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Supreme People's Court Opinions on Deepening the Reform of the Judicial System with Comprehensive Integrated Reforms - Outline of the Fifth Five-Year Reform Program of the People's Courts (2019-2023)

Promulgation Date: 2019-2-27
Title: Supreme People's Court Opinions on Deepening the Reform of the Judicial System with Comprehensive Integrated Reforms - Outline of the Fifth Five-Year Reform Program of the People's Courts (2019-2023)
Document Number:Fa Fa〔2019〕#8
Expiration date: 
Promulgating Entities: Supreme People's Court
Source of text:

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, the reform of the judicial system of the people’s courts has been comprehensively and deeply advanced, breakthroughs have been made in important areas and key links, and a socialist judicial power operation system with Chinese characteristics has taken shape. From the perspective of developing socialist democratic politics and deepening the practice of governing the country according to law, the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China made important strategic arrangements for deepening the comprehensive reform of the judicial system and fully implementing the judicial accountability system. The “Organizational Law of the People’s Courts of the People’s Republic of China”, revised and adopted at the sixth meeting of the Standing Committee of the 13th National People’s Congress, further regulates the organization system, institutional setting, management system, team building and performance guarantee of the people’s courts. Deepening the reform of the judicial system provided a legal basis and consolidated the achievements of the reform of the judicial system from the legislative level.


I. General Requirements

(1) Guiding Ideology


(2) Basic principles

——Persist in having the correct political orientation. Tightly establish the 'four awarenesses', uphold the 'four confidences', resolutely realize the 'two preserves', while always upholding the absolute leadership of the Party over the work of the people's courts, always persisting in advancing judicial reforms under the leadership of the Party, giving full play to the Party's core function of leadership in its overview perspective and coordination of different aspects, realizing the organic unification of the leadership of the Party, the ownership of the people, and governance in accordance with law.

——Persist in being centered on the people. Always persist in the goal of the judiciary being service to the people, be grounded in the people's position, implement the mass line; ensure the judicial reform of the people's courts is always for the people, in reliance on the people, and to benefit the people. Correctly understand the contradictions between the ever increasing needs for a good life and the uneven and badly adjusted development of judicial work; strive to resolve the issues of public safety, production of rights and interests, and fairness and justice, that are dearest to the people; make is so that when the people shout demands the reforms have an answer; closely knit and and fasten a judicial security net for the people's livelihoods, and continuously increase the people's sense of gain, happiness, and security.

—— Persist in complying with judicial discipline. Correctly grasp the adjudication power's characteristics as a judgment power and central power, and improve accompanying oversight and safeguard mechanisms that conform to rules for using the adjudication power. Always persist in integrating problem-orientation and goal-orientation, persist in progress through initial pilots and comprehensive advancement, persist in using reform-minded thinking and methods to resolve issues in progress, use reform to further release latent strengths, activate resources, and stimulate vitality.

——Adhere to the overall picture of service and safeguards. Based on the judicial functions of the people's courts, correctly understand , accurately grasp, and vigorously serve the overall picture; firmly establish a new concept of development, provide exceptional judicial services to promo, high-quality economic development; promoting a higher level of reform and opening structures to create a positive legal environment to optimize the business environment, and provide strong judicial safeguards to maintain sustainable and healthy economic development and overall social stability.

——Persist in lawful and orderly advancement. Persist in having the Constitution and laws as a basis and persist in the system of people's congress delegates, so that the laws guide reforms, and the reforms improve the law. When drafting reform plans, concurrently research whether they comply with legal provisions and whether it is necessary to amend the laws, to ensure that reforms are based in law. Major reform pilots must be authorized by law, and conducted strictly in accordance with legal procedures.

——Persist in strengthening systemic centralization. Increase the systemic, integrated, and coordinated nature of reforms both by taking hold of implementation to supplement shortcomings and strengthen weak points, and also planning for the long term to solve hard problems and surmount challenges. Strengthen overall planning and progress, clarify the connections, hierarchies, and sequence of the various structural reform initiatives; ensure that reforms fit with policy directions, that they promote each other in implementation, and that there effects are complementary; continuously increasing refinements of reforms and the level of detail.

——Persist in encouraging innovation at the basic levels. Give play to the leading function of top-down design and also to the path-finding role of basic-level exploration; plan for different areas to conduct different exploration, promote positive interactions and organic combinations of top-down design and basic-level exploration. Respect and protect the spirit of innovation at the basic-levels, improve mechanisms for allowing mistakes in implementation, encourage basic-level exploration in practice, encourage basic-levels to take the initiative, promote system plans to elevated positive experiences to be spread widely, and ensure reforms stable success.

——Persist in being science and technology driven. Improve the implementation of the Internet Power Strategy, comprehensively constructing smart-courts. Firmly seize the historic opportunities in the new round of technological revolution, fully utilize big data, cloud computing, artificial intelligence and other modern scientific techniques to resolve challenges in reform and increase judicial efficacy; promote the establishment of smart and digitalized people's courts, and provide powerful technological support to promote the modernization of the trial system and trial capacity.

(3) Overall Goals

- Put the Party's political building in first place, unify implementing the Party's policies and implementing national legislation, ensure that Party leadership and Party building are in full command of ​​judicial reform of the people's court, is implemented throughout the whole process of judicial reform, promote the realization of the Party's organization covering the basic units of trial and enforcement to construction a system in which the people's court to uphold the Party's leadership.

—— Persist in focusing on the center and serving the overall situation, give full play to enthusiasm, initiative and creativity, find the entry point and focus from a higher level and higher position, and promote the depth of the people's courts by performing functions in accordance with the law and determined to reform and innovate, integrate the overall work of the party and the country, and build a system of people's courts to serve and guarantee the overall situation.

—— To meet the growing judicial needs of the people as the basic guide of the work of the people’s courts, strengthen the construction of the litigation service system, deepen the reform of the diversified dispute resolution mechanism, promote the non-litigation dispute resolution mechanism to be at the forefront, and improve judicial assistance and petitions involving litigation, strive to realize justice that is more accessible to the people, litigation that is more convenient, reforms that are more beneficial to the people, and a people-centered litigation service system is built.

- Further deepen judicial openness, constantly improve the openness of the trial process, openness of court proceedings, openness of judgment documents, openness of enforcement information--the four transparency platforms, comprehensively expand the breadth and depth of judicial openness, improve the form of judicial openness, smooth the parties and lawyers to obtain judicial information channels, build a more open, dynamic, transparent, convenient sunshine judicial system.

——Comprehensively implement the judicial responsibility system, improve the trial supervision and management mechanism and the unified law application mechanism, improve the judicial performance guarantee and the responsibility investigation mechanism for illegal trials, so that judges can concentrate on their responsibilities and handle cases well, and promote the realization of power and responsibility, where the use of power, the negligence of duty, and the abuse of power is held accountable, constructing a socialist judicial power operation system with Chinese characteristics centered on a judicial accountability system.

——Optimizing the functional positioning of the four-level courts and the setting of trial levels, improving the organizational system of the people's courts that meet the needs of the national development strategy, deepening the reform of the internal institutions of the people's courts, strengthening the construction of the people's courts and the construction of professional trial mechanisms, and improving the supporting mechanisms for judicial funding, to build an optimized, collaborative and efficient people’s court organization system and institutional function system.

——Promote reform of civil and administrative litigation procedure systems, deepen the judgment centered criminal procedure reform, reform mechanisms for service of legal documents, and promote the realization of optimized allotment of trial resources and comprehensive increases in judicial efficiency, and build institutional systems for litigation that comport with modern improvements and scientific developments.

——Comprehensively promote the construction of implementation information and standardization, improve the comprehensive management of difficult implementation work patterns, further promote the joint punishment of untrustworthy persons subject to enforcement, promote the improvement of the social credit system, ensure the timely realization of rights and interests of successful parties in accordance with the law, and promote the improvement and development of the modernization of the socialist execution system with Chinese characteristics, building a system to effectively solve long term difficulties in execution.

Fully promote the revolutionization, standardization, specialization, professionalized construction of the people's court team, adhere to the rules for the maturation of cadres, improve the cultivation of judges and selection and training mechanisms, strengthen the political training of cadres and police [court staff], updating of knowledge, capacity training, work hard to raise political quality, professionalism, judicial competence and professional level, ensure that there is clear division of functions of all personnel and job security is in place to build a court personnel classification management and professional security system that is socialist with Chinese characteristics.

—— Comprehensively promote the construction of smart courts, promote the establishment of a cross-departmental big data case handling platform, promote the in-depth use of technological innovations such as voice recognition, remote video, intelligent assistance, and electronic files, and orderly expand the coverage of electronic litigation, and promote the realization of trial methods and litigation The system is deeply integrated with Internet technology to build a modern socialist smart court application system with Chinese characteristics.

II. Main tasks

(1) Improve institutional systems for the people's courts to uphold Party leadership

  1. Comprehensively strengthen the Party's absolute leadership over the work of the people's courts. Earnestly implement the "Communist Party of China's Political-Legal Work Regulations, to complete work mechanisms that preserve the Party's authoritative and centralized, unified leadership, and strictly implement provisions on the Party organizations of political-legal organizations requesting instruction on important matters from the Party commissions. Strictly implement entity responsibility for people's courts' Party organizations, completing and improving lists of Party organization responsibilities, Party organizational rules of order, systems for Party organization members participation in important operations and important decision-making in accordance with work procedures, and systems for review and feedback on major operations; giving play to the role of the Party organizations in understanding policy directions, reform directions, and case handling guidance; and ensuring the basic theory, basic line, and basic strategy of the Party is continuously and fully implement in all work of the people's courts. Complete mechanisms for the people's courts cooperation and participation with inspection patrols and tours, to truly strengthen political inspections.
  2. Comprehensively strengthen the people's courts efforts on Party construction. Follow the overall requirements of the Party in the New Era to continuously advance Party establishment work in the people's courts, with political establishment as the lead. Strengthen the establishment of basic level Party organizations in the people's courts, with increasing organization as the key, highlighting their political function, optimizing organizational set up, strictly organizing lives, innovating in activity methods, and giving full play to the function of basic level Party organizations as strongholds and the function of Party members as an exemplary vanguard. Adhere to party building, lead team building, and promote trials, effectively strengthen the political and professional development of trial enforcement agencies, people's courts, and trial enforcement teams, and enhance creativity, cohesion, and combat effectiveness.
  3. Improve the Party's work mechanisms for political construction. Improve the theoretical education and political rotation training system of the people's courts, educate and guide court police officers to thoroughly study and implement Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and ensure a high degree of consistency with the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core in terms of political stance, political direction, political principles, and political path. Improve the supporting mechanism that promotes the deep integration of socialist core values ​​into the trial enforcement work, ensure that the judicial interpretations, judicial policies, and adjudication rules of the people's courts play a value-leading function, promote the rule of law thinking and the rule of law method to deepen reform, promote development, resolve conflicts, and maintain stability, so that those who obey the law and discipline will be proud, and those who violate the law and disobedience will be unable to move an inch. Adhere to the core values ​​of socialism to lead the construction of court culture, improve the judicial professionalism cultivation mechanism, and encourage court police officers to firmly believe in the rule of law and be loyal to the judicial cause.
  4. Implement the party's organizational line in the new era. Adhere to political standards as the first standard, and comprehensively strengthen political checks in the selection and appointment of judges, assessment and evaluation, supervision and management, training, rewards and punishments. Strictly implement the principle of party management of cadres, and build a loyal, clean and responsible high-quality professional court team in accordance with the requirements of strong politics, strong business, strong responsibility, strong discipline, and strong work style. Based on the actual situation of the people's courts, establish a system of cadre quality training, knowledge and knowledge, selection and appointment, strict management, and positive incentives, improve the working mechanism of discovering, training and selecting outstanding young cadres, and improve the working mechanism of encouraging cadres to take responsibility.
  5. Strengthen the clean party conduct and governance establishment within the peoples courts. Adhere to the comprehensive and strict governance of the party, persevere with integrity and discipline, and unswervingly advance the fight against corruption. Coordinate and deepen the comprehensive reform of the judicial system and the construction of a clean government, improve the risk prevention and control system for clean government that is compatible with the socialist judicial power operation system with Chinese characteristics, and ensure a fair and honest justice. Improve the internal inspection, judicial inspection, and audit inspection system, and integrate the supervision force. Strengthen scheduled periodic rotations of key positions. Improve the system of avoiding post, power and interests, and standardize the contact and interaction between judges and parties, lawyers, persons with special relationships, and intermediary organizations.

(II) Complete Institutional Systems by Which the People's Courts Serve and Safeguard the Overall Situation

  1. Complete mechanisms to provide judicial service and safeguards to fight the three critical battles. 围绕坚决打好防范化解重大风险、精准脱贫、污染防治三大攻坚战,强化审判指导,完善工作机制,营造良好法治环境。 完善金融审判领域风险监测预警机制,建立金融案件大数据资源库,健全金融风险防范信息共享机制。 积极回应农业供给侧结构性改革、农村土地制度改革中的司法需求,服务脱贫攻坚和乡村振兴战略实施。 适应特定区域、流域生态环境整体保护的现实需要,完善重大环境资源案件管辖制度,完善生态环境损害赔偿与环境公益诉讼之间的衔接机制。 Explore application of a punitive damages system in cases of environmental pollution and ecological destruction disputes.
  2. Complete mechanisms to provide services and safeguards for the nation's major development strategy. 积极创新司法协同机制,为京津冀协同发展、雄安新区建设、长江经济带发展、粤港澳大湾区建设和自贸区建设等提供更有力的司法服务和保障。 完善与港澳特区民商事司法协助体系,健全相互认可和执行民商事案件判决机制。 支持海南全面深化改革开放,对海南建设自由贸易试验区、自由贸易港提供有力司法支持。
  3. Complete judicial service and safeguard mechanisms to create an internationalized, legalized, and convenient environment for business and commerce. Cooperate with the relevant central departments in researching and drafting implementation plans for establishing a business and commercial environment ruled by law. Further optimize litigation services and procedural safeguards related to enforcing contracts and handling bankruptcy; explore building a system of indexes for assessing the environment for business and commerce under law that both fits our nation's circumstances and links to international standards.
  4. Complete mechanisms for resolving 'one belt one road' international commercial conflicts. Strengthen the construction of the Supreme People's Court's International Commercial Courts. Promote active participation of mediation and arbitration bodies in the Supreme People's Court's International Commercial Courts' dispute settlement mechanisms, improving the one-stop resolution platform for international commercial disputes that links mediation, arbitration, and litigation. Improve work mechanisms for the experts committee of the Supreme People's Court's International Commercial Court. Improve mechanisms for determining foreign law. Promote the establishment of a network platform for extraterritorial service.
  5. Complete supporting mechanisms for the judicial protection of property. Complete systems for the protection of property rights with fairness as its core, research improving policies on the judicial protection of property rights, and resolutely prevent handling economic disputes as crimes and turning civil liability into criminal liability. Promote the establishment of mechanisms for coordinating work on property protections. Complete regularized mechanisms for lawfully correcting wrongful cases related to enterprises, further strengthen efforts to explain the law through cases, and promptly publish representative example case.
  6. Complete judicial safeguard mechanisms for intellectual property. Give full play to the leading role of the judiciary in protecting intellectual property rights, better serving the innovation driven development strategy. Improve procedural systems conforming to the characteristics of intellectual property cases, such as for jurisdiction, evidence rules, and trial methods. Improve the compensation system for harms from violations of intellectual property rights. Strengthen comprehensive and thorough review of the legality of administrative acts and administrative law enforcement that authorize or confirm intellectual property rights, to truly promote standards for the authorization and confirmation of intellectual property rights, and make administrative law enforcement standards and judicial standards more uniform.

(3) Complete Institutional Systems for Litigation Services that have the People at their Center

  1. Strengthen the establishment of the litigation services system. Accelerate the advancement of the establishment of modernized litigation services centers, striving to provide equally inclusive,convenient and efficient, smart and precise litigation services. Complete consolidated litigation services systems for online 'one page handling' and offline 'one stop service'. Lead third-parties to participate in litigation services work, increasing the level of socialization of litigation services. 普遍推行“分流、调解、速裁、快审”机制改革,健全相应信息系统,促进纠纷及时快速解决。 加快推进跨域立案改革,推动诉讼事项跨区域远程办理、跨层级联动办理,解决好异地诉讼难等问题。 完善当场立案、网上立案、自助立案、跨域立案服务相结合的便民立案机制,实现诉讼服务“就近能办、同城通办、异地可办”。 推进智慧诉讼服务建设,研发智能辅助软件,为当事人提供诉讼风险评估、诉前调解建议、自助查询咨询、业务网上办理等服务,切实减轻人民群众诉累。
  2. Deepen the reform of diversifying dispute resolution mechanisms. 创新发展新时代“枫桥经验”,完善“诉源治理”机制,坚持把非诉讼纠纷解决机制挺在前面,推动从源头上减少诉讼增量。 完善调解、仲裁、行政裁决、行政复议、诉讼等有机衔接、相互协调的多元化纠纷解决体系,促进共建共治共享的社会治理格局建设。 加大对行业专业调解工作的指导力度,完善多方参与的调解机制,健全完善律师调解机制,进一步发挥专业调解作用。 对具备调解基础的案件,按照自愿、合法原则,完善先行调解、委派调解工作机制,引导鼓励当事人选择非诉方式解决纠纷。 推动建立统一的在线矛盾纠纷多元化解平台,实现纠纷解决的在线咨询、在线评估、在线分流、在线调解、在线确认。 推广线上线下相结合的司法确认模式,促进调解成果当场固定、矛盾纠纷就地化解。
  3. Complete systems for judicial assistance. Further research refining safeguards for judicial assistance expenses, the scope of judicial assistance, standardizing procedures, and other such provisions, increasing it's operability.
  4. Deepen reforms of mechanisms for petitioning involving litigation. Further improve mechanisms for dividing petitioning and litigation, and complete mechanisms for ending and transferring petitions involving litigation. Strengthen the handling of petitions involving litigation at the source, preserving the public's lawful rights and interests. Comprehensively advance the system of lawyers' representation in collateral appeals. Improve mechanisms for third parties from the public participation in resolution, strengthening the combined force for resolving conflicts of petitions involving litigation. Increase the level of application of informatization of petitions involving litigation. 完善执行申诉信访系统,与网上申诉平台、执行案件办理系统、全国法院涉诉信访系统互联互通,实现对执行申诉信访案件的常态化监管。 Increase the force of the crackdown on illegal petitioning activity, promote reasonable expression of demands.

(4) Complete open, dynamic, transparent, and convenient, institutional systems for a sunshine judiciary

  1. Complete and improve work mechanisms for judicial transparency. 贯彻主动、依法、全面、及时、实质公开原则,坚持“以公开为原则,以不公开为例外”,不断拓宽司法公开范围、健全公开形式、畅通公开渠道、加强平台建设、强化技术支撑。 深入推进裁判文书、庭审活动、审判流程、执行工作、诉讼服务、司法改革、司法行政事务等方面信息公开的规范化、标准化、信息化建设。 健全完善司法公开制度体系,准确划分向当事人公开和向社会公众公开的标准,研究出台相关业务指引、技术标准和操作规程,明确司法公开责任主体。 加大司法公开“四大平台”建设整合力度,优化平台功能,更加突出移动互联网时代新特点,促进平台从单向披露转为多向互动,让诉讼活动更加透明、诉讼结果更可预期。
  2. Thoroughly disclose information on trial process. 加强中国审判流程信息公开网建设,全面落实通过互联网公开审判流程信息的规定,完善相关业务规范和技术标准,推进网上办案数据自动采集,推动实现全国法院依托统一平台自动、同步向案件当事人和诉讼代理人公开审判流程信息。
  3. Deepen disclosures of trial activities. Further complete mechanisms for the scope, flow, and safeguards for hearing disclosures. 完善中国庭审公开网功能,扩大庭审公开范围,以有典型意义、社会关注度高的案件为重点,充分运用网络直播、视频录播、图文直播等形式,实现庭审公开常态化,主动接受社会监督,促进提升司法能力,深入开展法治教育。
  4. Deepen disclosures of judgment documents. Increase the extent of comprehensive disclosure of judgment documents, making a strict review process for keeping them offline, and eradicating the problem of selective uploading. Upgrade the judgment documents website, increase the level of automation and intelligence in technical handling of uploading of judgments, and strive to improve user experiences. 加强裁判文书数据资源研究利用,探索建立与政法机关、政府部门、高等院校、科技企业共享合作的长效工作机制,为规范诉讼活动、统一裁判尺度、繁荣理论研究、促进社会治理提供有力支持。
  5. Deepen disclosure of enforcement information. 优化整合各类执行信息公开平台功能,拓展执行信息公开范围,推动实现执行案件流程信息、被执行人信息、失信被执行人名单信息、网络司法拍卖信息等在同一平台集中统一公开。 加强与社会征信体系的对接,规范失信被执行人信息公开的方式和机制,推动完善“一处失信、处处受限”的信用惩戒格局。

(5) Improve systems for the operation of the adjudication power that have judicial responsibility systems at their core

21. Complete operational mechanisms for the adjudication power. Fully implement 'having those that try the case make the decisions, and those who make decisions bear responsibility; strengthen the legally-prescribed status of judges hearing cases alone and collegial panels as trial organizations, lawfully determine the scope duties and authority, ensure that powers and obligations are consistent. Comprehensively strengthen the establishment of basic-level people's court trial teams. Clean up the relationship between trial bodies, trial organizations, trial teams; improve internal organizational structure, and optimize the allotment of judicial resources. Further complete case allotment mechanisms in which 'random division is the norm, and designated handling is secondary" Based on arrangements for diverting cases based on the type of judgment and the complexity, improve mechanisms for designating the presiding judges and collegial panel chief judge.

  1. Complete mechanisms normalizing case handling by court presidents and division heads. 坚持法官入额必须办案原则,合理确定院长、庭长办案工作量,推动减少其非审判事务负担。 科学确定院长、庭长审理的案件类型,配套完善分案机制和审判辅助人员配备模式,确保院长、庭长通过审理案件,及时发现、解决审判监督管理、统一法律适用工作中存在的问题。 完善对院长、庭长办案情况的考核监督机制,配套建立内部公示、定期通报机制,促进院长、庭长办案常态化。
  2. Improve the judicial committee system. Strengthen the macro-guidance functions of trial work of the judicial committee in summarizing trial experience, unified application of law, research and discussion of major issues; improve the mechanism for judicial committees to discuss and decide major, difficult, complex legal issues. Establish mechanisms for review and selection of cases proposed for submission to the adjudication committee. Deepen disclosure of adjudication committee affairs, establish mechanisms for disclosures on members performance of duties and matters for discussion on the internal office network. Improve mechanisms for lawful disclosure of the adjudication committee's decisions and reasoning from case discussion in judgment documents. Regulate the composition of adjudication committees, improve mechanisms for experience judges serving as adjudication committee members. Regulate the scope and procedures for non-voting participants of adjudication committees.
  3. Improve trial oversight and management mechanisms. Clarify the list of powers and and the supervision and management duties of court presidents and division heads, complete systems for leaving a record of the entire course of guidance in performance of duties and case supervision. Improve trial supervision mechanisms for collateral appeals from petitioning, cases unresolved for a long time, second-instance trials, cases remanded for new trial, cases ordered for retrial, and retrials through procuratorate appeal. Through channels such as automatic identification by digitized case handling platforms, proactive submission by trial organizations, discovery by court presidents and division chiefs performing their duties, case quality checks by special trial management bodies, and the people's courts' active acceptance of oversight from the parties and the public; promote the establishment of institutional systems for trial oversight and management that have full coverage, rationally standardized, and compliant.
  4. Strengthen standardization of trial processes . Draft trial process standards that cover criminal, civil, administrative, state compensation, and other specialized fields. Regulate standards for case closure reports and archiving, and optimize the case file transfer process. Promote inclusion in the digital case-handling platform of key work points, timing requirements, process standards, positional guidance, and document templates for every stage from case-filing through archiving , making it so that there are record of the entire process for completed matters, and that for uncompleted matters have there are automated and tacit functions such as reminders and alerts, scheduled alerts for when matters are expiring, real-time warnings about defective items, and freezing of voliations.
  5. Improve mechanisms for the uniform application of law. Strengthen and regulate work on judicial interpretations, complete mechanisms for researching, initiating, drafting, debating, reviewing, publishing, cleaning up, and revoking judicial interpretations, to improve centralized management and report review mechanisms. Improve the guiding cases system, complete mechanisms for reporting, selecting, publishing, assessing, and applying cases. Establish mechanisms for high people's courts recording trial guidance documents and reference cases. Complete mechanisms for connecting the work of case discussion by the presiding judges and collegial panel deliberations, the compensation commission, and the adjudication commission. Improve working mechanisms for mandatory searches and reporting of type cases new forms of case.
  6. Strengthen safeguard mechanisms for performance of judicial duties. Further complete mechanisms for protecting adjudicators in performing their legally prescribed duties, remedies and safeguards for those whose rights are violated, and mechanisms for clearing up false reports; research improvements of the insurance system for court cadres and police police suffering physical injury, strengthen the implementation and establishment of safeguards for the performance of duties, ensuring and preserving the personal dignity and lawful interests of court cadres and police, giving firm support and protection to court police upholding principles, impartial case holding, and strict enforcement of law. Research and draft trial performance assessment methods that are scientific and rational, simple and convenient. Further regulate oversight and inspection reviews, clearing out and eliminating irrational or unnecessary indexes, and truly reducing the burden on the lower levels, and releasing pressure on cadres and police.
  7. Complete and improve systems for punishing judges. Establish a Supreme People's Court Judicial Punishment Commission, and promote the comprehensive establish of judicial punishment commissions at the provincial levels. Research drafting provisions related to judicial punishment work, complete mechanisms for connecting work with the discipline and supervision organs, improve work mechanisms for safeguarding judge parties' [judges before the commission's] rights to make statements, present evidence, give a defense, object, have reconsideration, and appeal.

(6) Improve the people's courts organizational system and system of institutional functions

  1. Optimize the functions and positions of the four levels of court. Improve the system for levels of trials, giving full play to its role in sorting litigation, layering of functions, allotting resources, to strengthen functions of oversight and guidance of higher people's courts over those below them, and of unifying the application of law. Complete and improve trail mechanisms for transferring cases to other jurisdictions or having trials at higher levels, promote having higher level people's courts hear cases with widespread value as guidance or that relate to the societal public interest. Promote improvements of the system for level jurisdiction of civil and administrative cases. Promote improvements of the procedures and standards for civil and administrative retrial applications, building and regulating a just and transparent trial oversight system.
  2. Deepen reform of the Supreme People's Court's Circuit Division system. Improve the functional position and work mechanisms of the Supreme People's Court Circuit Divisions, and complete comprehensive supporting safeguard measures.
  3. Regulate the establishment of specialized courts. As needed for economic and social development, research and improve standards, functional positioning, and accompanying mechanisms for the establishment of specialized people's courts, Strengthen the establishment of intellectual property courts, improve trial mechanisms for cases and so forth. Strengthen the establishment of financial courts, improve finance trial mechanisms, and create a positive rule of law environment for finance. Strengthen the establishment of maritime courts, comprehensively elevate the position of our nation in maritime justice.
  4. Deepen the internet courts reform. Further strengthen the establishment of the internet courts, improve the jurisdiction and trial systems for internet courts. Combine the operational characteristics and technological traits of the internet courts, creating an electronic litigation platform, improving methods for connecting data with state organs, relevant bodies, and primary e-commerce platforms.
  5. Deepen the reform of a system of judicial jurisdictions appropriately distinct from administrative regions. Scientifically delineate the scope and standards for people's court jurisdiction of cases that cross administrative regions, promote the formation of litigation structures conducive to doing away with the 'home field advantage' phenomenon. Cooperate with reforms to the people's court organization system, promote integration of railways transport courts, forestry courts, land reclamation courts, and other such bodies, to further optimize the allocation of judicial resources.
  6. Deepen reform of the internal institutions of people's courts. Coordinate and promote reforms of internal institutions and the establishment of judgment enforcement organizations. Regulate the number, duties, names, and structure of internal institutions of the basic people's courts, optimize work flows, and raise operational efficiency. Comprehensively set up corresponding institutions on the basis of political and party affairs, judicial political affairs, expense management, support matters, and other functions. Reasonably use the original number of leadership positions to appropriately diverge use of cadres. Peoples courts at the intermediate level and above are to optimize the set up of internal bodies and establish a system of internal bodies with clear functional divisions and smooth and effective operations, based on circumstances such as trial functions, case volumes, and personnel allotments. Improve the functions and position of people's courts comprehensive operational bodies.
  7. Strengthen the establishment of specialized trial mechanisms. Actively advance reform of mechanisms for environmental resource trials, and improve rules for environmental resource trials. Strengthen the establishment of mechanisms for financial, liquidation, and bankruptcy judgments, Strengthening the degree of training for trial teams and comprehensively elevating the level of professionalism. Strengthen mechanisms for trial of domestic matters and establish and improve systems such as for mediation of family matters, psychological counseling, and follow up assistance, and research improvements to litigation procedures for domestic matters. Explore comprehensively promoting and coordinating advancement of trials of domestic matters and juvenile trials.
  8. Strengthen the establishment of the people's courts. Further optimize the layout of urban and rural people's court divisions, giving full play to the advantages of the people's courts in facing the basic levels and the public, and in facilitating the public's litigation and courts' judgments. Regulate the quantity of court division leadership positions set up and strengthen the allotment of court division personnel, to rationally ensure the funds necessary for court divisions normal performance of duties. Adhere to and improve the people's court circuit trial system, continuously increasing the efficiency and level of circuit trials.
  9. Promote the intensification and socialization of management for some matters. To accompany the reform of internal bodies, push forward with the intensified management of document service, asset preservation, enforcement controls, online notification, and other matters in the people's courts. Give full play to using market and social resources; explore contracting out implementation of online auction support, uploading documents, issuance of case sums, and other trial support matters and comprehensive administrative affairs. Complete and improve work mechanisms for people's courts' procurement of services from the public, ensuring fair and open contracting systems with open competition, quality assessment, operational oversight, confidentiality agreement, business training, and so forth fully in accordance with laws and regulations.
  10. Strengthen the standardized establishment of people's courts government affairs. Strengthen the standardized establishment of judicial affairs work such as meeting organization, document processing, transmission of confidential materials, and logistics support; advance the integration of standardizing and digitizing government affairs, truly increasing the efficacy and level of judicial government affairs so as to provide trial enforcement work with more optimized services and safeguards.
  11. Steadily advance reforms of court allotments and personnel management at the provincial level and below. Promote improvements to systems for having the staffing of people's court bodies below the provincial level being primarily managed by the provincial level bodies' staffing departments in conjunction with the high people's courts. Cooperate with relevant departments in completing and improving management systems for leading cadres at intermediate and basic-level people's courts.
  12. Research improving mechanisms for ensuring the judicial expenses of the people's courts. Research improvements to finance management mechanisms, research the establishment of dynamic fee adjustment mechanisms.

(7) Complete institutional litigation systems suited to improvements of the new era and scientific development

  1. Promote reform of the civil procedure system. Promote improvement of the system for collecting litigation fees. Further improve mechanisms for separating complicated and simple cases, complete and improve three-dimensional, diversified, and detailed litigation procedures, advancing the separation of simple and complicated cases, minor and serious cases, and fast and slow paths. Optimize the application of judicial confirmation procedures. Explore expanding the scope of application for small claims procedures. Further simplify summary procedures, and improve mechanisms for switching between application of summary and ordinary procedures. Explore expanding the scope of use of single judge trials. Explore building new forms of jurisdiction rules and procedural rules suited to the needs of the internet age, promoting deep integration of internet technology and trial methods and procedural systems. Thoroughly summarize experience from judicial practice and promote reforms to civil procedure law.
  2. Advance reforms of the administrative litigation system. Rotating around promotion of the establishment of a rule of law government, reform and improve work mechanisms for administrative trials, lawfully protecting the rights and interests of administrative targets, promoting substantive resolution of administrative disputes, overseeing and supporting administrative organs' administration in accordance with law. Promote the regulation and legalization of administrative law enforcement, serving and ensuring 'decentralization' reforms. Regulate jurisdiction mechanisms for administrative cases, improve case jurisdiction standards and types, and optimize allocation of administrative trial resources.
  3. Advance reforms of the criminal procedure system. Deepen the trial-centered criminal procedure reform, advance implementation of the pretrial conference system and the system for exclusion of illegal evidence, improve procedures for courtroom investigations, implement systems for witnesses, evaluators, and investigators to appear in court to testify; implement and improve rules for evidence collected by electronic investigation being sent along with the case and investigated at court; ensuring that hearings play a substantive function. Regulate sentencing procedures for cases where guilt is admitted, and cases where guilt is not admitted. Strictly implement the system of criminal trials in absentia, and systems for the confiscation of unlawful gains where the defendant is at large or deceased, and refine related operational provisions. Expand the use of the smart case-handling assistant system for criminal cases, improve basic evidence guidance in different phases of criminal cases, and cooperate with central departments in embedding it in a cross-departmental big data case-handling platform. Further support pilots on full coverage of defense counsel in criminal cases, improve mechanisms for work connectivity, and fully safeguard the practice rights of defense lawyers. Explore the establishment of systems for giving notice for defense in final review of death penalty cases, and establish related work procedures. Improve systems for the enforcement of criminal penalties, and promote systems for the uniform enforcement of criminal penalties. Promote improvements of the work mechanisms for the transfer of 'sick, disabled, and pregnant' criminals for enforcement, to resolve the challenges in transferring criminals who were released pretrial for enforcement. Improve mechanisms for transferring the portion of rulings in criminal cases relating to property for enforcement, and for removal from enforcement. Comprehensively advance people's courts nationwide online use of a comprehensive and centralized information platform system for assets involved in cases, improving mechanisms for gathering and uploading relevant data. Regulate standards for review of case filing in criminal collateral appeals cases, and improve procedures and requirements for review of criminal collateral appeals cases.
  4. Complete and improve mechanisms for service of legal documents in civil and administrative cases. In civil and administrative litigation and enforcement work, combine the use of forms such as electronic service, commissioned service, stipulated service; and explore improving new service models, and promoting the improvement of or relevant provisions. Build a unified national electronic service platform to further expand the scope of electronic service of legal documents. Promote putting in place a written confirmation system for parties' service addresses. To promote intensive, segmented delivery mechanisms, and actively explore the use of public service delivery methods to carry out service.

(8) Complete institutional systems with long-term efficacy for truly resolving difficulties in enforcement

  1. Promote the completion and improvement of the overall picture of comprehensively addressing difficulties in enforcement. Continue to complete and improve an overall framework for comprehensively resolve difficulties in enforcement in which "the Party leads, political-legal committees coordinate, people's congresses oversee, courts take the lead, and departments work together, and the public participates". Promote making enforcement work a major part of innovation in public governance and establishment of rule of law, strengthening evaluation of responsibility for meeting targets. Promote the establishment of a basic-level enforcement assistance network, giving fully play to the roles of comprehensive public security departments, basic-level organizations, and grid members
  2. Complete mechanisms for truly resolving difficulties in enforcement at their source. Promote drafting law on compulsory enforcement. Strengthen the certainty and enforceability of effective legal documents, and establish mechanisms for handing unclear content for enforcement in effective legal documents. Further improve mechanisms for bankruptcy, forcefully advance digital applications, improve mechanisms for exchanging and sharing information in enforcement and bankruptcy, advance the rapid trial of 'enforcement-bankruptcy' cases, and advance resolution of enforcement case backlogs. 研究推动建立个人破产制度及相关配套机制,着力解决针对个人的执行不能案件。 推动完善公司法律制度,限制随意变更法定代表人和高级管理人员,强化公司账簿管理,健全公司交易全程留痕制度,防止随意抽逃公司资产。 健全司法救助与社会救助的衔接配合机制。
  3. Deepen reforms of enforcement system mechanisms. Thoroughly advance the reform of separating systems for trial and enforcement, optimizing for exercise of the enforcement power. Practice an enforcement team case-handling model with judges at is core, improve safeguard mechanisms for enforcement policing, and detail the scope of authority for all kinds of personnel in enforcement procedures. Strengthen mechanisms for enforcement work that have unified management, unified command, and unified coordination. Improve operational mechanisms for enforcement command centers. Advance the separation of processes and scope of authority based on complexity of enforcement cases and matters, breaking out of the model of 'one person handling the case to it's end' to truly increase the level intensity, refinement, and regulation in enforcement work. Improve coordination and operational mechanisms for case filing, trial, and enforcement work. 加大诉讼保全适用力度,完善保全和执行协调配合机制,鼓励财产保全保险担保,完善保全申请与执行网络查控有序衔接工作机制,以保全促调解、促和解、促执行。
  4. Strengthen informatization of enforcement. 积极应用各种新型技术手段,坚持边开发、边运用、边完善,优化升级各类执行信息化系统平台,进一步完善执行指挥系统、流程节点管理系统、网络查控系统、信用惩戒系统、款物管理系统、终结本次执行案件单独动态管理系统、执行信访办理系统。 深化以网络司法拍卖为中心的资产定价和处置模式改革,完善网络评估拍卖系统,建立在线询价评估系统。 Improve the uniform enforcement case-handling platform for the four levels of courts, strengthening controls at each node, and making case-management digital and 'smart'. 建设符合执行实施工作特点的移动办案平台,切实提升工作效率和管理水平。 推进智能辅助和大数据分析技术的应用,减轻执行人员工作负担。
  5. Strengthen regulation and standardization of compulsory enforcement. 建立完善以操作规程为核心的执行行为规范体系,完善各类程序节点、执行行为的规范化、标准化流程。 完善协同执行、委托执行机制,规范指定执行、提级执行、异地交叉执行的提起和审批程序。 严格规范无财产可供执行案件的结案、恢复和退出程序,全面推行终结本次执行案件集中、动态管理。
  6. Further increase the force of compulsory enforcement. 不断扩大网络查控范围,强化冻结、扣划功能,推动实现网络查控系统对各类财产的全覆盖。 进一步完善被执行人财产报告制度,加大对拒绝报告、虚假报告或者无正当理由逾期报告财产被执行人的惩戒力度。 健全委托审计、委托调查、悬赏举报等工作机制,加强对被执行人或者协助执行人重大资产处置和重要事项变更等事项的监督。 密切与有关方面协作,全面推进信息共享,完善失信被执行人信用监督、警示和惩戒体系,推动形成多部门、多行业、多领域、多手段联合信用惩戒工作新常态。 Make full use of compulsory measures such as fines, detention, and limits on leaving the country 【mainland】 in accordance with law, and increase the force of corrections for refusals to perform, obstructing enforcement, and violent resistance to legal enforcement. 完善反规避执行工作机制,依法严厉打击拒不执行判决、裁定的犯罪行为。

(9) Complete institutional systems for categorical management of people's court personnel and occupational safeguards

  1. Improve mechanisms for dynamic adjustments of allotments. 健全完善政法专项编制的统筹管理、动态调整机制,推动由省级机构编制部门会同高级人民法院将政法专项编制向人案矛盾突出地区和基层人民法院倾斜。 调整优化各省(自治区、直辖市)人民法院现有政法专项编制的布局结构。
  2. Improve systems for categorical management of court personnel. 健全法官员额管理制度,完善法官交流和退出机制,明确退出的情形、程序、相应后果及救济办法等,实现员额进出常态化、制度化。 完善人民法院综合业务部门人员交流机制和人才培养机制。 完善审判辅助人员培训考核、培养选拔等机制,建设专业化审判辅助人员队伍。 根据人民法院职能特点,结合公务员职务与职级并行制度,建立健全内部岗位交流机制,拓宽审判辅助人员、司法行政人员的职业发展通道。
  3. Improve mechanisms for the selection of judges. 配合有关部门统一规范法官遴选委员会的设置、职能。 推动强化法官遴选委员会的专业把关职能,适当增加法律专业人士比重,规范遴选标准、程序,推动建立常态性和机动性相结合的遴选机制,确保空缺员额及时增补。 完善从符合条件的法官助理中遴选法官的选任标准和工作机制,配套健全分别适应地方法院、专门法院职能特点的初任法官培养机制。 健全法官逐级遴选制度配套措施。 进一步完善从律师、专家学者和其他法律工作者中公开选拔法官的工作机制。
  4. Improve accompanying measures for a separate position sequence for judges. 研究制定法官单独职务序列规定、法官等级比例设置办法和法官等级升降办法,推动形成法官等级按期晋升和择优选升的常态化机制,落实向基层人民法院倾斜的政策导向。 健全完善从符合条件的法官中选拔产生人民法院领导干部的工作机制。 协调相关部门明确与法官单独职务序列对应的配套生活待遇保障制度。
  5. Complete assurance mechanisms for court personnel compensation and benefits. 全面落实法院人员工资制度改革,健全与法官工作实绩紧密联系的薪酬分配机制。 推动落实法官基本工资标准正常调整机制,其他公务员调整基本工资标准时相应调整法官基本工资标准。 完善审判辅助人员和司法行政人员职业保障政策。
  6. Complete mechanisms for deployment of trial support personnel. 完善不同层级法院审判辅助人员的配备模式和标准。 在坚持规范招录、严格把关的同时,探索适合市、县两级法院招录法官助理的有效措施,把党中央对艰苦边远地区公务员招考的倾斜政策落到实处。 探索建立下级人民法院法官到上级人民法院交流担任短期法官助理工作机制。 健全完善聘用制书记员的招录、管理机制。 进一步加强司法技术专业队伍建设。 建立健全法学院校学生到人民法院实习的常态化机制。
  7. Promote reforms of management systems for judicial police. Implement further team deployment and management requirements, establishing management systems suited to the characteristics of the court police. Promote and improve legal systems relevant to the judicial police. 推进司法警察执法勤务警员职务序列改革,进一步推动建立司法警察便捷招录机制、警务督察制度。 健全完善警务辅助人员管理机制。 积极推进司法警务信息化建设。
  8. Improve mechanisms for education and training of court personnel. 完善人民法院各类人员教育培训体系,着力提高法律政策运用能力、防控风险能力、群众工作能力、科技应用能力、舆论引导能力,建立覆盖职业生涯的终身学习制度。 完善法官定期培训机制,确保每名法官每年至少参加一次脱产业务培训、每年参加业务培训不少于10天。 完善法官教育培训师资库建设。 坚持网络视频培训常态化、开放性,推进“云课堂”建设,建好在线精品课程库,完善相关配套措施。 健全完善少数民族地区双语法官培训机制。 完善人民法院与法学院校、科研机构双向交流制度。
  9. Improve accompanying systems for management of people's assessors. 贯彻落实人民陪审员法,细化人民陪审员参审案件范围、庭审程序、评议规则等问题。 Improve management measures for the selection, training, evaluation, reward, and punishment of people's assessors. 健全制度规定,推动完善人民陪审员履职经费保障体制。
  10. Improve the national court organizational and personnel systems. 建立统一、高效、标准的信息化管理平台,支持与人民法院各业务平台的数据共享互用,实现人事、案件、政务信息共享,推动全国法院人事管理系统化、专业化。

(10) Construct a modernized smart-court application system

  1. Thoroughly advance the construction of smart-court infrastructure. Build a complete factor integrated information infrastructure supported by cloud computing. Promote the level of information infrastructure configuration, court’s intra-network performance, and internet security defence capacities of all courts across the country. Optimise the integration of the various offices’ case handling platforms, avoid duplicates and waste. Push for the establishment of a cross-departmental big data case-handling platform, realise the interconnection and interoperability of case-handling systems, automatic data-push, and resource sharing. Establish a key information infrastructure security protection system for people’s courts, plan, construct, and use simultaneously the hierarchical security protection systems.
  2. Promote the thorough use of scientific innovations and methods. Fully improve the application efficiency of speech recognition technology in live transcription of court hearings, build a national court intelligent speech cloud platform, achieve the shared and unified management of the national court voice recognition model Strengthen the building of software and infrastructure such as remote video court hearings, interrogations, and digital court appearances, reducing case-handling time. Strengthen the establishment intelligent auxiliary case-handling systems, improve functions such as the push-notification for similar cases, outcome comparison, data analysis, and flaw notifications Further perfect online data integration processing mechanisms for disputes such as road traffic accidents.
  3. Orderly expand the scope of coverage for electronic litigation. Make full use of the first-mover advantage of the popularization and application of China's mobile Internet, and further improve the coverage, application ratio and application level of electronic litigation in courts across the country. Gradually realize online filing, online payment, and electronic delivery of three types of applications to cover the courts across the country, creating a world-leading mobile litigation service system.
  4. Improve mechanisms for generation and archiving of electronic files. Improve the technical support and operation management mechanism for the synchronous generation of electronic files with the case, to realize the simultaneous upload of electronic files to the case handling system, automatic cataloguing of electronic files, remote access to original files, auxiliary generation of litigation documents, and intelligent push applications for similar cases to cover courts across the country. Gradually promote the implementation of a case filing method with electronic files as the mainstay and paper files as a supplement. Establish a national unified electronic file management system.
  5. Improve mechanisms for the management and application of judicial big data. Enrich and expand sources of judicial data, thoroughly carry out research on judicial big data, continuously increase the level of data collection, analysis, and application. Strengthen the application of big data in judicial management and honest justice. Focusing on the overall situation of economic and social development, explore the construction of a judicial and social governance index, profoundly reveal the inherent relationship between trial enforcement activities and economic and social development, and provide a reference for scientific decision-making.

III. Organization and Implementation

To comprehensively deepen the comprehensive reform of the judicial system, it is necessary to strengthen organizational leadership, strengthen the main responsibility, make scientific and careful deployment, do a good job in public opinion guidance and ideological work, and promote the full implementation of various reform measures. The people's courts at all levels should translate political demands into practical actions to promote reform, improve their political standing, strengthen their political responsibilities, and take the resolute implementation of the Party Central Committee's reform arrangements as a touchstone for maintaining a high degree of consistency with the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core. Take whether the promotion of reform is solid and powerful as an important criterion for testing the strength of the "Four Consciousnesses", grasp the implementation of detailed reform measures in the spirit of nailing the nails, ensure that the reform is swift and steady, and strive to make the people feel fairness and justice in every judicial case.

——Strengthen organization and leadership. The Judicial Reform Leading Group of the Supreme People's Court is responsible for the overall planning and coordination of the tasks of this Outline, promoting the implementation, supervising the implementation, summarizing and evaluating, and ensuring a focused, step-by-step, and orderly progress through the establishment of ledger accounts, account management, follow-up supervision, and supervision and accountability, ensuring that the implementation of reform tasks is carried out in a focused, step-by-step and orderly manner The higher people's courts, the PLA Military Court, and the Production and Construction Corps Branch of the Higher People's Court of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region shall improve the judicial reform leading group and its working organization, and give full play to the role of overall planning, coordination, organization and implementation, and supervision and guidance. If a major reform project is to be piloted, the pilot program must be submitted to the Supreme People's Court for approval, and the major reform pilot program deployed by the central government can only be implemented after the Supreme People's Court has reported it to the central government for approval. The people's courts at all levels should improve the system of filing and requesting for approval and reporting on major issues and matters of judicial reform, summarizing reform experience, reporting work progress, and reporting problems and difficulties in a timely manner.

——Strengthen entity responsibility. To improve the quality of the plan, complete the tasks on time, and do a good job in the implementation of the work as the top priority, strengthen the division of reform tasks, and clarify the timetable, roadmap, responsible person, and task book for each task to ensure that each task is being dealt with. It is necessary to strengthen the supervision of the implementation of the reform, and promote the reform and supervision to expand the scope and explore the bottom line. It is necessary to broaden the channels for policy interpretation, through printing and distributing the issue calibers, compiling policy readings, and organizing special trainings, explaining the reform policies, and guiding court police officers to understand the reform, support the reform, and devote themselves to the reform.

—— Scientific and careful deployments. It is necessary to fully grasp the relationship between being based on the current situation and planning for the long-term, focus on orderly connection in logic, focus on consolidation and improvement in terms of effectiveness, and focus on system integration in terms of supporting facilities. It also strives to expand the effect of the reform, so as to highlight the institutional effect and overall effect of the reform to the greatest extent. According to the path of "old pilots bring new pilots" and "good models and good teachers", we should sort out the experience and methods of being the first mover, give play to the demonstration effect of good deeds, regularly compile and print judicial reform cases, actively promote grass-roots innovation measures, and promote the sustainable development of reform measures

——Strengthen guidance of public opinion. It is necessary to insist that the reform plan and the public opinion work plan be formulated simultaneously, and the reform implementation and public opinion guidance should be promoted simultaneously. It is necessary to actively adapt to the dissemination laws of the Internet era, thoroughly publicize the good experience and results of the people's courts in deepening the comprehensive reform of the judicial system, and by optimizing the publicity platform and innovating publicity methods, tell the story of the judicial reform of the people's courts well, so that the people have more sense of gain.


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