychological health services for poor populations, persons with psychiatric disorders, left-behind children, women, the elderly, and so forth. Complete connections between the efforts of law enforcement and judicial organs and psychological service organizations, strengthening psychological counseling for persons involved in law enforcement and justice. Promote the creation of "Youth Rights Protection Post" and "Zero Youth Crime and Victimization Communities (Villages)", and strengthen the basic foundation for the prevention of youth crime.

(21) Lawfully and effectively resolve social conflicts and disputes. Uphold and develop the 'Fengqiao experience' for the new era, clearing and regulating channels for the public to express their desires, coordinate interests, and protect rights; strengthen conflict screening and risk evaluation, improve diverse comprehensive conflict and dispute prevention and resolution mechanisms, and strive to resolve conflicts and disputes at the basic-level. Fully implement the division between litigation and petitioning, thoroughly advancing the separate handling of petition demands in accordance with law. Give full play to the role of people's mediation as the first line of defense, improving working systems of people's mediation, administrative mediation, and judicial mediation. Give full play to the role of lawyers in mediation, establishing and completing mechanisms to ensure costs of lawyers in mediation. Counties (cities, districts, and banners) are to explore the establishment of “one-stop” dispute resolution mechanisms in areas where conflicts and disputes frequently occur. Strengthen the mediation and arbitration of rural land contract management disputes and labor and personnel disputes. Strengthen efforts on administrative reconsideration, administrative mediation, and administrative adjudication, and give full play to the role of dispute resolution by administrative agencies as a 'diversion valve'. Promote the arbitration committee's active participation in the settlement of asic-level social disputes, and support the integration of arbitration into basic-level social governance.

VI. Govern Cyberspace in Accordance with Law

Cyberspace is not outside the law. Promote social governance from the real society to cover cyberspace, establish and complete systems for comprehensive online governance, strengthen network administration in accordance with law, handling the internet in accordance with law, and lawfully going online, to fully advance bringing cyberspace under the law, and creating a cyberspace that is clean and clear.

(22) Improve the online legal system. Promote the extension of existing laws and regulations to cyberspace by means of legislation, law reform, abolition, and interpretation. Improve laws and regulations in terms of online information services, revise measures on the management of online internet information services, research and draft measures on credit management for seriously untrustworthy internet information service credit subjects, and draft and improve norms and management measures for online broadcasts [webcasts, livestream], personal media, community question-answer boards, and other new media operations and for algorithmic recommendations, deep fakes, and other applications of new technology. Improve the system of regulations and standards accompanying the Cybersecurity Law to establish and complete systems for managing cybersecurity such as systems for protecting critical information infrastructure, data security management, and network security inspections; and strengthen normative guidance on the application of new technologies such as big data, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence. Research and draft a Personal Information Protection Law. Complete laws and regulations in terms of protecting intellectual property rights in internet technology, commercial models, big data, and other innovations and achievements. Revise the Law on the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency, and formulate regulations on the protection of juveniles online. Improve systems for cross-border e-commerce to regulate the conduct of cross-border e-commerce operations. Actively participate in the formulation of international rules and standards in the fields such as the digital economy, e-commerce, information technology, and cybersecurity.

(23) Cultivate a good awareness of the rule of law online. Persist in combining online governance in accordance with law and improving the web in accordance with morality, to carry forward contemporary mainstream ideas and positive social energy. Strengthen and innovate the construction of Internet content, and implement projects such as on the Core Socialist Values ​​and the dissemination of Chinese culture through new media. Improve the caliber of online media, promoting a "blacklist system" and discipline mechanisms for serious trustworthiness in the internet information services sector, and promote the establishment of institutionalized creditworthiness online. Persist in lawfully combatting the spread of rumors, pornography, violence, superstition, cult religions, and other such harmful information in cyberspace by establishing and completing integrated systems for reporting and addressing illegal and negative information on the internet. Strengthen education for the entire society on rule of law online and network literacy, drafting online literacy education handbooks. Strengthen education on onliine safety for youth, guiding youth's reasonable use of the internet. Thoroughly implement the Good Chinese Netizens project on online public interest projects, leading netizens to go online civilly, express themselves reasonably, and create a clear and fresh online environment.

(24) Safeguard citizens' safe and lawful use of the internet. Firmly establish a correct outlook on network security to prevent network security risks in accordance with the law. Implement a cybersecurity responsibility system, clarifying the cybersecurity responsibilities of managing departments and online information enterprises. Establish and improve unified and highly-effective mechanisms for reporting, assessing, and addressing cybersecurity risks, and complete systems for network security inspections. Strengthen the protection of the lawful rights and interests in cyberspace such as in communication secrets, commercial secrets, and personal privacy, as well as in reputation rights and property rights. Strictly regulate the collection and use of personal information such as users' identities and communications content, and increase the force of punishment for illegal and criminal acts of illegally obtaining, leaking, selling, or providing citizens' personal information. Oversee internet information enterprises' implementation of enterprise responsibility by performing security management responsibilities as provided by laws and regulations. Complete emergency response mechanisms for network and information emergency incidents, improve mechanisms for linking cybersecurity and law enforcement use of information technology. Strengthen the capacity for monitoring and investigating online violations and crimes, lawfully investigating online financial crimes, online defamation, online fraud, online obscenity, attacks, stealing of secrets, and other illegal and criminal conduct. Establish and complete mechanisms for information sharing, actively participating in international actions to combat internet violations and crimes.

VII. Strengthen Organizational Safeguards

Uphold the party's centralized and unified leadership over the establishment of a rule of law-based society, gather the forces of the whole society, and promote the establishment of a rule of law-based society in a firm and orderly manner.

(25) Strengthen organizational leadership. The leadership of the Party is the most fundamental guarantee for comprehensively advancing the rule of law and accelerating the establishment of a socialist nation governed by law. All levels of local party committee should implement leadership responsibility to advance the establishment of a rule of law-based society and to promote the resolution of critical and difficult issues in the process of building a rule of law-based society. Local governments at all levels should, under the unified leadership of the party committee, place the establishment of a rule of law-based society in an important position, incorporate it into the overall economic and social development plans, and implement all tasks in the establishment of a rule of law-based society. Give full play to the role of basic-level party organizations as a stronghold in the establishment of a rule of law-based society.

(26) Strengthen overall planning and coordination. Persist in coordinating the establishment of a rule of law-based society with the establishment of a nation and government governed by law, and insist that the establishment of a rule of law-based society meets the needs of the economic and social development in the new era and the people's ever-growing needs for a better life. All levels of local party committee's institutions for deliberation and coordination of the establishment of rule of law should strengthen the overall planning for the establishment of a rule of law-based society in the corresponding region, and form work mechanisms that coordination between higher and lower levels and the link departments. Fully mobilize forces from all aspects of society to participate in various forms in the establishment of a rule of law-based society, and give further play to the active role of citizens, enterprises, public institutions, people's groups, social organizations, and others in advancing the establishment of a rule of law-based society, to put together the greatest synergy in the establishment of a rule of law-based society.

(27)Complete mechanisms for implementing responsibility and for evaluations and assessments. Establish and complete implementation mechanisms for the oversight of the establishment of a rule of law-based society, to ensure that each policy and deployment of the Party Central Commission on the establishment of a rule of law-based society is put in place. Give full play to the important role of evaluations and assessment in promoting the establishment of a rule of law-based society, drafting a system of assessment indexes for the establishment of a rule of law-based society. Improve systems for evaluating public satisfaction, and make public satisfaction an important indicator of the effectiveness of efforts to establish a rule of law-based society.

(28) Strengthen theoretic research and public opinion guidance. Strengthen research on the theory and practice of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics, to provide academic and intellectual support for establishing a rule of law-based society. Give full play to the role of think tanks such as schools of higher learning and scientific research institutes, to vigorously build a theoretical research base for the establishment of a rule of law-based society. Strengthen guidance of public opinion, giving full play to the modeling and demonstration function of advanced examples, consolidating societal consensus and creating a positive atmosphere in which the populace is concerned about, supports, and participates in the establishment of a rule of law-based society. At appropriate times, publish white papers on the establishment of a rule of law-based society.

Each department of each region should fully implement the spirit and requirements of this Outline, and draft implementation measures in consideration of local conditions. The Central Office Governing the Nation According to Law should oversee and drive implementation to ensure that all tasks and measures of the Outline are put in place.


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  1. Marcus J Breen Marcus J Breen 2021/08/13

    An excellent and helpful translation – thank you.

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