Opinion on Deepening Reform of the Procuratorate (2013-2017 plan)(revised 2015)

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The Eighteenth National Congress of the CPC indicated that we should further deepen reform of the judicial system, persisting in and improving the the socialist judicial system with Chinese characteristics. The Third and Fourth Plenary Sessions of the Eighteenth National Congress made comprehensive deployments for deepening reform of the judicial system. The following Opinion is hereby put forward to fully implement the center's deployment and comprehensively deepen reform of the procuratorate.

 

I. Guiding Ideology and Overall Goals

 

深化检察改革的指导思想:全面贯彻党的十八大和十八届三中、四中全会精神,坚持以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,深入贯彻习近平总书记系列重要讲话精神,围绕全面推进依法治国的总目标和建设公正高效权威的社会主义司法制度,进一步完善检察体制,优化检察职权配置,着力解决影响司法公正和制约司法能力的深层次问题,强化法律监督、强化自身监督、强化队伍建设,发展和完善中国特色社会主义检察制度,努力让人民群众在每一个司法案件中感受到公平正义,为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦提供强有力的司法保障。

 

深化检察改革的总体目标:一是保障依法独立公正行使检察权的体制机制更加健全,党对检察工作的领导得到加强和改进,检察机关宪法地位进一步落实;二是检察机关与其他政法机关既相互配合又依法制约的体制机制更加健全,法律监督的范围、程序和措施更加完善,在权力运行制约和监督体系中的作用得到充分发挥;三是检察权运行机制和自身监督制约机制更加健全,法律监督的针对性、规范性和公正性、权威性进一步增强,司法公信力进一步提高;四是对人权的司法保障机制和执法为民的工作机制更加健全,人民群众的合法权益得到切实维护,检察工作的亲和力和人民群众对检察工作的满意度进一步提升;五是符合检察职业特点的检察人员管理制度更加健全,检察人员政治业务素质和公正执法水平明显提高,基层基础工作显著加强。

 

II. Basic Principles

 

Persist in the correct political orientation. 坚持党的领导,坚持中国特色社会主义制度,坚持走中国特色社会主义法治道路,坚持推动中国特色社会主义检察制度自我完善和发展,实现党的领导、人民当家作主和依法治国的有机统一。

 

Adhere to the Constitution and Laws as the basis. Abide by the principles of the rule of law, advancing in an orderly fashion in accordance with law. Wherever the law needs to be revised, it is implemented after the relevant revisions, where legal authorization is needed, it is conducted according to legal procedures.

 

Adhere to the correct philosophy for developing procuratorate work and judicial philosophy. 运用法治思维和法治方式,遵循司法活动和检察工作规律,按照“六观”、“六个有机统一”和“四个必须”等检察工作正确发展理念和司法理念深化改革,着力解决与全面推进依法治国要求不适应、不符合、不协调的突出问题,促进检察工作科学发展。

 

Persist in the mass line. 坚持人民主体地位,站在人民立场上把握和处理检察改革的重大问题,以保障人民根本权益作为改革的出发点和落脚点。 充分听取人民群众意见,积极回应人民群众期待,自觉接受人民群众监督和评判,真正做到改革为了人民、依靠人民、造福人民、保护人民。

 

Persist in integrated planning and top-level design. 注重检察改革的系统性、整体性、协同性,统筹把握中央与地方、司法机关之间、当前与长远、公正与效率等各方面关系。 加强顶层设计,整体规划改革的路线图和时间表,确保各项检察改革措施协调配套,与司法体制改革的其他措施及其他领域的改革协同推进。

 

Persist in actively, yet prudently advancing. 坚持问题导向和改革取向,正确处理改革发展稳定的关系,按照中央统一部署扎实推进、稳步实施。 重大改革措施出台前要充分论证,加强可行性研究并先行试点,提高改革决策科学性。

 

III. Key Tasks

 

(1) Improve institutional mechanisms for lawful, independent and fair exercise of the procuratorate powers.

 

1.Promote the reform of unified management of local procuratorate personnel at the provincial level. 配合中央有关部门,建立省以下地方检察院检察官统一由省提名、管理并按法定程序任免的机制,建立省以下地方检察院政法专项编制统一管理制度。

 

2. Promote the reform of uniform management of procuratorate assets at the provincial level. 配合中央有关部门,建立省以下地方检察院经费由省级政府财政部门统一管理机制。

 

3. Explore implementing the separation of procuratorate judicial administrative affairs management powers and procuratorate powers 规范检察行政事务管理职责,确保检察行政事务管理活动服务于检察活动。

 

4.Establish and complete protection mechanisms for procurators performing their legally proscribed duties. 非因法定事由,非经法定程序,不得将检察官调离、辞退或者作出免职、降级等处分。 完善检察人员申诉控告制度,健全检察人员合法权益因履行职务受到侵害的保障救济机制和不实举报澄清机制。 建立检察官惩戒委员会制度。

 

5. Explore establishing people's procuratorates that cross administrative regions. 以科学、精简、高效和有利于实现司法公正为原则,协同中央有关部门,探索设立跨行政区划的人民检察院,构建普通类型案件由行政区划检察院办理,特殊类型案件由跨行政区划检察院办理的诉讼格局,完善司法管辖体制。

 

6. 全面落实部门、企业管理公检法体制改革要求,将部门、企业管理的检察机关统一纳入国家检察管理体系。

 

7. Improve institutional mechanisms for preventing external interference with the judiciary. 配合中央有关部门,建立领导干部干预司法活动、插手具体案件处理的记录、通报和责任追究制度。

 

(2) Establish a system for management of procuratorate personnel that complies with the characteristics of the profession.

 

8.Implement categorical management of procuratorate personnel. 将检察人员划分为检察官、检察辅助人员和司法行政人员三类,完善相应的管理制度。 建立检察官员额制度,合理确定检察官与其他人员的比例。 制定相关配套措施。

 

9.Establish a system of procuratorate professional rankings and accompanying salary measures.

 

10. Improve professional admittance and selection systems for procurators. 适当提高初任检察官的任职年龄、法律工作年限。 根据检察院不同层级,设置检察官不同的任职条件。 健全检察官统一招录、有序交流、逐级遴选机制。 初任检察官由省级检察院统一招录,一律在基层检察院任职,上级检察院的检察官一般从下一级检察院的优秀检察官中遴选。 建立检察官遴选委员会制度。 建立从符合条件的律师、法学专家中招录检察官制度。 建立军事检察官转任地方检察官衔接制度,畅通具备条件的军队转业干部进入检察队伍的通道。 健全检察机关和法学教育研究机构人员的双向交流与互聘机制。

 

11. Establish a system of constitutional oaths for procurators. 经各级人大及其常委会选举或决定任命的检察官,正式就职时公开向宪法宣誓。

 

12.Improve systems of professional safeguards for procuratorate employees. 适当提高检察人员特别是基层检察院人员职级比例。 完善检察人员工资、津贴补贴和福利保险体系。

 

13.Establish and improve a professionalized system for procurator education and training. 配合法律职业人员统一职前培训制度改革,建立预备检察官训练制度,提高检察官法律信仰、职业操守和职业能力。 制定实施检察人员岗位素能基本标准,完善以检察教育培训机构体系、运行体系、课程体系、师资体系、管理体系为主要内容的检察教育培训体系。

 

(C) Establish and complete operating mechanisms for the procuratorial power

 

14.Deepen reform of procuratorate case handling responsibility systems. 以落实和强化检察官执法责任为重点,完善主任检察官办案责任制,科学界定主任检察官、副检察长、检察长和检察委员会在执法办案中的职责权限。 建立健全检察机关执法办案组织,完善检察机关执法办案责任体系。 改革和完善执法办案指导决策机制,规范案件请示汇报制度,明确各层级的办案责任。

 

15. Regulate set up of internal organizations. 研究制定地方各级检察院内设机构设置指导意见,明确设置标准,整合相关职能,形成科学合理、规范有序的内设机构体系。 制定派出检察院管理办法,规范派出检察室设置标准、职能定位和职责权限,明确派出主体,完善审批程序。

 

16. Improve case management systems. 深化案件管理机制改革,建立严格规范的案件受理、办理、管理工作机制,完善案件流程监控、质量评查工作机制。 完善检察业务考评机制。 升级完善检察机关统一业务应用系统。 推进电子检务工程,加快建设全国检察机关统一的信息交换与资源共享平台及服务体系,提升检察业务的信息化、规范化、科学化水平。

 

(4) Establish and complete legal oversight mechanisms for anti-corruption, raising the level to which investigation and prevention of crimes abusing public office are made matters of law.

 

17. Promote the establishment of a legal system for anti-corruption. Cooperate with the relevant central departments to accelerate the advancement of national anti-corruption legislation. Cooperate with legislative organs to improve legal systems for punishment of embezzlement and bribery, expanding the targets of bribery from property to property and other property interests. Promote improvements of the national system for protecting and rewarding those reporting crimes abusing public office.

 

18. Strengthen the standardization of investigations of crimes abusing public office. Strengthen the management of leads in crimes abusing public office, completing systems for acceptance, direction, investigation and information feedback. Clarify standards and procedural connections for disciplinary inspections and criminal justice case handling, strictly investigating and handling cases of of crimes abusing public office in accordance with law. Improve preliminary investigation mechanisms for cases of crimes abusing public office. Establish jurisdiction systems for crimes abusing public office that cross administrative regions, standardize designation of jurisdiction, assignments, and work.

 

19. Strengthen the establishment of capacity to investigate and prevent crimes abusing public office. Promote informatization of investigations and prevention, and modernization of facilities. Establish and complete information systems for the investigation and prevention of crimes abusing public office, and create mechanisms for sharing information with competent departments such as those for industry and commerce, taxation, telecommunications, finance, auditing, customs, land, and real estate management. Improve working mechanisms for administrative organs, the public service industry and other departments to assist in investigation of crimes abusing public office. Deepen regional and international cooperation in the judicial field, strengthening anti-corruption efforts for international pursuit to recover stolen goods.

 

20.Establish and complete corruption prevention and supervision systems in the construction field.

 

(5) Strengthen legal supervision functions, improve the legal system for procuratorates exercising supervision powers, strengthen legal supervision of criminal, civil and administrative lawsuits.

 

21.Improve mechanisms for oversight of investigations。 Explore establishing systems for investigative organs to hear comments and suggestions of the procuratorates in major or difficult cases. Establish oversight mechanisms for police susbtations' criminal investigative activities.

 

22.Improve mechanisms for oversight of criminal trial. Strengthen and regulate criminal procuratorate appeals work. Complete supervision mechanisms for the final review of death sentences.

 

23. Adapt to the procedural system reform of having trial as the center, comprehensively implementing evidence rules. Strictly standardize procedures for obtaining evidence, lawfully gathering, fixing, storing, reviewing, and using evidence; cooperate with relevant departments to improve the system for witnesses and evaluators appearing in courts, and the standards for raising, challenging and affirming evidence ; and complete legal systems for punishing only crimes prescribed by law, not finding guilt in cases in doubt, and the exclusion of illegal evidence. Further clarify the scope, procedures and standards for exclusion of illegal evidence in the procuratorate context.

 

24. Establish and complete mechanisms preventing, correcting and pursuing liability in unjust, false and wrongly decided cases. Improve judicial supervision of judicial measures and investigative methods which limit personal freedom, strengthen prevention at the source of the extortion of confessions by torture and the illegal obtaining of evidence. Implement and improve systems for the simultaneous audio or visual recording of the entire course of interrogating persons suspected of crimes abusing public office, and promoting the establishment of systems for simultaneous audio or visual recording of the entire course of all interrogation and important evidence gathering activities in areas that have the capacity. Strengthen institutional safeguards for parties and other litigation participants' rights to know, make statements, defend and debate, make applications and appeal. Establish mechanisms for earnest investigation and prompt handling of criminal suspects or defendants' explanations of the crime, complaint appeals or accusations; improve systems for remedies for procedural rights, providing parties whose procedural rights have been improperly limited or illegally violated with a clear path for relief. Carry out a system for lifetime responsibility for case quality and for seeking accountability in wrongful decisions. Unify standards for finding responsibility in wrongful cases, clarifying the subject of error correction and initiation procedures. Clarify the duties, work flow, and work standards for procuratorate personnel.

 

25.Improve criminal enforcement activities such as enforcement of detention and criminal punishments; and improve the system for oversight of compulsory treatment. 健全和落实羁押必要性审查制度。 完善对指定居所监视居住决定和执行的监督机制。 完善分级负责的纠防超期羁押和久押不决工作机制。 加强对刑罚变更执行的法律监督,配合建立减刑、假释、暂予监外执行网上协同办案平台。 配合立法机关,健全社区矫正法律监督制度。 完善对强制医疗决定和执行的监督机制。

 

26.Improve mechanisms for raising judicial efficiency efforts. 开展刑事案件速裁程序试点工作,完善刑事案件速裁机制,建立完善对刑事案件速裁程序的法律监督机制。 推动完善认罪认罚从宽制度,健全认罪案件和不认罪案件分流机制。 建立刑事案件管辖争议快速协调处理机制。

 

27.Improve mechanisms for oversight of civil and administrative litigation. 进一步明确民事抗诉的适用对象、标准、程序和效力。 完善和规范检察建议的提出、受理、办理、反馈机制。 完善对民事执行活动实行法律监督的范围、方式和程序,健全民事行政裁判执行监督工作机制。 细化对行政诉讼活动监督的范围、程序、方式和要求。

 

28.Improve judicial oversight systems for administrative compulsory measures touching on the people's persons and property. 推动扩大司法监督的主体范围,为检察机关监督行政强制措施提供法律依据。 推动完善相关法律,为受到违法行政强制措施侵害的当事人提供便捷的司法救济途径。 强化对行政强制措施实施过程的司法监督,及时纠正违法行政强制措施。

 

29.Explore establishing and completing a legal supervision system for administrative violations. 建立检察机关在履行职务犯罪侦查、批准或者决定逮捕、审查起诉、控告检察、诉讼监督等职责中发现行政机关违法行使职权或不行使职权行为的督促纠正制度。 探索对行政违法行为实行法律监督的范围、方式、程序,明确监督的效力,建立行政机关纠正违法行为的反馈机制。

 

30. Explore establishing a system for procurators to raise public interest lawsuits. 探索提起公益诉讼的条件、适用范围和程序,明确公益诉讼的参加人、案件管辖、举证责任分配。 健全督促起诉制度,完善检察建议工作机制。

 

31.Complete linkage mechanisms between administrative law enforcement and criminal justice. 配合有关部门完善移送案件标准和程序,建立与行政执法机关的信息共享、案情通报、案件移送制度,坚决克服有案不移、有案难移、以罚代刑现象,实现行政处罚和刑事处罚的有效衔接。 推进信息共享平台建设,明确信息共享范围、录入时限,建立责任追究机制。

 

32.Reform systems for the petitioning related to law and litigation. 完善检察机关信访受理、办理、督办、息诉化解、终结退出、责任追究、源头治理等工作机制。 推进网上信访、远程视频接访工作。 建立涉法涉诉信访事项导入司法程序机制,建立健全依法处理涉法涉诉信访事项和与其他政法机关相互协调配合机制。 完善涉法涉诉信访终结办法。 完善刑事申诉案件办理程序。 配合有关部门,探索建立以律师为主体的社会第三方参与机制,对不服司法机关生效裁判、决定的申诉,逐步实行律师代理制度。

 

33. Improve judicial aid systems in the procuratorate setting. 建立健全对人身受到伤害或财产受到重大损失的刑事案件被害人或其近亲属、举报人、证人、鉴定人,以及特定民事侵权案件当事人、符合条件的涉法涉诉信访人的司法救助制度。

 

34. Strengthen and regulate judicial interpretations and case guidance, unifying standards for the application of law. 完善司法解释的制定程序,增强司法解释的规范性、及时性、针对性和有效性。 明确案例指导的方式和效力,规范指导性案例的发布主体、选用标准、发布程序及编纂、废止机制。

 

(6) Strengthen oversight and checks on the use of the procuratorate power.

 

35.Establish and complete internal supervision and checking mechanisms, and systems for the prevention of internal interference. 明确检察机关内部各层级权限,健全内部监督制约机制。 明确上级检察院依法对下级检察院实施领导的途径及方式,严格区分内部行政管理权与检察官依法行使司法职权的界限。 建立检察机关内部人员过问案件的记录制度和责任追究制度,防止检察机关内部人员干预其他人员正在办理的案件。 依法规范检察人员与当事人、律师、特殊关系人、中介组织的接触、交往行为。 严禁检察人员私下接触当事人及律师、泄露或者为其打探案情、接受吃请或者收受其财物、为律师介绍代理和辩护业务等违法违纪行为。 坚决惩治司法掮客行为,防止利益输送。 与有关部门配合建立因违法违纪被开除公职的检察人员终身禁止从事法律职业制度。

 

36.Cooperate in the improving the legal system of compulsory enforcement measures and disposition of assets involved in a case. 规范查封、扣押、冻结、处理涉案财物的司法程序,健全维护当事人或利害关系人合法权益的救济制度。 配合建立跨部门的地方涉案财物集中管理信息平台,统一管理辖区内刑事诉讼涉案财物。 配合立法机关制定强制执行法。

 

37.Strengthen discipline inspections and inspection of procuratorate work. 健全防控廉政风险、防止利益冲突、防范违法办案等监督机制,加快完善检察机关自身惩治和预防腐败体系。

 

38. Ensure lawyers right to practice in accordance with law, form a positive interactive relationship between procurators and lawyers. 完善侦查、起诉和审判环节保障律师依法执业权利,尊重律师辩护、代理意见的工作机制,对律师提出的申诉、控告,及时审查办理,纠正妨碍、侵害律师依法行使诉讼权利的行为。

 

39.Improve the system of people's supervisors. 改革人民监督员选任和管理方式。 拓展人民监督员监督案件范围,重点监督检察机关查办职务犯罪的立案、羁押、扣押冻结财物、起诉等环节的执法活动。 进一步明确人民监督员的法律地位、权利义务,完善人民监督员监督程序。 推动人民监督员制度法制化。

 

40.构建开放、动态、透明、便民的阳光检察机制,进一步深化检务公开。 依托现代信息技术手段,进一步完善公开机制,创新公开方式,畅通公开渠道。 完善人民检察院案件信息公开系统,完善办案信息查询系统,依法及时公开执法司法依据、程序、流程,实现当事人通过网络实时查询办案流程和程序性信息。 建立检察机关办理的重要案件信息发布制度。 开展辩护人与诉讼代理人网上申请预约工作。 建立对在案件事实、适用法律方面存在较大争议或在当地有较大社会影响的拟作不起诉、不服检察机关处理决定的申诉案件,主动或依申请公开审查制度。

 

41. 在对案件进行繁简分流的前提下,加强法律文书释法说理,增强法律文书的说服力。 建立法律文书说理的评价体系,完善法律文书说理的刚性约束机制和激励机制。 建立生效法律文书统一上网和公开查询制度。 完善生效法律文书网上查询检索、信息聚合功能,方便公众有效获取、查阅、复制生效法律文书。 健全“谁执法谁普法”的普法责任制,建立检察官以案释法制度。

 

42.Improve mechanisms for the collection of comments, explore establishment of work mechanisms transforming social oversight to internal oversight. 完善与人大代表、政协委员联系制度。 完善特约检察员制度,探索金融、知识产权、税务、环保等专业人才参与相关案件咨询论证工作,建立完善专业人才辅助办案、专家咨询制度。 完善与新闻媒体的良性互动机制,推动落实新闻发布制度化。

 

IV. Strengthen Organizational Leadership

 

(1) Unify thinking and increase awareness. 贯彻落实中央决策部署,深化检察改革,对于完善社会主义民主政治制度、推进法治中国建设、促进人权司法保障、推动检察工作科学发展具有重要意义。 各级检察机关要把深化检察改革作为一项重要政治任务,把思想和行动统一到中央和高检院的决策部署上来。 要牢固树立进取意识、机遇意识和责任意识,切实增强推进改革的使命感、责任感和紧迫感。 要坚持顾全大局,坚决摒弃部门利益和局部利益,正确对待利益格局调整。

 

(2) strengthen leadership, and make careful arrangements. 各级检察机关要加强对检察改革的组织领导,紧密结合本地工作实际,认真贯彻改革规划要求。 高检院成立以曹建明检察长为组长的司法体制改革领导小组,负责改革的总体规划和协调推进。 各省级检察院要成立以检察长为组长的改革领导小组,负责各项任务的贯彻落实和组织实施。 要切实加强推进改革的能力建设,凡重要改革举措都要经过深入调研、科学论证,分解任务、明确责任,精心组织实施。

 

(3) Move forward in an orderly fashion, emphasizing practical efficacy. 深化检察改革是一项系统工程,必须统筹兼顾,循序渐进。 在推进改革的过程中,要正确处理全局与局部、整体推进与重点突破等关系。 注重改革的协同性,对于关联性强的改革措施,要加强与相关部门的协同配合,配套推进。 要强化督促指导,及时分析查找存在的问题和原因,增强改革的实效性。 对已出台的改革措施要认真落实,适时进行检查评估,及时总结梳理,巩固改革成果。

 

(4) Strict discipline, accurate publicity. 深化检察改革必须严格执行中央和高检院的决策部署,自上而下进行,积极稳妥推进,不得各行其是。 凡试点改革项目,应按规定层报高检院批准或备案后,方可组织实施。 严肃检察改革宣传纪律,正确引导社会预期,为改革营造良好的舆论环境。 各省级检察院对检察改革的宣传要严格把关,对于重大、敏感、涉及面广的改革事项或改革试点项目的宣传报道,要层报高检院审批。

 

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