General Provisions of the Civil Code (Draft)(Second Reading Draft)

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中华人民共和国民法总则(草案)(二次审议稿)

Chapter I: Basic Principles

Chapter II: Natural Persons

Section 1: Capacity for Civil Rights and Capacity for Civil Conduct

Section 2: Guardianship

Section 3: Declarations of Disappearance and Death

Section 4: Individually-operated Businesses and Leaseholding Rural Households

Chapter III: Legal Persons

Section 1: General Provisions

Section 2: For-profit Legal Persons

Chapter IV: Non-Legal Person Organizations

Chapter V: Civil Rights

Chapter VI: Civil Juristic Acts

Section 1: General Provisions

Section 2: Expressions of Intent

Section 3: Force of Civil Juristic Acts

Chapter 7: Agency

Section 1: General Provisions

Section 2: Retention of Agency

Section III: Termination of Agency

Chapter VIII: Civil Liability

Chapter IX: Limitation periods for litigation and Scheduled Period

Section 1: Limitations periods for litigation

Section 2: Scheduled Period

Chapter X: Calculation of Time Periods

Chapter XI: Supplementary Provisions
中华人民共和国民法总则(草案)(二次审议稿)

Chapter I: Basic Principles

Article 1: This Law is drafted, on the basis of the Constitution, so as to protect the lawful rights and interests of civil entities, adjust civil relations, preserve social and economic order, and adapt to the demands of developing socialism with Chinese characteristics.

Article 2: Civil law modulates the personal and property relationships between natural persons, legal persons, and non-legal-person organizations that are equal civil entities.

Article 3: The legal status of all civil entities in civil actions is equal.

Article 4: 民事主体从事民事活动,应当遵循自愿原则,按照自己的意思设立、变更和终止民事法律关系。

Article 5: Civil entities engaging in civil activities shall follow the principle of equity to reasonably determine the rights and liabilities of each party.

Article 6: Civil entities engaging in civil activities shall follow the principle of good faith and credibility

Article 7: 民事主体从事民事活动,应当保护生态环境、节约资源,促进人与自然和谐发展。

Article 8: 民事主体从事民事活动,不得违反法律,不得违背公序良俗,不得滥用权利损害他人合法权益。

Article 9: 民事主体的人身、财产权利和其他合法权益受法律保护,任何组织或者个人不得侵犯。

When civil entities exercise rights, they shall also perform obligations provided by law or agreed upon by the parties, and bear corresponding liabilities.

Article 10: The disposition of civil disputes shall follow the provisions of laws; and where the law has no provisions, custom may be applied but must not violate public order and good custom.

Article 11: Where other laws have special provisions on civil relationships, follow those provisions.

Article 25: Parents have the obligations to raise, educate, and protect their children who are minors.

Article 12: 在中华人民共和国领域内的民事活动,适用中华人民共和国法律。 Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.

Chapter II: Natural Persons

Section 1: Capacity for Civil Rights and Capacity for Civil Conduct

Article 13: From their birth to death, natural persons have the capacity for civil rights, and enjoy civil rights and bear civil obligations in accordance with law.

Article 14: Natural persons all have equal capacity for civil rights.

Article 15: The birth-date and time of death of a natural person is that recorded on their birth and death certificates; where there is no birth certificate or death certificate, the time of household registration is dispositive. 有其他证据足以推翻以上记载时间的,以相关证据证明的时间为准。

Article 16: In situations involving protection of a fetus's rights and interests such as to inheritance or acceptance of gifts, the fetus is viewed as possessing capacity for civil rights. 但是,胎儿出生时为死体的,其民事权利能力自始不存在。

Article 17: 年满十八周岁的自然人为成年人。 Natural persons who are not yet 18 years old are minors.

Article 18: Adults are persons with full capacity for civil conduct, and may independently carry out civil juristic acts.

Article 19: 六周岁以上的未成年人,为限制民事行为能力人,可以独立实施纯获利益的民事法律行为或者与其年龄、智力相适应的民事法律行为;实施其他民事法律行为由其法定代理人代理,或者经其法定代理人同意、追认。

Minors 16 years old or older, whose main source of income is their own labor, are considered persons with full capacity for civil conduct.

Article 20: Minors under the age of six are persons with no capacity for civil conduct and are represented by their legally-designated representative in carrying out civil juristic acts.

Article 21: Adults who cannot recognize their own conduct are persons with no capacity for civil conduct and are represented by their legally-designated representatives in carrying out civil juristic acts.

Where minors above the age of six cannot account for their own conduct, apply the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

Article 22: 不能完全辨认自己行为的成年人,为限制民事行为能力人,可以独立实施纯获利益的民事法律行为或者与其智力、精神健康状况相适应的民事法律行为;实施其他民事法律行为由其法定代理人代理,或者经其法定代理人同意、追认。

Article 23: The guardians of persons with no capacity for civil conduct or for persons with limited capacity for civil conduct are their legally-designated representatives.

Article 24: 不能辨认或者不能完全辨认自己行为的成年人的利害关系人,可以向人民法院申请认定该成年人为无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人。

被人民法院认定为无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人的,根据其智力、精神健康恢复的状况,经本人、利害关系人或者有关组织申请,人民法院可以认定该成年人恢复为限制民事行为能力人或者完全民事行为能力人。

前款规定的有关组织包括:本人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会,学校、医疗卫生机构、妇女联合会、残疾人联合会、依法设立的老年人组织、民政部门等。

Article 25: 自然人以户籍登记的居所为住所;经常居所与住所不一致的,经常居所视为住所。

Section 2: Guardianship

Article 26: Parents have the obligations to raise, educate, and protect their children who are minors.

 

成年子女对父母负有赡养、照顾和保护的义务。

Article 27: Minors' parents are the minors' guardians.

未成年人的父母已经死亡或者没有监护能力的,由下列人员中有监护能力的人依次担任监护人:

(1) Paternal or maternal grandparents;

(2) brothers or sisters;

(三)其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者有关组织,经未成年人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门同意的。

未成年人的父母可以通过遗嘱指定未成年人的监护人;其父、母指定的监护人不一致的,应当尊重被监护人的意愿,根据最有利于被监护人的原则确定。

Article 28: 无民事行为能力或者限制民事行为能力的成年人,由下列人员中有监护能力的人依次担任监护人:

(1) Spouses;

(2) Parents or children;

(3) Other close relatives;

(四)其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者有关组织,经被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门同意的。

Article 29: 监护人可以由协议确定。 When a guardian is designated by agreement, the ward's wishes shall be respected.

Article 30: 对担任监护人有争议的,由被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会或者民政部门指定,有关当事人对指定不服的,可以向人民法院提出申请;有关当事人也可以直接向人民法院提出申请,由人民法院指定。

居民委员会、村民委员会、民政部门或者人民法院应当尊重被监护人的意愿,根据最有利于被监护人的原则在具有监护资格的人中指定监护人。

依照本条第一款规定指定监护人前,被监护人的人身、财产及其他合法权益处于无人保护状态的,由被监护人住所地的居民委员会、村民委员会、法律规定的有关组织或者民政部门担任临时监护人。

After a guardian is designated, it shall not be changed of one's own accord; where it is changed of one's own accords, the designated guardian is not exempted from guardianship responsibilities.

Article 31: Where there is no person qualified to be a guardian, the residents' committee, villagers' committee, or civil affairs department for the ward's domicile shall act as guardian.

Article 32: 具有完全民事行为能力的成年人,可以与近亲属、其他愿意担任监护人的个人或者有关组织事先协商,以书面形式确定自己的监护人。 协商确定的监护人在该成年人丧失或者部分丧失民事行为能力时,承担监护责任。

Article 33: The rights of guardians that are the product of their lawful performance of guardianship duties, is protected by law.

Where guardians do not perform guardianship responsibilities or harm wards' lawful rights and interests, they shall bear responsibility.

Article 34: Guardians shall follow the principle of the greatest benefit for their wards in performing guardianship duties, shall protect wards' lawful rights and interests in their person, property, and otherwise; and guardians must not dispose of the wards' assets except in the interest of the ward.

Minors' guardians performing guardianship duties shall, based on the ward's age and intelligence, respect ward's wishes when making decisions concerning the ward's rights and interests.

In the performance of guardianship duties, an adult's guardian shall respect the ward's wishes to the fullest extent, ensure and assist ward's independent performance of civil juristic acts that are appropriate to his intellect and mental health status, and the guardian must not interfere in matters that the ward has capacity to handle independently.

Article 35: Where guardians have any of the following circumstances, the people's courts are to revoke their guardianship qualifications upon the application of relevant personnel or organizations, arrange necessary temporary guardianship measures and designate a new guardian for the ward based on the principle of the greatest benefit:

(1) Carrying out acts that seriously harm the ward's physical and mental health;

(2) Being remiss in performing guardianship duties, or being unable to perform guardianship duties and refusing to entrust all or part of the guardianship duties to others, leaving the ward's in a distressed condition;

(3) other conduct that seriously violates the lawful rights and interests of the ward.

"Relevant persons and organizations" as used in the previous paragraph include: other persons qualified to be guardians, the residents' committee or villagers' committee of the ward's domicile, schools, medical and health institutions, women's federations, disabled persons' federations, child protection organizations, seniors' organizations established according to law, and civil affairs departments.

前款规定的人员和其他组织未及时向人民法院提出撤销监护人资格申请的,民政部门应当向人民法院提出申请。

Article 36: 未成年人的父母被人民法院撤销监护人资格后,确有悔改情形的,经其申请,人民法院可以在尊重被监护人意愿的前提下,视情况恢复其监护人资格,人民法院指定的新监护人与被监护人的监护关系同时终止。

Article 37: In any of the following situations, the guardianship relationship is terminated:

(1) The wards acquire or regain full capacity for civil conduct;

(2) Guardians lose the capacity for guardianship;

(3) The wards or guardians die;

(4) Other situations where the people's courts find that the guardianship relationship is terminated.

Where a ward still needs guardianship after the guardianship relationship is terminated, a guardian shall be separately designated in accordance with law.

Section 3: Declarations of Disappearance and Death

Article 38: Two years after a natural person has gone missing, interested parties may apply to the people's courts to have that natural person declared a missing person.

Article 39: 自然人下落不明的时间,从该自然人失去音讯之日起计算。 Where they become missing during time of war, the time they are missing is calculated from the day when the war ends.

Article 40: A missing person's property is placed in the custody of their spouse, parents, adult children, or other persons willing to act as custodians.

Where there is a dispute over custody, there is no person stipulated by the preceding paragraph, or the persons stipulated by the previous paragraph are unable to take custody, [the property] shall be placed in the custody of a person designated by a people's court.

Article 41: The asset custodian shall properly manage the assets of the disappeared person, and preserve their property rights.

Any taxes, debts, and other unpaid expenses owed by a missing person shall be defrayed by the asset custodian out of the missing person's property.

Where asset custodians cause losses to a missing person's assets, either intentionally or by gross negligence, they shall bear responsibility for compensation.

Article 42: Where asset custodians do not perform custodial duties, harm the missing person's property rights or interests, or lose the capacity for custody, interested parties of the missing person may apply to the people's courts to change the asset custodian.

Where asset custodians have legitimate reason, they may apply to the people's courts to change the asset custodian.

Where people's courts change the assets custodian, the asst custodian after the change has the right to request that the original assets custodian promptly transfer relevant assets and report on the custody of assets.

Article 43: Where a person who has been declared missing reappears, the people's courts shall revoke the declaration of disappearance upon the application of that person or of interested parties.

被宣告失踪的人重新出现,有权要求财产代管人及时移交有关财产并报告财产代管情况。

Article 44: Where a natural person has any of the following situations, interested parties may apply to the people's courts for a declaration of that natural person's death:

(1) has gone missing for four years;

(2) has gone missing for two years due to an accident;

Where a natural person becomes missing due to an accident, and relevant organs demonstrate that it is impossible for said person to have survived, the application to declare him dead is not subject to the two-year time limit.

Article 45: 对同一自然人,有的利害关系人申请宣告死亡,有的申请宣告失踪,符合本法规定的宣告死亡条件的,人民法院应当宣告死亡。

Article 46: 被宣告死亡的人,人民法院判决确定的日期视为其死亡的日期;判决未确定死亡日期的,判决作出之日视为其死亡的日期。

Article 47: 自然人并未死亡但被宣告死亡的,不影响该自然人在被宣告死亡后实施的民事法律行为的效力。

Article 48: Where a person who has been declared dead reappears, the people's court shall revoke the declaration of death upon the application of that person or interested parties.

Article 49: 被宣告死亡的人的婚姻关系,自死亡宣告之日起消灭。 死亡宣告被撤销的,夫妻关系自撤销死亡宣告之日起自行恢复,但其配偶再婚或者不愿意恢复的除外。

Article 50: 被宣告死亡的人在被宣告死亡期间,其子女被他人依法收养的,在死亡宣告被撤销后,不得以未经本人同意而主张收养关系无效。

Article 51: A person whose declaration of death is revoked has the right to request the return of his assets. 依照继承法取得其财产的民事主体,应当返还原物;无法返还原物的,应当给予补偿。

Where interested parties concealed the truth, causing another person to be declared dead and acquiring his assets, they shall not only return the original items, but also bear responsibility for compensating any resulting damages.

Section 4: Individually-operated Businesses and Leaseholding Rural Households

Article 52: Natural persons who engage in industrial or commercial operations after registering in accordance with law, are individual-operated businesses. Privately-owned businesses may adopt brand names (字号).

Article 53: Members of rural collective economic organizations that obtain rural land contracting management rights and engage in family contract operations are rural leasehold businesses.

Article 54: 个体工商户的债务,个人经营的,以个人财产承担;家庭经营的,以家庭财产承担;无法区分个人经营和家庭经营的,以家庭财产承担。

农村承包经营户的债务,以家庭财产承担。

Chapter III: Legal Persons

Section 1: General Provisions

Article 55: Legal persons are organizations with the capacity for civil rights and the capacity for civil conduct that independently enjoy civil rights and bear civil liabilities in accordance with law.

Article 56: Legal persons shall be established according to law.

法人应当有自己的名称、组织机构和住所。 Follow the laws and administrative regulations for the specific requirements and procedures for establishment of legal persons.

设立法人,法律规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。

Article 57: Legal persons' capacity for civil rights and capacity for civil conduct come into being at the time of the legal persons' establishment and are extinguished when the legal persons are terminated.

Article 58: Legal persons independently assume civil liability with the entirety of their assets.

Article 59: 依照法律或者法人章程规定,代表法人从事民事活动的负责人,为法人的法定代表人。

Legally-prescribed representative engage in civil activities in the name of the legal person, and the legal consequences are borne by the legal person.

法人的章程或者权力机构对法定代表人的代表权范围的限制,不得对抗善意第三人.

Article 60: Legal persons bear civil liability for harms caused by legally-designated representatives' performance of their duties.

After the legal person bears civil liability, it may seek compensation from the legally-designated representative who has fault, in accordance with law or the legal person's charter.

Article 61: The domicile of a legal person is the site of its principal place of business.

Article 62: 法人在存续期间登记事项发生变化的,应当依法向登记机关申请变更登记。

Article 63: 法人的实际情况与登记的事项不一致的,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 64: The registration organs shall promptly announce information related to the legal persons' registration in accordance with law.

Article 65: Where legal persons merge, their rights and obligations are enjoyed and borne by the merged legal person. 法人分立的,其权利和义务由分立后的法人享有连带债权,承担连带债务,债权人和债务人另有约定的除外。

Article 66: 法人由于下列原因之一终止:

(1) The legal person is dissolved;

(2) the legal person is declared bankrupt;

(3) Other reasons provided by law.

法人终止,法律规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。

Article 67: In any of the following circumstances, the legal person is dissolved:

(一)法人章程规定的存续期间届满或者法人章程规定的其他解散事由出现的;

(二)法人的权力机构决议解散的;

(三)法人依法被吊销营业执照、登记证书,责令关闭或者被撤销的;

(4) Other situations provided by law.

Article 68: 法人解散的,清算义务人应当及时组成清算组进行清算。

法人的董事、理事等执行机构成员为清算义务人。 但是,法人章程另有规定、法人权力机构另有决议或者法律另有规定的除外。

清算义务人未及时履行清算义务的,主管机关或者利害关系人可以申请人民法院指定有关人员组成清算组进行清算。

Article 69: 公司的清算程序和清算组职权,适用公司法的有关规定。

公司以外的法人的清算程序和清算组职权,依照有关法律的规定;没有规定的,参照适用公司法的有关规定。

Article 70: 清算期间,法人存续,但是不得从事与清算无关的活动。

Handle a legal person's remaining assets after liquidation in accordance with the provisions of the legal person's charter or resolutions of the legal person's organ or power. Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.

清算终结,并完成法人注销登记时,法人终止;法人依法不需要办理登记的,清算终结时,法人终止。

Article 71: 清算义务人怠于履行清算义务,造成法人财产损失的,应当在造成损失范围内对法人债务等承担责任。

清算义务人怠于履行清算义务,导致法人主要财产、账册、重要文件等灭失,无法进行清算的,对法人债务等承担连带责任。

Article 72: Where a legal person is declared bankrupt, it is terminated after bankruptcy liquidation and deregistration of legal person is completed.

Article 73: A legal person may establish branch organizations in accordance with law. 法律规定分支机构应当办理登记的,依照其规定。

分支机构以自己的名义从事民事活动,由此产生的民事责任由法人承担。

Article 74: 设立人为设立法人从事的民事活动,其法律后果在法人成立后由法人承受;法人未成立的,其法律后果由设立人承受,设立人为二人以上的,承担连带责任。

设立人为设立法人以自己的名义从事民事活动,造成第三人损害的,第三人有权选择请求法人或者设立人承担民事责任。

Article 75: 法律、行政法规对合作社法人有规定的,依照其规定。

Article 76: 农村集体经济组织具备法人条件的,依法取得法人资格。

Section 2: For-profit Legal Persons

Article 77: 以取得利润并分配给其股东等出资人为目的成立的法人,为营利法人。

For-profit legal persons include limited liability companies, joint stock limited companies, and other other enterprise legal persons.

Article 78: 营利法人,经依法登记成立,取得法人资格。

Article 78: 营利法人,经依法登记成立,取得法人资格。

Article 79: 依法设立的营利法人,由法人登记机关发给营利法人营业执照。 The issuance date of a business license is the establishment date of a for-profit legal person.

Article 80: 设立营利法人应当依法制定章程。

Article 81: 营利法人的股东会等出资人会为其权力机构。

权力机构修改章程;选举或者更换执行机构、监督机构成员,并行使章程规定的其他职权。

Article 82: For-profit legal persons shall establish executive bodies.

执行机构召集权力机构会议,决定法人的经营计划和投资方案,决定法人内部管理机构的设置,并行使章程规定的其他职权。

执行机构为董事会或者执行董事的,董事长、执行董事或者经理依照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人;未设董事会或者执行董事的,法人章程规定的主要负责人为其执行机构和法定代表人。

Article 83: 营利法人设监事会或者监事等监督机构的,监督机构依法检查法人财务,对执行机构成员及高级管理人员执行法人职务的行为进行监督,并行使章程规定的其他职权。

Article 84: 法律对营利法人的组织机构、法定代表人另有规定的,依照其规定。

Article 85: 营利法人的出资人不得滥用出资人权利损害法人或者其他出资人的利益。 法人的出资人滥用出资人权利给法人或者其他出资人造成损失的,应当依法承担民事责任。

营利法人的出资人不得滥用法人独立地位和出资人有限责任损害法人债权人的利益。 法人的出资人滥用法人独立地位和出资人有限责任,逃避债务,严重损害法人债权人利益的,应当对法人债务承担连带责任。

Article 86: 营利法人的权力机构、执行机构的决议内容违反法律、行政法规的无效。

营利法人的权力机构、执行机构的会议召集程序、表决方式违反法律、行政法规、法人章程,或者决议内容违反法人章程的,营利法人的出资人可以请求人民法院予以撤销,但营利法人依据该决议与善意第三人形成的民事法律关系不受影响。

Article 87: In engaging in business activities, for-profit legal persons shall abide by business ethics, preserve transactional security, accept supervision by the governments and the society, and shoulder societal responsibilities.

Article 88: 本节没有规定的,适用公司法等有关法律的规定。

第三节 非营利法人

Article 89: 为公益目的或者其他非营利目的成立,不向其出资人或者设立人分配利润的法人,为非营利法人。

Non-profit include public institutions, social groups, foundations, social service organizations, and so forth.

Article 90: 为公益目的成立的非营利法人终止时,不得向其出资人或者设立人分配剩余财产;其剩余财产应当按照章程的规定或者权力机构的决议用于公益目的;不能按照法人章程规定或者权力机构的决议处理的,由主管机关主持转给宗旨相同或者相近的以公益为目的的法人,并向社会公告。

Article 91: 具备法人条件,为实现公益目的设立的事业单位,经依法登记成立,取得事业单位法人资格;依法不需要办理法人登记的,从成立之日起,具有事业单位法人资格。

Article 92: 事业单位法人设理事会的,理事会为其决策机构。 事业单位法定代表人按照其章程的规定产生。

法律对事业单位法人的组织机构、法定代表人另有规定的,依照其规定。

Article 93: 具备法人条件,基于会员共同意愿,为实现公益目的或者会员共同利益等非营利目的设立的社会团体,经依法登记成立,取得社会团体法人资格;依法不需要办理法人登记的,从成立之日起,具有社会团体法人资格。

Article 94: 设立社会团体法人应当依法制定章程。

Social Group Legal Persons shall set up organs of power such as general membership assemblies or representative assemblies.

Social Group Legal Persons shall establish councils and other such implementation bodies. 理事长或者会长等负责人依照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人。

Article 95: 具备法人条件,为实现公益目的,以捐助财产设立的基金会、社会服务机构等,经依法登记成立,取得捐助法人资格。

Where religious activity sites established in accordance with law have the capacity to become legal persons, they may apply to register as a legal person and obtain certification as an endowed legal person.

Article 96: 设立捐助法人应当依法制定章程。

Endowed Legal Persons shall set up councils, democratic management organizations and other such decision-making bodies, and set up implementation bodies. 理事长等负责人依照法人章程的规定担任法定代表人。

Endowed Legal Persons shall establish a board of supervisors and other supervisory bodies.

Article 97: Donors have the right to make inquiries to an Endowed Legal Person about how their donation was used and how it is being managed and offer opinions and suggestions concerning this; the Endowed Legal Person shall respond to such inquires in a timely and truthful fashion.

捐助法人的决策机构、执行机构或者其法定代表人作出的决定违反捐助法人章程的,捐助人等利害关系人或者主管机关可以请求人民法院予以撤销,但捐助法人依据该决定与善意第三人形成的民事法律关系不受影响。

Article 98: 有独立经费的机关、承担行政职能的法定机构从成立之日起,具有机关法人资格,可以从事为履行职能所需要的民事活动。

Article 99: 机关法人被撤销的,法人终止,其民事责任由继续履行其职能的机关法人承担;没有继续履行其职能的机关法人的,由撤销该机关法人的机关法人承担。

Chapter IV: Non-Legal Person Organizations

Article 100: 非法人组织是不具有法人资格,但是依法能够以自己的名义从事民事活动的组织。

非法人组织包括个人独资企业、合伙企业等。

Article 101: Unincorporated organizations shall register in accordance with provisions of law.

设立非法人组织,法律规定须经有关机关批准的,依照其规定。

Article 102: 非法人组织的出资人或者设立人对该组织的债务承担无限责任。 Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.

Article 103: Unincorporated organizations may designate one or several persons to represent that organization in engaging in civil activities.

Article 104: In any of the following circumstances, unincorporated organizations are dissolved:

(一)章程规定的存续期间届满或者章程规定的其他解散事由出现的;

(二)出资人或者设立人决定解散的;

(3) Other situations provided by law.

Article 105: Where non-legal person organizations dissolve, they shall conduct a liquidation in accordance with law.

Article 106: 非法人组织除适用本章规定外,参照适用本法第三章第一节的有关规定。

Chapter V: Civil Rights

Article 107: Natural persons' physical liberty and personal dignity are protected by law.

Article 108: 自然人享有生命权、健康权、身体权、姓名权、肖像权、名誉权、荣誉权、隐私权、婚姻自主权等权利。

Legal persons and unincorporated organizations enjoy name rights, reputation rights, honor rights and other such rights.

Article 109: The personal information of natural persons is protected by law. 任何组织和个人不得非法收集、利用、加工、传输个人信息,不得非法提供、公开或者出售个人信息。

Article 110: 自然人因婚姻、家庭关系等产生的人身权利受法律保护。

Article 111: 民事主体依法享有的收入、储蓄、房屋、生活用品、生产工具、投资及其他财产权利受法律保护。

Article 112: Civil entities enjoy property rights [rights in rem] in accordance with law.

Property rights are the rights holders' rights to direct control and exclusivity over specified objects, including ownership rights, usage rights, and the right to use as collateral.

Article 113: Property rights include both real estate and personal property. Where the law provides for an object of property rights, follow those provisions.

Article 114: 民事主体的物权受法律平等保护,任何组织和个人不得侵犯。

Article 115: Civil entities enjoy creditor rights in accordance with law.

Creditors rights are the right of the rights holder to request a specified obligor to do or not do certain acts, that result from contract, tortious conduct, negotiorum gestio, unjust enrichment or other provisions of law.

Article 116: Contracts established in accordance with law have binding legal effect on the parties.

Article 117: Where civil rights and interests are encroached upon, the victim has the right to request that the infringer bear liability for the infringement.

Article 118: 没有法定的或者约定的义务,为避免他人利益受损失进行管理或者服务的,有权请求受益人偿还由此而支付的必要费用。

Article 119: 没有合法根据,取得不当利益,造成他人损失的,受损失的人有权请求不当得利的人返还不当利益。

Article 120: Civil entities enjoy intellectual property rights in accordance with law.

知识产权是指权利人依法就下列客体所享有的权利:

(1) works;

(2) inventions, new utility models, designs;

(3) trademarks;

(4) geographical indications;

(5) Commercial secrets;

(6) Integrated Circuit Designs;

(7) new varieties of plants;

(八)科学发现;

(九)法律规定的其他客体。

Article 121: Natural persons enjoy the right of inheritance.

Article 122: Civil entities lawfully enjoy investment rights such as equity.

Article 123: 民事主体享有法律规定的其他民事权利。

Article 124: Where the law has provisions on the protection of data or online virtual assets, follow those provisions.

Article 125: 法律对未成年人、老年人、残疾人、妇女、消费者等的民事权利有特别保护规定的,依照其规定。

Chapter VI: Civil Juristic Acts

Section 1: General Provisions

Article 126: 民事法律行为是指民事主体通过意思表示设立、变更、终止民事权利义务关系的行为。

Article 127: 民事法律行为可以基于单方的意思表示成立,也可以基于双方或者多方的意思表示一致成立。

Where resolutions are made by legal persons and unincorporated organizations through the deliberation and voting procedures in accordance with provisions of law or their charter, that resolution is established.

Article 128: 民事法律行为可以采用书面形式、口头形式或者其他形式;法律规定或者当事人约定采用特定形式的,应当采用特定形式。

Article 129: 民事法律行为自成立时生效,法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。

行为人非依法律规定或者取得对方同意,不得擅自变更或者解除民事法律行为。

Section 2: Expressions of Intent

Article 130: 以对话方式作出的意思表示,相对人了解其内容时生效。

Where expression of intent is through non-interactive methods, it is effective on the date it reaches the counterpart. Where the counterpart has designated a specific system for receiving digital data documents, non-interactive expressions of intent made through digital data documents are effective from the date on which they enter that system; where a specific system has not be designated, the digital data document takes effect when the counterpart knows or should know that it has entered their system. Where the parties agree otherwise on the effective time for an expression of meaning in the form of a data message, follow their agreement.

Article 131: Where there is no expression of intent from the counterpart, the expression is effective when completed. Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.

Article 132: Where intent is expressed through a public announcement, it is effective from the time of the announcement.

Article 133: An actor may express or imply an intention.

沉默只有在有法律规定、当事人约定或者习惯时,方可以视为意思表示。

Article 134: Actors may withdraw an expression of intent. The notification of a withdrawal of expression of intent shall reach the counterpart before or at the same time as the expression of intent.

Article 135: 有相对人的意思表示的解释,应当按照所使用的词句,结合相关条款、行为的性质和目的、习惯、相对人的合理信赖以及诚实信用原则,确定意思表示的含义。

无相对人的意思表示的解释,不能拘泥于所使用的词句,而应当结合相关条款、行为的性质和目的、习惯以及诚实信用原则,确定行为人的真实意思。

Section 3: Force of Civil Juristic Acts

Article 136: Civil juristic acts meeting the following conditions are valid:

(1) the actor has the corresponding capacity for civil conduct;

(2) the intention expressed is genuine;

(三)不违反法律、行政法规的效力性强制规定,不违背公序良俗。

Article 137: Civil juristic acts performed by persons without capacity for civil conduct are invalid.

Article 138: 限制民事行为能力人实施的民事法律行为,经法定代理人同意或者追认后有效,但是纯获利益的民事法律行为或者与其年龄、智力、精神健康状况相适应的民事法律行为,不需经法定代理人同意或者追认。

The counterpart may urge the legally-designated agent to give subsequent ratification within one month of receiving notification. Where the legally-designated agent does not respond, it is viewed as a refusal to ratify. Before civil legal acts are subsequently ratified, good faith counterparts have the right of revocation. Revocations shall be made by notification.

Article 139: 行为人与相对人串通,以虚假的意思表示实施的民事法律行为无效,但是双方均不得以此对抗善意第三人。

行为人以虚假的意思表示隐藏的民事法律行为的效力,依照有关法律规定处理。

Article 140: The actor has the right to request that a court or arbitration body revoke civil juristic acts carried out on the basis of major misunderstandings,

Article 141 : The defrauded party has the right to request that a people's court or arbitration body revoke civil juristic acts carried out in circumstances where one party used fraud to make the other party go against their real intentions

Article 142: The defrauded party has the right to request that a people's court or arbitration body revoke civil juristic acts carried out in situations where a third party commits fraud causing a party to go against their true intentions and the other party knows or should know of the fraudulent conduct.

Article 143: The coerced party has the right to request a people's court or arbitration body revoke civil juristic acts carried out in circumstances where one party, or a third party, used coercive means, causing a party to go against their true intentions.

Article 144: 一方利用对方处于困境、缺乏判断能力等情形,致使民事法律行为成立时显失公平的,受损害方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机构予以撤销。

Article 145 : 民事法律行为因重大误解、欺诈、显失公平被撤销的,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 146: In any of the following circumstances, the right of rescission is extinguished:

(一)当事人自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内、重大误解的当事人自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起三个月内没有行使撤销权的;

(二)当事人受胁迫,自胁迫行为终止之日起一年内没有行使撤销权的;

(三)当事人知道撤销事由后明确表示或者以自己的行为表明放弃撤销权的;

(四)当事人自民事法律行为发生之日起五年内没有行使撤销权的。

Article 147: 违反法律、行政法规的效力性强制规定或者违背公序良俗的民事法律行为无效。

Article 148: Where there was malicious collusion between the actor and counterpart harming to the legitimate rights and interests of others, the legal juristic acts are void.

Article 149: 无效的或者被撤销的民事法律行为,从民事法律行为开始时起就没有法律约束力。

Article 150: Where civil juristic acts are void, revoked, or after they are determined to not take effect, assets acquired by actors due to that conduct shall be returned; where they cannot be returned, or there is no need to return them, compensation is made in cash. A party with fault shall compensate the other party for the harm it caused; where all parties have fault, they shall each bear the corresponding liability. Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.

Article 151: Where a part of civil juristic acts is void, but do not impact the force of the other portions, the other portions remain effective.

Section 4: Conditions and Time Limits for Civil Juristic Acts

Article 152: 民事法律行为可以附条件,但是依照其性质不得附条件的除外。 Civil juristic acts that have effective conditions attached, are effective when the conditions are achieved. Civil juristic acts with release conditions become ineffective when the condition is achieved.

Article 153: 附条件的民事法律行为,当事人为自己的利益不正当地阻止条件成就的,视为条件已成就;不正当地促成条件成就的,视为条件不成就。

Article 154: 民事法律行为可以附期限,但是依照其性质不得附期限的除外。 Civil juristic acts with time limits on their taking effect will take effect at the completion of that time period. Civil juristic acts with time limits for their termination, cease to have effect at the completion of that time period.

Chapter 7: Agency

Section 1: General Provisions

Article 155: Civil entities may perform civil juristic acts through agents.

Civil juristic acts that shall be carried out by the persons themselves in accordance with the provisions of law, agreement of the parties, or the nature of the civil juristic act, must not be done through an agent.

Article 156: Civil juristic acts carried out by agents in the name of the principal and within the scope of their power of agency are effective for the principal.

Article 157: 代理人在代理权限内以自己的名义与第三人实施民事法律行为,第三人知道代理人与被代理人之间的代理关系的,该民事法律行为直接约束被代理人和第三人,但是有确切证据证明该民事法律行为只约束代理人和第三人的除外。

Article 158: Agency includes entrusted agency and statutory agency.

Retained agents exercise powers of agency in accordance with the principal's retention. Legally-designated agents exercise the powers of agency in accordance with provisions of law.

法定代理,本章没有规定的,适用本法和其他法律有关规定。

Article 159: Civil juristic acts carried out by agents in the name of the principal and within the scope of their power of agency are effective for the principal.

代理人和第三人恶意串通,损害被代理人合法权益的,由代理人和第三人承担连带责任。

Section 2: Retention of Agency

Article 160: 委托代理授权可以采用书面形式、口头形式或者其他形式;法律规定或者当事人约定采用特定形式的,应当采用特定形式。

授权委托书应当载明代理人的姓名或者名称、代理事项、权限和期间,并由被代理人签名或者盖章。

Article 161: 数人为同一委托事项的代理人的,应当共同行使代理权,法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。

Article 162: 代理人知道或者应当知道代理的事项违法仍然实施代理行为,或者被代理人知道或者应当知道代理人的代理行为违法未作反对表示的,被代理人和代理人应当承担连带责任。

Article 163: 代理人不得以被代理人的名义与自己实施民事法律行为,法律另有规定或者被代理人同意、追认的除外。

代理人不得以被代理人的名义与自己同时代理的其他人实施民事法律行为,法律另有规定或者被代理的双方同意、追认的除外。

Article 164: Where agents need to transfer the agency to a third person, they shall obtain the consent or subsequent ratification of the principal.

转委托代理经被代理人同意或者追认的,被代理人可以就代理事务直接指示转委托的第三人,代理人仅就第三人的选任及对第三人的指示承担责任。

Where the transfer of agency is not consented to or subsequently ratified by the principal, the agent shall bear liability for the acts of the third party, except in emergency circumstances where it was necessary to transfer agency so as to preserve the principal's interests

Article 165: 执行法人或者非法人组织工作任务的人员,就其职权范围内的事项,以法人或者非法人组织的名义实施民事法律行为,对法人或者非法人组织发生效力。

法人或者非法人组织对执行其工作任务的人员职权范围的限制,不得对抗善意第三人。

Article 166: 行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后,仍然实施代理行为,未经被代理人追认的,代理行为无效。

The counterpart may urge the principal to subsequently ratify for one month after they receive the notification. Where the principal does not respond, it is viewed as a refusal to ratify. 无权代理人实施的行为被追认前,善意相对人有撤销的权利。 Revocations shall be made by notification.

无权代理人实施的行为未被追认的,善意相对人有权请求无权代理人履行债务或者就其受到的损害请求无权代理人赔偿,但是赔偿的范围不得超过代理行为有效时所能获得的利益。

相对人知道或者应当知道代理人无权代理的,相对人和代理人按照各自的过错承担责任。

Article 167: 行为人没有代理权、超越代理权或者代理权终止后,仍然实施代理行为,相对人有理由相信行为人有代理权的,代理行为有效,但是有下列情形之一的除外:

(一)行为人伪造他人的公章、合同书或者授权委托书等,假冒他人的名义实施民事法律行为的;

(二)被代理人的公章、合同书或者授权委托书等遗失、被盗,或者与行为人特定的职务关系已经终止,并且已经以合理方式公告或者通知,相对人应当知悉的;

(3) Other situations provided by law.

Section III: Termination of Agency

Chapter 168: In any of the following situations, the agency relationship is terminated:

(一)代理期间届满或者代理事务完成的;

(二)被代理人取消委托或者代理人辞去委托的;

(三)代理人丧失民事行为能力的;

(四)代理人或者被代理人死亡的;

(五)作为代理人或者被代理人的法人、非法人组织终止的。

Article 169 : In any of the following circumstances after the principal dies, the acts of the retained agent are effective:

(一)代理人不知道并且不应当知道被代理人死亡的;

(二)被代理人的继承人均予以承认的;

(三)授权中明确代理权在代理事项完成时终止的;

(四)在被代理人死亡前已经实施,在被代理人死亡后为了被代理人继承人的利益继续完成的。

Where the principal a legal person or an unincorporated organization and is terminated, apply the provisions of the preceding paragraph by reference.

Article 170 : In any of the following circumstances, legally-prescribed agency is dissolved:

(一)被代理人取得或者恢复完全民事行为能力的;

(二)代理人丧失民事行为能力的;

(三)被代理人或者代理人死亡的;

(4) Other situations provided by law.

Chapter VIII: Civil Liability

Article 171: 民事主体应当依照法律规定或者当事人约定履行民事义务。

民事主体不履行或者不完全履行民事义务的,应当依法承担民事责任。

Article 172: Where two or more persons bear proportional liability, and the size of the liability can be determined, each bears the corresponding liability; where it is difficult to determine the size of liability, they bear responsibility equally.

Article 173: Where two or more persons bear joint liability, the rights holder has the right to request some or all of those jointly liable to bear responsibility.

连带责任人根据各自责任大小确定责任份额;难以确定责任大小的,平均承担责任份额。 Where the liability actually borne exceeds their share of joint responsibility, they have the right to seek compensation from other jointly liable persons.

Article 174 : The primary methods of bearing civil liability are:

(1) stopping infringement;

(2) removal of obstructions;

(3) the elimination of dangers;

(4) restitution of assets;

(5) restoration of original conditions;

(6) repairing, remaking, or replacing;

(7) continuing performance;

(8) Compensating losses;

(9) payment of liquidated damages;

(10) eliminating impact and restoring reputation;

(11) formal apology.

Where the law provides for punitive compensation, follow those provisions.

Article 175 : Where civil obligations cannot be performed due to force majeure, civil responsibility is not borne. Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.

不可抗力是指不能预见、不能避免并不能克服的客观情况。

Article 176 : Civil liability is not borne where harm is caused by justified defense. If justified defense exceeds the limits of necessity and causes undue damage, the justified defender shall bear appropriate civil liability.

Article 177 : Where harms are caused due to avoiding imminent threats, the person who brought on the threat bears civil responsibility. 如果危险是由自然原因引起的,紧急避险人不承担民事责任或者给予适当补偿。 Where the measures taken to avoid urgent danger are improper, or exceed the limits of necessity, and cause undue harm, the person avoiding urgent danger shall bear appropriate civil liability.

Article 178: 为保护他人民事权益而使自己受到损害的,由侵权人承担民事责任,受益人可以给予适当补偿。 Where there is no tortfeasor, the tortfeasor has fled or is unable to bear civil liability, and the victim demands compensation, the beneficiary shall give appropriate compensation.

Article 179: 因当事人一方的违约行为,损害对方人身、财产权益的,受损害方有权选择请求其承担违约责任或者侵权责任。

Article 180: 民事主体因同一行为应当承担民事责任、行政责任和刑事责任的,承担行政责任或者刑事责任不影响承担民事责任;民事主体的财产不足以支付的,先承担民事责任。

Chapter IX: Limitation periods for litigation and Scheduled Period

Section 1: Limitations periods for litigation

Article 181: The limitations period for applying to the people's courts for protection of civil rights is 3 years. Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.

诉讼时效期间自权利人知道或者应当知道权利受到损害以及义务人之日起开始计算。 Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions. 但是,自权利受到损害之日起超过二十年的,人民法院不予保护;有特殊情况的,人民法院可以延长。

Article 182: 当事人约定同一债务分期履行的,诉讼时效期间从最后一期履行期限届满之日起计算。

Article 183: The limitations period for litigation demands by a person lacking or with limited capacity for civil activity against their legally-designated agents is calculated from the date on which that agency is terminated.

Article 184: The limitations period for litigation demands on compensation for sexual violations of a minor are calculated from the date on which the victim turns 18 years old.

Article 185: Where the limitations period is completed, the obligor may raise a defense of nonfeasance.

诉讼时效期间届满后,义务人自愿履行的,不受诉讼时效限制。

Article 186: People's courts must not proactively apply provisions on statutes of limitations.

Article 187: Where a demand cannot be made due to the following obstacles in the last 6 months of the limitations period, the limitations period is suspended:

(1) Force majeure;

(二)无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人没有法定代理人,或者法定代理人死亡、丧失代理权或者丧失民事行为能力;

(3) After inheritance begins, heirs or executors have not been determines;

(4) Where the rights holder is controlled by the obligor or another person;

(5) Other obstacles that make it so that the rights holder is unable to exercise their right to make demands.

The limitations period is completed six months after the reasons for the suspension of the limitations period have been eliminated.

Article 188: 有下列情形之一的,诉讼时效中断,从中断或者有关程序终结时起,诉讼时效期间重新计算:

(一)权利人向义务人提出履行请求的;

(二)义务人同意履行义务的;

(三)权利人提起诉讼或者申请仲裁的;

(4) Other circumstances with the same efficacy as raising a lawsuit or applying for arbitration.

Article 189: 对连带权利人或者连带义务人中的一人发生诉讼时效中断的,中断的效力及于全部连带权利人或者连带义务人。

Article 190: 下列请求权不适用诉讼时效:

(1) demands to stop infringement, remove obstructions, or eliminate dangers;

(二)登记的物权人请求返还财产;

(三)请求支付赡养费、抚养费或者扶养费;

(4) Other claims that do not apply the limitations period in accordance with law.

Article 191: Where the law makes provisions on the method of calculating the limitations period for litigation, as well as for grounds for its suspension or interruption, agreements between the parties are void.

Parties' anticipatory renunciations of benefits from the limitations period are void.

Article 192: 法律对仲裁时效有规定的,适用其规定。 法律对仲裁时效没有规定的,适用诉讼时效的规定。

Section 2: Scheduled Period

Article 193: 法律规定或者当事人约定的撤销权、解除权等权利的存续期间,为除斥期间。

除斥期间届满,当事人的撤销权、解除权等权利消灭。

Article 194: 除斥期间自权利人知道或者应当知道权利产生之日起开始计算。 Where the law provides otherwise, follow those provisions.

Article 195: 除斥期间不适用本法有关诉讼时效中止、中断和延长的规定。

Chapter X: Calculation of Time Periods

Article 196: 民事法律所称的期间按照公历年、月、日、小时计算。

Article 197: 按照小时计算期间的,自法律规定或者当事人约定的时间起算。

按照日、月、年计算期间的,开始的当日不计入,自下一日起算。

Article 198: 按照月、年计算期间的,到期月的对应日为期间的最后一日;没有对应日的,月末日为期间的最后一日。

Article 199: Where the final day is a legal holiday, the day after the end of the legal holiday is the final day of the period.

期间的最后一日的截止时间为二十四点;有业务时间的,到停止业务活动的时间截止。

Article 200: 期间的计算方法依照本法的规定,法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。

Chapter XI: Supplementary Provisions

Article 201: As used in this law, "above", "below", "within" and "at the completion of", include that number; "under", "over", and "beyond, do not include the number itself.

Article 202: This Law shall take effect on xx-xx-xxxx.

 

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