State Council Opinions on Efforts to Strengthen Care and Protection of Rural Left-Behind Children

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Title: State Council Opinions on Efforts to Strengthen Care and Protection of Rural Left-Behind Children	
Promulgating Entities:State Council
Reference number: Guo Fa (2016), No. 13	
Promulgation Date: 2016-2-4
Expiration date: 
Source of text: http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/content/2016-02/14/content_5041066.htm

 

State Council Opinions on Efforts to Strengthen Care and Protection of Rural Left-Behind Children

Guo Fa (2016), No. 13

To all levels of people's government, and to all ministries and commissions directly under the State Council:
In recent years, following the advances in our nation's socioeconomic development, industrialisation and urbanisation, in some regions rural laborer have chosen to leave their home region to order to improve their livelihood by working and starting businesses elsewhere. However, because of the unstable nature of their work as migrant laborers and the objective restrictions they face in terms of housing, education and caretaking options, in doing so many of them choose to leave their underage children at home in the care of others. This has caused the emergence of a large number of rural left-behind children. 农村劳动力外出务工为我国经济建设作出了积极贡献,对改善自身家庭经济状况起到了重要作用,客观上为子女的教育和成长创造了一定的物质基础和条件,但也导致部分儿童与父母长期分离,缺乏亲情关爱和有效监护,出现心理健康问题甚至极端行为,遭受意外伤害甚至不法侵害。 这些问题严重影响儿童健康成长,影响社会和谐稳定,各方高度关注,社会反响强烈。 进一步加强农村留守儿童关爱保护工作,为广大农村留守儿童健康成长创造更好的环境,是一项重要而紧迫的任务。 The following Opinions are hereby issued:
I. Fully Recognize the Important Significance of Completing Efforts to Care for and Protect Rural Left-Behind Children
"Left-behind children" refers to minors not yet 16 years-old, whose parents are away as migrant labor or who have one parent away working as migrant labor and the other lacks capacity for guardianship. 农村留守儿童问题是我国经济社会发展中的阶段性问题,是我国城乡发展不均衡、公共服务不均等、社会保障不完善等问题的深刻反映。 近年来,各地区、各有关部门积极开展农村留守儿童关爱保护工作,对促进广大农村留守儿童健康成长起到了积极作用,但工作中还存在一些薄弱环节,突出表现在家庭监护缺乏监督指导、关爱服务体系不完善、救助保护机制不健全等方面,农村留守儿童关爱保护工作制度化、规范化、机制化建设亟待加强。
Rural left-behind children, just as other children, are the nation's future and hope, and need the joint care of the entire society. 做好农村留守儿童关爱保护工作,关系到未成年人健康成长,关系到家庭幸福与社会和谐,关系到全面建成小康社会大局。 党中央、国务院对做好农村留守儿童关爱保护工作高度重视。 加强农村留守儿童关爱保护工作、维护未成年人合法权益,是各级政府的重要职责,也是家庭和全社会的共同责任。 各地区、各有关部门要充分认识加强农村留守儿童关爱保护工作的重要性和紧迫性,增强责任感和使命感,加大工作力度,采取有效措施,确保农村留守儿童得到妥善监护照料和更好关爱保护。
II. Overal Requirements
(1) Guiding Thought 全面落实党的十八大和十八届二中、三中、四中、五中全会精神,深入贯彻习近平总书记系列重要讲话精神,按照国务院决策部署,以促进未成年人健康成长为出发点和落脚点,坚持依法保护,不断健全法律法规和制度机制,坚持问题导向,强化家庭监护主体责任,加大关爱保护力度,逐步减少儿童留守现象,确保农村留守儿童安全、健康、受教育等权益得到有效保障。
(2) Basic Principles.
Uphold familial obligations. 落实家庭监护主体责任,监护人要依法尽责,在家庭发展中首先考虑儿童利益;加强对家庭监护和委托监护的督促指导,确保农村留守儿童得到妥善监护照料、亲情关爱和家庭温暖。
Adhere to governmental guidance 把农村留守儿童关爱保护工作作为各级政府重要工作内容,落实县、乡镇人民政府属地责任,强化民政等有关部门的监督指导责任,健全农村留守儿童关爱服务体系和救助保护机制,切实保障农村留守儿童合法权益。
Adhere to universal care. 充分发挥村(居)民委员会、群团组织、社会组织、专业社会工作者、志愿者等各方面积极作用,着力解决农村留守儿童在生活、监护、成长过程中遇到的困难和问题,形成全社会关爱农村留守儿童的良好氛围。
坚持标本兼治。 既立足当前,完善政策措施,健全工作机制,着力解决农村留守儿童监护缺失等突出问题;又着眼长远,统筹城乡发展,从根本上解决儿童留守问题。
(3) Overall Goals. 家庭、政府、学校尽职尽责,社会力量积极参与的农村留守儿童关爱保护工作体系全面建立,强制报告、应急处置、评估帮扶、监护干预等农村留守儿童救助保护机制有效运行,侵害农村留守儿童权益的事件得到有效遏制。 By 2020, further complete laws and regulations and institutional systems on juvenile protection, widely strengthen the entire society's awareness of child care and protection, improve the environment in which children are brought up to further ensure safety, and visibly reduce the phenomenon of left-behind children.
III. Improve service systems for rural left-behind children
(1) Strengthen familial guardianship responsibility. Parents should fulfill guardianship responsibilities and custody obligations towards minor children. 外出务工人员要尽量携带未成年子女共同生活或父母一方留家照料,暂不具备条件的应当委托有监护能力的亲属或其他成年人代为监护,不得让不满十六周岁的儿童脱离监护单独居住生活。 外出务工人员要与留守未成年子女常联系、多见面,及时了解掌握他们的生活、学习和心理状况,给予更多亲情关爱。 父母或受委托监护人不履行监护职责的,村(居)民委员会、公安机关和有关部门要及时予以劝诫、制止;情节严重或造成严重后果的,公安等有关机关要依法追究其责任。
(2) Put in place the duties of county and township people's governments and villager (residents) committees. 县级人民政府要切实加强统筹协调和督促检查,结合本地实际制定切实可行的农村留守儿童关爱保护政策措施,认真组织开展关爱保护行动,确保关爱保护工作覆盖本行政区域内所有农村留守儿童。 乡镇人民政府(街道办事处)和村(居)民委员会要加强对监护人的法治宣传、监护监督和指导,督促其履行监护责任,提高监护能力。 村(居)民委员会要定期走访、全面排查,及时掌握农村留守儿童的家庭情况、监护情况、就学情况等基本信息,并向乡镇人民政府(街道办事处)报告;要为农村留守儿童通过电话、视频等方式与父母联系提供便利。 乡镇人民政府(街道办事处)要建立翔实完备的农村留守儿童信息台账,一人一档案,实行动态管理、精准施策,为有关部门和社会力量参与农村留守儿童关爱保护工作提供支持;通过党员干部上门家访、驻村干部探访、专业社会工作者随访等方式,对重点对象进行核查,确保农村留守儿童得到妥善照料。 县级民政部门及救助管理机构要对乡镇人民政府(街道办事处)、村(居)民委员会开展的监护监督等工作提供政策指导和技术支持。
(3) Increase the degree of care and protection from education departments and schools 县级人民政府要完善控辍保学部门协调机制,督促监护人送适龄儿童、少年入学并完成义务教育。 教育行政部门要落实免费义务教育和教育资助政策,确保农村留守儿童不因贫困而失学;支持和指导中小学校加强心理健康教育,促进学生心理、人格积极健康发展,及早发现并纠正心理问题和不良行为;加强对农村留守儿童相对集中学校教职工的专题培训,着重提高班主任和宿舍管理人员关爱照料农村留守儿童的能力;会同公安机关指导和协助中小学校完善人防、物防、技防措施,加强校园安全管理,做好法治宣传和安全教育,帮助儿童增强防范不法侵害的意识、掌握预防意外伤害的安全常识。 中小学校要对农村留守儿童受教育情况实施全程管理,利用电话、家访、家长会等方式加强与家长、受委托监护人的沟通交流,了解农村留守儿童生活情况和思想动态,帮助监护人掌握农村留守儿童学习情况,提升监护人责任意识和教育管理能力;及时了解无故旷课农村留守儿童情况,落实辍学学生登记、劝返复学和书面报告制度,劝返无效的,应书面报告县级教育行政部门和乡镇人民政府,依法采取措施劝返复学;帮助农村留守儿童通过电话、视频等方式加强与父母的情感联系和亲情交流。 寄宿制学校要完善教职工值班制度,落实学生宿舍安全管理责任,丰富校园文化生活,引导寄宿学生积极参与体育、艺术、社会实践等活动,增强学校教育吸引力。
(4) Bring mass organizations' advantages in care service into play. 各级工会、共青团、妇联、残联、关工委等群团组织要发挥自身优势,积极为农村留守儿童提供假期日间照料、课后辅导、心理疏导等关爱服务。 工会、共青团要广泛动员广大职工、团员青年、少先队员等开展多种形式的农村留守儿童关爱服务和互助活动。 妇联要依托妇女之家、儿童之家等活动场所,为农村留守儿童和其他儿童提供关爱服务,加强对农村留守儿童父母、受委托监护人的家庭教育指导,引导他们及时关注农村留守儿童身心健康状况,加强亲情关爱。 残联要组织开展农村留守残疾儿童康复等工作。 关工委要组织动员广大老干部、老战士、老专家、老教师、老模范等离退休老同志,协同做好农村留守儿童的关爱与服务工作。
(5) Promote the active participation of social forces. 加快孵化培育社会工作专业服务机构、公益慈善类社会组织、志愿服务组织,民政等部门要通过政府购买服务等方式支持其深入城乡社区、学校和家庭,开展农村留守儿童监护指导、心理疏导、行为矫治、社会融入和家庭关系调适等专业服务。 充分发挥市场机制作用,支持社会组织、爱心企业依托学校、社区综合服务设施举办农村留守儿童托管服务机构,财税部门要依法落实税费减免优惠政策。
IV. Establish and complete Systems for the aid and protection of rural left-behind children
(1) Establish a mandatory reporting system. Schools, kindergarten, medical institutions, villager (residents) committees, social work service institutions, aid management institutions, welfare institutions and their staffs , discovering situations in the course of their work such as where rural left-behind children have become separated from their guardianship and are living independently or have vanished, where guardians have lost the capacity for guardianship or are not performing guardianship duties, where there is suspected domestic violence, where there is suspected suffering of accidental harms or unlawful violations, shall make a report to the public security organs at the first moment. Where units and personnel bearing mandatory reporting duties do not fulfill their reporting obligations, the organ at the level above and relevant departments should strictly pursue responsibility. Where other citizens or social organizations proactively make reports to the public security organs, commendations and awards should be promptly given.
(2) Improve emergency response mechanisms. 公安机关要及时受理有关报告,第一时间出警调查,有针对性地采取应急处置措施,强制报告责任人要协助公安机关做好调查和应急处置工作。 属于农村留守儿童单独居住生活的,要责令其父母立即返回或确定受委托监护人,并对父母进行训诫;属于监护人丧失监护能力或不履行监护责任的,要联系农村留守儿童父母立即返回或委托其他亲属监护照料;上述两种情形联系不上农村留守儿童父母的,要就近护送至其他近亲属、村(居)民委员会或救助管理机构、福利机构临时监护照料,并协助通知农村留守儿童父母立即返回或重新确定受委托监护人。 属于失踪的,要按照儿童失踪快速查找机制及时开展调查。 属于遭受家庭暴力的,要依法制止,必要时通知并协助民政部门将其安置到临时庇护场所、救助管理机构或者福利机构实施保护;属于遭受其他不法侵害、意外伤害的,要依法制止侵害行为、实施保护;对于上述两种情形,要按照有关规定调查取证,协助其就医、鉴定伤情,为进一步采取干预措施、依法追究相关法律责任打下基础。 Public security organs should promptly report relevant circumstances to the township people's governments (sub-district offices).
(3) Establish assessment and support mechansisms. 乡镇人民政府(街道办事处)接到公安机关通报后,要会同民政部门、公安机关在村(居)民委员会、中小学校、医疗机构以及亲属、社会工作专业服务机构的协助下,对农村留守儿童的安全处境、监护情况、身心健康状况等进行调查评估,有针对性地安排监护指导、医疗救治、心理疏导、行为矫治、法律服务、法律援助等专业服务。 对于监护人家庭经济困难且符合有关社会救助、社会福利政策的,民政及其他社会救助部门要及时纳入保障范围。
(4) Strengthen mechanisms for intervention in guardianship. Where parents and entrusted guardians commit domestic violence against, abuse or abandon rural left-behind children, the public security organs shall criticize and educate, and when necessary give administrative sanctions; and where the circumstances are heinous, and constitute a crime, file a case and investigate. Where guardians put rural left-behind children in a situation where they are unsupervised or looked after that causes them to face danger and they do not change the situation upon education, where they refuse to perform guardianship duties for six months or more causing rural left-behind children's livelihood to be uncertain, or where they commit domestic violence, abuse or abandonment of rural left-behind children causing serious harms to their physical health, relevant individuals or units such as close relatives, villager (residents committees), and county level people's governments will apply to a people's court for a revocation of guardianship credentials in accordance with law, and appoint a different guardian.
V. Gradually reduce the phenomenon of left-behind children from its source
(1) Provide more support for families of migrant labor. 各地要大力推进农民工市民化,为其监护照料未成年子女创造更好条件。 符合落户条件的要有序推进其本人及家属落户。 符合住房保障条件的要纳入保障范围,通过实物配租公共租赁住房或发放租赁补贴等方式,满足其家庭的基本居住需求。 不符合上述条件的,要在生活居住、日间照料、义务教育、医疗卫生等方面提供帮助。 倡导用工单位、社会组织和专业社会工作者、志愿者队伍等社会力量,为其照料未成年子女提供便利条件和更多帮助。 公办义务教育学校要普遍对农民工未成年子女开放,要通过政府购买服务等方式支持农民工未成年子女接受义务教育;完善和落实符合条件的农民工子女在输入地参加中考、高考政策。
(2) guide and support migrants returning to villages for entrepreneurship and employment. All areas should forcefully develop county level economies, and put in place the series of policy measures by the State Council regarding support for migrant labor returning to rural areas for enterprise and employment. 中西部地区要充分发挥比较优势,积极承接东部地区产业转移,加快发展地方优势特色产业,加强基本公共服务,制定和落实财政、金融等优惠扶持政策,落实定向减税和普遍性降费政策,为农民工返乡创业就业提供便利条件。 人力资源社会保障等有关部门要广泛宣传农民工返乡创业就业政策,加强农村劳动力的就业创业技能培训,对有意愿就业创业的,要有针对性地推荐用工岗位信息或创业项目信息。
VI. Strengthen safeguard measures for efforts to care for and protect rural left-behind children.
(1) Strengthen organizational leadership. 各地要将农村留守儿童关爱保护工作纳入重要议事日程,建立健全政府领导,民政部门牵头,教育、公安、司法行政、卫生计生等部门和妇联、共青团等群团组织参加的农村留守儿童关爱保护工作领导机制,及时研究解决工作中的重大问题。 民政部要牵头建立农村留守儿童关爱保护工作部际联席会议制度,会同有关部门在2016年上半年开展一次全面的农村留守儿童摸底排查,依托现有信息系统完善农村留守儿童信息管理功能,健全信息报送机制。 各级妇儿工委和农民工工作领导小组要将农村留守儿童关爱保护作为重要工作内容,统筹推进相关工作。 各地民政、公安、教育等部门要强化责任意识,督促有关方面落实相关责任。 要加快推动完善未成年人保护相关法律法规,进一步明确权利义务和各方职责,特别要强化家庭监护主体责任,为农村留守儿童关爱保护工作提供有力法律保障。
(2) Strengthen capacity building. 统筹各方资源,充分发挥政府、市场、社会的作用,逐步完善救助管理机构、福利机构场所设施,满足临时监护照料农村留守儿童的需要。 加强农村寄宿制学校建设,促进寄宿制学校合理分布,满足农村留守儿童入学需求。 利用现有公共服务设施开辟儿童活动场所,提供必要托管服务。 各级财政部门要优化和调整支出结构,多渠道筹措资金,支持做好农村留守儿童关爱保护工作。 All areas should actively guide social investment, to provide stronger support for the care of rural left behind children. All areas and all relevant departments should strengthen team building for the care and protection of rural left behind children, supplementing and strengthening work staff, and ensuring that there are people for all matters, and there is always someone bearing responsibility.
(3) Strengthen incentives and accountability. 各地要建立和完善工作考核和责任追究机制,对认真履责、工作落实到位、成效明显的,要按照国家有关规定予以表扬和奖励;对工作不力、措施不实、造成严重后果的,要追究有关领导和人员责任。 Social organizations and individuals making outstanding contributions should be given appropriate awards.
(4) Do a good job of publicity and guidance. Strengthen publicity efforts on laws regulations and policy measures for the protection of minors, initiate various new forms of publicity and educational activity; and strengthen government guidance and awareness of responsibility among the entire populace, and legal awareness on families conscientiously performing guardianship duties. Establish and complete public opinion monitoring and early warning systems, rationally guiding social opinion and promptly responding to to social concerns, publicize and report advanced examples, and create a positive social environment.
All provinces (districts, municipalities) should formulate specific implementation plans with consideration of actual local conditions. The State Council will organize a special oversight review on the implementation of these Opinions at an appropriate time.

State Council
2/4/2016

 

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