Promulgation Date: 2021-6-1 Title: Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Strengthening Oversight of "#1s" and Leading Groups Document Number: Expiration date: Promulgating Entities:The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China Source of text: http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/2021-06/01/content_5614784.htm
Strengthening oversight over main leading cadres and leading groups is, in the New Era, a natural requirement of upholding and strengthening the Party’s comprehensive leadership, improving the quality of Party building, and pressing for comprehensive strict governance of the Party at a deeper level. The following Opinion on strengthening oversight over "#1s" and leading groups is set forth for the purpose of further implementing the spirit of the 19th Central Committee’s second, third, fourth, and fifth plenary sessions, and to implement primary responsibility for comprehensive strict governance of the Party and oversight responsibility.
1. Fully understand the importance and urgency of strengthening the oversight of "#1s" and leadership groups
General Secretary Xi Jinping points out, the Party’s committees are the command centres for the Party to govern and make the country prosper, "#1s" are leaders of the pack in developing the Party’s endeavours, and in strengthening the Four Consciousnesses, the Four Confidences, and the Two Protects they must be an example, act as spearheads; [he] stresses that insofar as "#1s" at each level are concerned, top-down oversight is most effective, the Party Centre shall strengthen oversight of high-level cadres, Party committees (and Party groups) at all levels shall strengthen oversight of the leading cadres, especially the main leading cadres, that they manage, higher level "#1s" must focus effective efforts on lower level "#1s"; [he] stresses that to resolve the problem of same-level oversight, the key is in Party committees, which shall make good use of the weapon of criticism and self-criticism, and strengthen consciousness for proactive oversight and mutual oversight. Embarking on the new journey of comprehensively building a socialist modern country, advancing toward the second Centenary Goal, [we are] facing a complex environment and risks and challenges without precedent; it is by unwaveringly upholding the Party Centre’s centralised, unified leadership, consistently pressing ahead with the Party’s great self-revolution, and managing and using well the ‘key few’ through effective oversight, to give full play to Party leading cadres’ vanguard model role and exemplary leading role, that we can unite and lead the broad swathes of cadres and masses to triumph over the difficulties and obstacles that lie ahead, and continuously attain new victories in the endeavours of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
Since the Party's 18th National Congress, the Party Centre with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core has resolutely promoted comprehensive strict governance of the Party, driving the implementation of Party committee (and Party group) primary responsibility, Party secretaries' duties as first in the line of responsibility, ‘one post dual responsibilities’ for other members of leading groups, and disciplinary inspection organ oversight responsibility, forming lots of effective methods and experience. At the same time, it must be clearly recognised that oversight of "#1s" is still a weak point, and the task of improving the intra-Party oversight system and implementing oversight responsibility remains entirely urgent. The greater the responsibility of leading cadres and the more important the post, the more there is a need to strengthen oversight. To resolve the difficulties of oversight of "#1s" and same-level oversight, [we] must clearly state key foci of oversight, tighten up on implementation of oversight responsibilities, flesh out the detail of oversight measures, and build more robust systems and mechanisms. Party committees (and Party groups) need to fully recognise the extreme importance and real urgency of strengthening oversight of "#1s" and leading groups, strengthen higher-level Party organisation oversight, and carry out substantive and meticulous same-level oversight, pressing Party member leading cadres to strengthen their political consciousness, and constantly improve their capacity for political judgement, political understanding, and political implementation, such that they consciously practice loyalty, cleanliness and readiness to shoulder responsibility, take the lead in protecting the Party Centre’s authority and centralised, unified leadership, and ensure the whole Party is advancing in unison.
Strengthening oversight of "#1s" and leading groups must uphold as its guide Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for the New Era, uphold and strengthen the Party’s comprehensive leadership, implement political responsibility for Party self-supervision and self-governance, improve the Party and state’s oversight system, and foster the proactive practice of oversight and conscious acceptance of oversight, to give shape to a state of play in oversight work wherein each level focuses effective efforts towards another a level, and layer by layer implementation is realised, constantly strengthening the Party’s capacity to self-purify, self-perfect, self-renew, and self-improve, driving the advantage of the oversight system with Chinese characteristics to become better translated into governance capability.
In strengthening oversight of "#1s" and leading groups [we] shall comprehensively implement the intra-Party oversight system, foreground political oversight, and, as a key focus, strengthen oversight of the loyalty of "#1s" and leading groups to the Party and the situation vis-à-vis their acting on the Party’s nature and mission; strengthen oversight of the situation regarding their implementation of the Party’s line, principles and policies and the Party Centre’s major decisions and arrangements and their acting on the Two Protects; strengthen oversight of the situation regarding their setting out from the new development stage, implementing the new development philosophy, and building a new pattern of development, driving high-quality development; strengthen oversight of the situation regarding their implementation of primary responsibility for comprehensive strict governing of the Party and oversight responsibility; and strengthen oversight of the situation regarding their implementation of democratic centralism, performance of duties and use of power according to rules and law, shouldering of responsibility and taking initiative, and integrity and self-discipline etc., making sure [we] genuinely manage [them] and do so strictly, are willing to manage and to do so strictly, and keep on managing long-term and do so strictly.
Leading cadres at all levels shall, from a political perspective, understand that leadership duties include oversight duties, strengthen their oversight consciousness, and fulfil their oversight responsibilities; correctly approach oversight by Party organisations and the masses, have the courage to correct mistakes, and effectively improve their work; become used to working and living in an environment in which they are subject to oversight and restraints, actively accept oversight, and absolutely must not refuse oversight or avoid oversight. "#1s" shall consciously place themselves under oversight by Party organisations and the masses, strengthen their shouldering of responsibility, and strengthen their oversight of the other members of leading groups and lower-level leading cadres.
II. Strengthen oversight of '#1s'
1) Treat oversight of "#1s" as a most important priority, strengthen oversight and inspection. "#1s" are entrusted with important power, and shoulder the important political responsibility of Party self-supervision and self-governance, [we] must use strong oversight to push them to live up to the notion that those in high places do not behave like sole power holders and do not seek personal gain. Party committees (and Party groups), disciplinary inspection organs, and the Party’s work organs shall foreground oversight of "#1s" , treating "#1s" as a key focus in carrying out day-to-day oversight, topic-specific supervisory inspections, etc., making "#1s" at all times feel that in using power they are overseen.
2) "#1s" shall lead by example, and consciously accept oversight. "#1s" must take a clear stand in stressing politics, take the lead in practicing the Two Protects, take the lead in implementing the various intra-Party oversight systems, and, in fulfilling their responsibility for Party self-supervision and self-governance, for acting as the bar to meet in strict self-discipline, and for being exemplars, they must both consciously accept oversight and be ready to shoulder responsibility and take initiative. Leading cadres at each level, especially high-level cadres, shall take the lead in observing political discipline and political protocols, proactively request directions from and report to the Party organisation, strictly implement the spirit of the Centre’s Eight-Point Regulations and the accompanying detailed rules, keep an honest household, consciously oppose phenomena of special privilege, and always maintain the upright and honest basic political character of a communist party member.
3) Strengthen the Party organisation’s top-down oversight, higher-level "#1s" must focus effective efforts on lower-level "#1s". Central Committee Politburo members shall pay particular attention to understanding the situation regarding Party conduct and integrity building in the Party organisations of the departments, localities and fields under their respective management, supervise and urge the "#1s" in the relevant localities and departments to fulfil their responsibility for comprehensive strict governance of the Party and to achieve integrity and self-discipline, discover problems and promptly educate and caution them. The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, and Central Organisation Department should strengthen oversight of the "#1s" of provincial-level Party committees and Central work units, and supervise and urge provincial-level Party committees to strengthen their management of lower-level "#1s". Higher-level "#1s" shall treat oversight of lower-level "#1s" as a key component of annual reports; should, for lower-level newly appointed "#1s", carry out a talk on appointment; and regularly carry out oversight talks with lower-level "#1s" conducting criticism and education for symptomatic and beginning-of-a-tendency-type issues, and promptly issuing a reprimand for minor disciplinary violations.
4) Strictly enforce the responsibility system for comprehensive strict governance of the Party, implement the duties of "#1s" as first in line of responsibility. Party committees (and Party groups) shall strengthen oversight and inspection of the situation regarding enforcement of the responsibility system for comprehensive strict governance of the Party, and in cases where lower-level "#1s", in implementing their responsibilities, fail to meet the mark and have relatively pronounced issues, promptly arrange talks. Disciplinary inspection organs should, by focusing effective efforts on methods such as organisational implementation and supervision-urging-and-inspection, and making rectification recommendations, etc., press the first in line of responsibility to fulfil their duties. Improve and implement the evaluation system for primary responsibility for comprehensive strict governance of the Party, with evaluation results used as an important basis for the selection and appointment of "#1s", for assessment of their achievements, and for incentives and restraints. For those who, in carrying out duties as first in line of responsibility, fail to shoulder responsibility and take initiative, pursue accountability according to rules and discipline.
5) Implement democratic centralism, improve “Three Major, One Large” decision making oversight mechanisms. Party committees (and Party groups), discipline inspection organs, and organisation departments shall strengthen oversight and inspection of the situation regarding lower-level Party committees’ (and Party groups’) "#1s'" implementation of democratic centralism, and prevent against problems of one person laying down the law and even paternalism. The Central Organisation Department should undertake key-focus oversight of the situation regarding the implementation of democratic centralism by the “#1s” of provincial-level Party committees and central work units. Make the situation regarding implementation of the “Three Major, One Large” decision making system an important part of discipline inspections and discipline supervision visits, oversight by auditing agencies, and topic-specific supervisory inspections. Discipline commission secretaries, and stationed discipline inspection and supervision team heads, on discovering issues of “#1s” violating decision making procedure, should promptly set out opinions, and, in cases where corrective measures are inadequate, shall make it known to their higher-level discipline inspection commission and deploying organs.
6) Discipline inspection and discipline supervision visit work shall fix its gaze tightly on “#1s”, and promptly discover issues. Party committees (and Party groups) shall uphold the discipline inspection work principle of ‘discovering problems, forming a deterrent, driving reform, and promoting development’, adhere to the position of political discipline inspection, and identify and correct political deviations. Discipline inspection and discipline supervision visit teams should regard the “#1s” of Party organisations undergoing discipline inspections and discipline supervision visits as a key focus of oversight, and before entering their stations should approach discipline inspection organs and organisation departments to gain an in-depth understanding of circumstances. Discipline inspection and discipline supervision visit talks should treat “#1s’” work and living circumstances as must-discuss content, and gain an in-depth understanding of important issues made known to them. Discipline inspection and discipline supervision visit reports should set out separately the situation regarding “#1s’” fulfilment of their duties as first in line of responsibility and integrity and self-discipline, setting out clear opinions and rectification requirements.
7) Promptly get a grasp of what is made known about “#1s”, build a robust system for reporting on responsibilities and integrity. Party committees (and Party groups), disciplinary organs, and organisation departments shall strengthen day-to-day oversight of the “#1s” of lower-level Party committees (and Party groups), using methods such as stationed-on-site studies, topic-specific supervisory inspections, etc., comprehensively get a grasp of their thought, work, conduct, and living circumstances. Implement a system of persons in charge of discipline inspection organs and organisation departments holding talks with lower-level “#1s”, on discovering general issues promptly raise them with that person, on discovering serious disciplinary or legal violation issues report to the main person in charge of the same-level Party committee. Carry out self-reporting on responsibilities and integrity and accepting of assessment by lower-level “#1s” at higher-level enlarged Party committee standing committee (and Party group) meetings, and make responsibility and integrity reports available for viewing within a certain scope.
3. Strengthen oversight of leadership groups at the same level
8) Strengthen mutual oversight of leadership group members, diligently carry out criticism and self-criticism. Central Committee members must strictly observe political discipline and political protocols, and on discovering the behaviour of other members to have violated the Party Charter, breached the Party’s discipline, or harmed the Party’s unity, should promptly report it to the Party Centre or use their real name to make it known to the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection Standing Committee. Party committee (and Party group) “#1s” shall properly manage their groups and lead their teams, regularly carry out heart-to-heart talks, and effectively fulfil education, management, and oversight responsibilities; when signing and setting out opinions on the explanations to written inquiries made by other leadership group members, undertake to educate and caution them, and do not simply “sign and be done with it”. Leadership group members should often exchange opinions between themselves, on discovering an issue candidly raise it with the counterpart in question, and on discovering an important issue with the “#1” it can be directly conveyed via report to the higher-level Party organisation. Uphold the democratic life meetings and organisational life meetings systems, “#1s” shall take the lead in carrying out criticism and self-criticism, leadership group members, according to regulations, make seeking-truth-from- facts explanations on required personal information and issues reflected by the masses, fed back by discipline inspections and discipline supervision visits and emerging from oral or written organisation inquiries.
9) Give play to leadership groups’ close proximity regularised oversight advantage, raise capacity to discover and solve their own issues. Party committees (and Party groups) shall comprehensively fulfil leadership responsibility for strengthening and standardising intra-Party political life, and build robust related mechanisms. Leadership group members should, in the spirit of a strong sense of responsibility for themselves, their comrades, the leadership group and the Party, caution each other and supervise and urge each other, see that each task of strengthening and standardising intra-Party political life is put into effect, and strengthen their leadership group’s capacity to fight; members who discover that other members of the leadership group have violated discipline or law should promptly and truthfully, according to procedure, make it known to and report it to the Party organisation, and those who hide it, do not report, and be “the good guy” shall be held jointly responsible.
10) Uphold the collective leadership system, strictly handle matters according to rules and procedure. Build robust mechanisms for restricting the exercise of power by Party committee (and Party group) leadership groups, reasonably disaggregate and scientifically apportion power. Resolutely prevent against making decisions using topic-specific meetings to substitute for standing committee meetings, resolutely prevent against collective violation of rules in the name of Party committee collective decision making, and absolutely do not permit leadership group members to turn the work charged to their management or the sectors charged to their management to become their own “private territory” without collective leadership and oversight. Improve leadership groups’ rules of order, important items must be submitted to a leadership group meeting for discussion, leadership group members should fully express opinions, when differences of opinion are relatively big the vote should be deferred, and the situation regarding votes and different opinions should be truthfully recorded and filed for future reference.
11) Supervise and urge other members of leadership groups to fulfil their ‘one post dual responsibilities’, and to direct effective efforts toward Party self-supervision and self-governance work within the scope of their duties. Party committees (and Party groups) shall formulate and implement annual plans on primary responsibility for comprehensive strict governance of the Party, and disaggregate work tasks. “#1s” shall regularly listen to reports made to them by other leadership group members on the situation regarding their fulfilment of responsibilities for Party self-supervision and self-governance, and, on discovering unsatisfactory implementation of responsibilities, promptly arrange talks with them. Discipline commissions should notify other members of same-level Party committee leadership groups of the situation regarding observance of the Party Charter and Party rules, integrity and self-discipline etc. of the leading cadres in the departments and work units under their management, and press other members of leadership groups to focus effective efforts on Party conduct and integrity building in the departments and work units under their management.
12) Strictly enforce the system for recording interference by leading cadres in major matters, and on discovering issues promptly report. Party committees (and Party groups) shall improve and implement concrete measures under the system for recording interference by leading cadres in major matters. When there are issues with leadership group members such as rule-violating interference in cadre selection and appointment, project development, law enforcement and judicial affairs, etc., the persons being asked to do something should promptly report it to the Party organisations of their departments and work units. Leadership groups and leading cadres should resolutely resist rule violating interfering behaviour by other leading cadres’ family members and friends, and promptly report it to the Party organisation. Those who do not report according the requirements shall be strictly held to account in accordance with rules and discipline.
13) Build robust mechanisms for analysing and judging political ecosystems, create reports by sector on the situation regarding Party conduct and integrity building. Party committees (and Party groups) shall regularly analyse the state of the political ecosystem in their own locality, department, or work unit, often listen to related reports by discipline organs, and Party work organs, diligently check up on stand-out issues of leadership groups themselves, and adopt strong measures to resolve them. Discipline organs should strengthen analysis of the situation regarding Party conduct and integrity building in sectors such as review and approval regulation, project development, resource development, and finance and credit, etc., pay particular attention to discovering common issues, create topic-specific reports, and press same-level Party committee leadership groups to strengthen management and oversight of key posts.
14) Improve the system of discipline commission secretary talks and cautions, truthfully report on the situation regarding leadership group members’ fulfilment of duties and responsibilities and their integrity and self-discipline. Discipline commission secretaries should firmly establish consciousness that reporting issues is their basic duty and failure to report something that should be reported is a failure to fulfil that duty. On discovering leadership group members have symptomatic and beginning-of-a-tendency-type issues, promptly caution them. On discovering important issues, report to the higher-level discipline commission and same-level Party committee person in charge, comprehensively and accurately making the situation known. Those who do not report or report untruthfully shall be strictly held to account in accordance with rules and discipline.
4. Strengthen oversight of lower-level leadership groups
15) Implement the oversight responsibility of higher-level Party organisations over lower-level Party organisations, incorporate management and oversight into the whole process of putting leadership into effect. Party committees (and Party groups) shall effectively manage their own “fields of responsibility”, use holistically methods such as checks and random checks, guiding democratic life meetings, handling letter-and-visit complaints and tip-offs, and supervising and urging rectification of problems, etc., to strengthen oversight of lower-level leadership groups and their members, especially their “#1s”, and ensure responsibility is clear, entities are clarified, measures work, and efforts are effective.
16) Weave the cage of institutions more tightly and more sturdily, press forward the standardisation of oversight work. Party committees (and Party groups) shall uphold the use of institutions to manage power, manage matters, and manage people, build robust systems for disqualification for office, regular post rotation, and cadre exchanges, and formulate stricter management systems for “#1s”. Uphold and improve the system of leading cadres reporting on required personal matters, rolling out work to have the personal matters of “#1s” openly known within their leadership groups. Build a robust cadre dual management system, clearly stating the main management entity’s and assisting management entity’s oversight duties over dual managed cadres.
17) Standardise the work behaviour of leading cadres’ family members, promoting the establishment of cordial, clean government-business relations. High-level cadres shall take the lead in enforcing regulations on standardising the behaviour of leading cadres’ spouses, and children and their spouses, in doing business and operating enterprises, acting as models for the entire Party. Party committees (and Party groups) shall focus effective efforts on implementing related regulations and create a good clean political ecosystem. Interactions between leading cadres and entrepreneurs must observe bottom lines and judge what is proper, “#1s” shall take the lead in implementing the “cordial”, “clean” requirements, shall not use power to pursue personal gain, or engage in black-box practices and the trading of benefits; shall manage properly their family members and friends, absolutely not permit them to use the power of their office for wealth and gain, and prevent against those with bad intentions from “snaring” their family members. Party committees (and Party groups), and discipline organs, shall strengthen oversight checks on the situation regarding the development of cordial, clean government-business relations, promptly handle complaints and tip-offs, and, on discovering issues, strictly handle them according to rules and discipline.
18) Strengthen higher-level Party organisations’ guidance of the democratic life meetings of lower-level work units’ leadership groups, raise the quality of democratic life meetings. Party committees (and Party groups) shall fulfil leadership responsibility for organising and running good democratic life meetings, unifiedly decide on or approve the topics of the democratic life meetings of lower-level work units’ leadership groups, higher-level Party organisations’ leadership group members shall, in a planned way, take part in the democratic life meetings of lower-level work units’ leadership groups. Organisation departments should work in conjunction with discipline organs to carry out supervision-urging-and-inspection and guidance on the democratic life meetings of lower-level work units’ leadership groups, as a key focus examine whether or not the #1s”have a clear attitude in carrying out criticism and self-criticism and whether or not democratic life meetings are genuinely reddening faces and causing a sweat. In cases where they are not convened according to rules, strictly point it out and correct, in cases where they are just going through the motions order they be reconvened. In cases where a major issue arises in the jurisdiction, department, or work unit of lower-level Party organisations, supervise and urge the lower-level leadership group to promptly convene topic-specific democratic life meetings.
19) Strengthen organisational checks on selection and use of people, implement cadre assessment and evaluation systems. Party committees (and Party groups) shall strengthen oversight of the whole process of cadre selection and appointment work, strengthen checks on the proposed candidates for lower-level leadership group members, especially “#1s”, pressing for implementation of leadership responsibility at each point, including analysing and assessing, and motions, democratic recommendations, assessments, discussion and decisions, etc.. Organisation departments should, in accordance with the good cadre standards, tighten up on procedures for the “four must dos for any proposed selection/use of personnel” and comprehensively assess cadres. Discipline organs should dynamically update leading cadres’ integrity files, conduct strict checks on responses to Party conduct and integrity opinions. Party committees (and Party groups) shall carry out evaluations by level and type of lower-level leadership groups and their members, combine with issues discovered in discipline inspections and supervisory visits, economic responsibility audits, work supervisory inspections, and evaluations by the related professional departments to carry out comprehensive objective assessments. Every year a proportion of “#1s” and leadership groups can be chosen for key evaluations, and for those about which a relatively large number of issues have been brought to light, carry out topic-specific evaluations.
20) Regularly analyse and assess the situation regarding letter-and-visit complaints, promptly sound the alarm on leading cadres about whom there is a lot reflected by the masses. Party committees (and Party groups) shall attach importance to letter-and-visit complaints work, and understand and get a grasp of the reflections of the masses on leading cadres, especially “#1s”. Leading cadres shall listen carefully to the calls of the masses, and solemnly and diligently approach the masses’ opinions and criticisms. Discipline organs and organisation departments should regularly carry out analysis and assessment of the situation regarding letter-and-visit complaints, set out targeted opinions on handling the issues reflected, and supervise and urge places, departments, and work units with relatively concentrated letter-and-visit complaints to look into and analyse the causes. Carry out topic-specific analysis of issues from letter-and-visit complaints involving lower-level “#1s” and other members of leadership groups, promptly report on circumstances regarding leading cadres that social reflections stand out for and for whom the masses’ assessment is relatively poor, and carry out heart-to-heart talks for general issues.
21) Promote the normalisation of issue rectification, improve the discipline inspection and supervision recommendation system. Party committees (and Party groups), discipline inspection and supervision organs, and organisation departments shall strengthen oversight checks on the situation regarding issue rectification, using methods such as the review and verification of rectification reports, supervisory urging of handling of key issues, etc. press for implementation of primary responsibility and supervise and urge satisfactory rectification. Targeting issues exposed in checking and handling cases of serious violations of discipline and law, carry out warning-education. Improve the mechanisms for discipline inspection and supervision recommendation making, urged handling, feedback, and review visits. For cases where issue rectification is not prompt and satisfactory, or there is even resistance to rectification, strictly handle according to rules and discipline, and for typical-example issues use circulars to expose them.
5. Truly strengthen Party leadership of oversight efforts
22) Strengthen Party committee (and Party group) leadership of oversight work, improve the intra-Party oversight system. Party committees (and Party groups) at all levels must resolutely implement the Party Centre’s decisions and arrangements about comprehensive strict governance of the Party, lead properly intra-Party oversight inside their own localities, departments, and work units, and focus effective efforts on supervision-urging-and-inspection. Place oversight of “#1s” and leadership groups in a place of prominence in Party self-supervision and self-governance and by focusing effective efforts on the “key few” drive along the “vast majority.” Make overall arrangements for all intra-Party oversight items, support and oversee discipline inspection organs in their fulfilment of oversight responsibility, supervise and urge the Party’s work organs to strengthen functional oversight work within the scope of their duties, and pay particular attention to giving play to the role of primary-level Party organisations' day-to-day oversight and Party members' democratic oversight.
23) Use intra-Party oversight as the leading factor, link up all types of oversight. Party committees at all levels shall effectively give play to intra-Party oversight’s role as driver, giving impetus to the linking up and coordination between, and the development of synergy among, people’s congress oversight, democratic oversight, administrative oversight, judicial oversight, auditing oversight, financial and accounting oversight, statistical oversight, mass oversight, and public opinion oversight. Strengthen the intensity of making overall arrangements, consolidate informational resources from the different types of oversight, make effective use of big data, build robust mechanisms for meeting to discuss and assess major oversight items and for the transfer of clues on discipline and law violation issues, regularly listen to work situation reports, and make all types of oversight better combined and more effective.
24) Give play to the role of discipline commissions and supervision commissions as specialist responsible organs, strengthen the efficacy of oversight. Discipline commissions and supervision commissions shall strengthen political oversight, make their day-to-day oversight substantive, and supervise and urge “#1s” and leadership groups at all levels to fulfil properly their responsibility for the self-supervision and -governance of the Party and to implement properly the Party Centre’s major decisions and arrangements. Apply in a targeted and effective way the “Four Forms” using strict enforcement of discipline and of law to strengthen the binding nature of institutions, resolutely investigating and handling abuses of power of office and the use of power for personal gain, and strictly holding to account those who fail to act and fail in their duties and responsibilities. Strengthen leadership over lower-level discipline commissions and supervision commissions, give strong support to lower-level discipline commissions and supervision commissions in fulfilling their oversight duties, press forward overall arrangements for and links connecting discipline oversight, supervision oversight, stationing oversight, and discipline inspection oversight, and improve full-coverage inspection mechanisms. Strengthen discipline inspection and supervision organs’ self-development, building robust internal control mechanisms, consciously accepting oversight, and ensuring that power is subject to strict constraints.
(25) Actively explore and innovate to enhance focus and effectiveness. Party organizations and leading cadres at all levels must truly take hold of the implementation of these Opinions, and fully implement each item of oversight systems to the letter. Strengthen analysis and guidance, and elaborating on oversight measures. Persist in combining top-level design and base-level innovation, encouraging localities, departments, and units to explore effective methods of strengthening oversight and promptly consolidate experience, to continuously increase the efficacy of oversight.