Interpretation on Several Issues Regarding the Applicable Law in Criminal Cases of Organizing Cheating on Tests

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Promulgation Date: 2019-9-3
Title:The Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate Interpretation on Several Issues Regarding the Applicable Law in Criminal Cases of Organizing Cheating on Tests
[Document Number]法释〔2019〕13号
Expiration date: 
Promulgating Entities:The Supreme People's Court, The Supreme People's Procuratorate
Source of text: http://news.jcrb.com/jxsw/201909/t20190903_2044616.html

  为依法惩治组织考试作弊、非法出售、提供试题、答案、代替考试等犯罪,维护考试公平与秩序,根据《中华人民共和国刑法》《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》的规定,现就办理此类刑事案件适用法律的若干问题解释如下:

Article 1: “State tests provided for by law" as used in Criminal Law article 284-1, is limited to tests provided for by laws drafted by the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee.

Based on relevant provisions of law, the following tests are "State tests provided for by law":

(一)普通高等学校招生考试、研究生招生考试、高等教育自学考试、成人高等学校招生考试等国家教育考试;

(2) Recruitment tests for central and local public officials;

(三)国家统一法律职业资格考试、国家教师资格考试、注册会计师全国统一考试、会计专业技术资格考试、资产评估师资格考试、医师资格考试、执业药师职业资格考试、注册建筑师考试、建造师执业资格考试等专业技术资格考试;

(四)其他依照法律由中央或者地方主管部门以及行业组织的国家考试。

Tests such as special types of recruitment and special skills tests and interviews that the tests provided for in the preceding paragraph are involved with are "State tests provided for by law".

Article 2: Where organizing cheating on state tests provided for by law has any of the following circumstances, it shall be found to 'serious circumstances' as provided for by Criminal Law article 284-1:

(一)在普通高等学校招生考试、研究生招生考试、公务员录用考试中组织考试作弊的;

(2) Caused tests to be delayed or cancelled, or caused the use of back up questions;

(3) Testing staff organized cheating on tests;

(4) Organizing cheating on tests across provinces, autonomous regions, or directly governed municipalities.

(5) Organizing cheating on tests several times;

(6) Cheating on tests 30 or more times/persons;

(7) Provided 50 or more instruments for cheating;

(8) Unlawful gains totaled 300,000 RMB or more;

(9) Other situations of serious circumstances.

Article 3:  具有避开或者突破考场防范作弊的安全管理措施,获取、记录、传递、接收、存储考试试题、答案等功能的程序、工具,以及专门设计用于作弊的程序、工具,应当认定为刑法第二百八十四条之一第二款规定的“作弊器材”。

对于是否属于刑法第二百八十四条之一第二款规定的“作弊器材”难以确定的,依据省级以上公安机关或者考试主管部门出具的报告,结合其他证据作出认定;涉及专用间谍器材、窃听、窃照专用器材、“伪基站”等器材的,依照相关规定作出认定。

Article 4:  组织考试作弊,在考试开始之前被查获,但已经非法获取考试试题、答案或者具有其他严重扰乱考试秩序情形的,应当认定为组织考试作弊罪既遂。

Article 5:  为实施考试作弊行为,非法出售或者提供法律规定的国家考试的试题、答案,具有下列情形之一的,应当认定为刑法第二百八十四条之一第三款规定的“情节严重”:

(一)非法出售或者提供普通高等学校招生考试、研究生招生考试、公务员录用考试的试题、答案的;

(2) Caused tests to be delayed or cancelled, or caused the use of back up questions;

(3) Testing staff illegally sold or provided test questions or answers;

(4) Illegally sold or provided test questions or answers several times;

(5) Illegally sold or provided test questions or answers to 30 persons/times;

(6) where unlawful gains were 300,000 RMB or more;

(7) Other situations of serious circumstances.

Article 6: Where questions or answers to state tests provided for by law are illegally sold or provided for cheating on tests, and the questions are not complete or the answers are not entirely the same as the standard answers, it does not impact the finding of the crime of illegally selling or providing test questions and answers.

Article 7: Where taking a test on behalf of others, or having others participate in a state test provided for by law on one's behalf, it shall be convicted and punished as the crime of testing surrogacy in accordance with Criminal Law article 284-1(4).

Where the circumstances of perpetrators' crimes is more minor, they truly show expressions of remorse, and upon comprehensive consideration of factors such as the circumstances of the testing surrogacy and the type of test, it is found that the requirements for a suspended sentence are met, a suspended sentence may be announced; where the circumstances of the crime are slight, it may be decided to not prosecute or waive criminal punishment; and where the circumstances are clearly slight and the threat is minimal, it may be decided not to handle it as a crime.

Article 8: Where units have conduct such as organize cheating on tests, illegally sell or provide questions or answers, the criminal responsibility of the organizers, planners, and implementers is to be pursued in accordance with the sentencing standards provided for in these Interpretations.

Article 9:  以窃取、刺探、收买方法非法获取法律规定的国家考试的试题、答案,又组织考试作弊或者非法出售、提供试题、答案,分别符合刑法第二百八十二条和刑法第二百八十四条之一规定的,以非法获取国家秘密罪和组织考试作弊罪或者非法出售、提供试题、答案罪数罪并罚。

Article 10:  在法律规定的国家考试以外的其他考试中,组织作弊,为他人组织作弊提供作弊器材或者其他帮助,或者非法出售、提供试题、答案,符合非法获取国家秘密罪、非法生产、销售窃听、窃照专用器材罪、非法使用窃听、窃照专用器材罪、非法利用信息网络罪、扰乱无线电通讯管理秩序罪等犯罪构成要件的,依法追究刑事责任。

Article 11:  设立用于实施考试作弊的网站、通讯群组或者发布有关考试作弊的信息,情节严重的,应当依照刑法第二百八十七条之一的规定,以非法利用信息网络罪定罪处罚;同时构成组织考试作弊罪、非法出售、提供试题、答案罪、非法获取国家秘密罪等其他犯罪的,依照处罚较重的规定定罪处罚。

Article 12: Where crimes of carrying out conduct provided for in these Interpretations are given a criminal punishment, professional restrictions may be lawfully announced based on the circumstances of the crimes and the needs of preventing recidivism; and where the sentence is controlled release or a suspended sentence, an injunction may lawfully be announced based on the circumstances of the crime.

Article 13: Where conduct provided for in this Interpretation constitutes a crime, fines shall be lawfully imposed based on comprehensive consideration of the degree of harm, the amount of unlawful gains, and the defendants' criminal record and attitude of repentance and remorse, and so forth.

Article 14: This Interpretation shall become effective on September 4, 2019.

 

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